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47 terms

Nature vs. Nurture [Pt. 2]

STUDY
PLAY
stranger anxiety
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age
Harry Harlow
discovered that attachment doesn't only derive from an association with nourishment; comfy parents are more appealing to infants; mother as secure base (monkeys)
Mary Ainsworth
observed mother-infant pairs at home during first 6 months; then observed 1-year olds in strange situations without their mother; concluded sensitive mothers have secure children and insensitive mothers have insecure children
strange situation
placed somewhere outside the baby's normal environment (such as a lab playroom)
attachment
an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
secure attachment
in their mother's presence, baby's play comfortably, happily exploring anything new; when she leaves = distressed, when she returns = seeks contact
insecure attachment
babies are less likely to explore their surroundings; they may even cling to their mother when she leaves = cry loudly and are upset or don't notice anything
critical period
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
feral children
wild children; isolated or confined or wild
basic trust
according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
self-concept
a sense of one's identity and personal health
imprinting
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
Konrad Lorenz
studied ducklings and imprinting; if ducks saw the first moving thing at birth, then its the mom; children don't imprint, they become attached to what is familiar to them
authoritarian parenting
parents impose rules and expect obedience
permissive parenting
parents submit to their children's desires, make few demands, and use little punishment
authoritative parenting
parents are both demanding and responsive; they exert control not only by setting rules and enforcing them, but also explaining the reasons and encouraging open discussion and allowing exceptions when making the rules
Diana Baumrind
her theory on parenting was split into 3 parts
adolescence
the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
puberty
the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
primary sex characteristics
the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible
secondary sex characteristics
nonreproductive sexual characteristics such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair
menarche
the first menstrual period
personal fable
form of egocentrism exhibited in early adolescence characterized by a belief that you are the only one who can experience (anything); example: "no one understands me"
James Marcia
worked on adolescent psychological development identity crisis; developed the identity status interview, proposed in 4 stages of identity statuses
identity diffusion
stage in which the young person is not currently going through a crisis and has not made a commitment
identity foreclosure
stage in which the young person has made a commitment to visions, values, and roles without having gone through a crisis
identity moratorium
involves delaying commitment for awhile to experiment with alternative ideologies and careers
identity achievement
involves arriving at a sense of self direction after some consideration of alternative possibilities
Lawrence Kohlberg
believed that as we develop intellectually, we pass through 3 basic levels of moral thinking
Carol Gilligan
worked on ethical community and ethical relationships, and certain subject-object problems in ethics
preconventional morality
before age 9, most children have this kind of morality of self interest: they obey to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards
conventional morality
by early adolescence, morality usually evolves to a more _____ level that cares for others and upholds laws and social rules simply because they are the laws and rules
postconventional morality
some of those who develop the abstract reasoning of formal operational thought may come to this level; this morality affirms people's agreed-upon rights or follows what one personally perceives as basic ethical principles
Erik Erikson
contended that each stage of life has its own psychosocial task, a crisis that needs resolution
identity
one's sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles
autonomy
toddlers learn to exercise will and do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities
initiative
young children wrestle with this concept; preschoolers learn to do this and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent
competence
children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior
intimacy
young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated
menopause
the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines
Alzheimer's disease
a progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and finally, physical functioning
cross-sectional study
a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
longitudinal study
research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period
crystallized intelligence
one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age
fluid intelligence
one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
social clock
the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement
Elizabeth Kubler Ross
introduced the Kubler-Ross model: 5 discrete stages of death and dying, a process by which people allegedly deal with grief and tragedy