32 terms

AP World History Ways of the World: Chapter 6

Vocab for Ways of the World Chapters 6-9. Test on Chapters 6-9 on Monday, 11/18/13.
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Yellow Turban Rebellion
A massive Chinese peasant uprising inspired by Daoist teachings that began in 184 CE with the goal of establishing a new golden age of equality and harmony.
Wu Di
The Chinese emperor (r. 141-87 BCE) who started the Chinese civil service system with the establishment in 124 BCE of an imperial academy for future officials.
Empress Wu
The only female "emperor" in Chinese history (r. 690-705 CE), she patronised scholarship, worked to elevate the position of women, and provoked a backlash of Confucian misogynist invective.
Wang Mang
A Han court official who usurped the throne and ruled from 8 CE to 23 CE; noted for his reform movement that included the breakup of large estates.
Vaisyas
The Indian social class that was originally defined as farmers but eventually comprised merchants.
Untouchables
An Indian social class that emerged below the Sudras and whose members performed the most unclean and polluting work.
The "Three obediences"
Chinese Confucian thought, the notion that a woman is permanently subordinate to male control first that of her father, then of her husband, and finally of her son.
Sudra
The lowest Indian caste system of varna; regarded as servants of their social betters. It eventually included peasant farmers.
Spartacus
A Roman gladiator who led the most serious slave revolt in Roman history from 73 to 71 BCE.
Scholar-gentry class
A term used to describe members of China's landowning families, reflecting their wealth from the land and the privilege that they derived as government officials.
"Ritual purity" in Indian social practice
In India, the idea that members of higher castes must adhere to strict regulations limiting or forbidding their contact with objects and members of lower castes to preserve their own caste standing and their relationship with the gods.
Pericles
A prominent and influential statesman of Ancient Athens (ca. 495-429 BCE); presided over Athen's Golden Age.
Latifundia
Huge estates operated by slave labour that flourished in parts of the Roman Empire.
Ksatriyas
The Indian social class of warriors and rulers.
Karma
In Indian belief, the force generated by one's behaviour in a previous life that decides the level at which an individual will be reborn.
Helots
The dependent, semi-enslaved class of ancient Sparta whose social discontent prompted the militarisation of Spartan society.
Greek and Roman slavery
In the Greek and Roman world, slaves were captives from war and piracy (and their descendants), abandoned children, and the victims of long-distance trade; manumission was common. Among the Greeks, household service was the most common form of slavery, but in parts of the Roman state, thousands of slaves were employed under brutal conditions in the mines and on great plantations.
Dharma
In Indian belief, performance of the duties appropriate to an individual's caste, good performance will lead to rebirth in a higher caste.
Caste
The system of social organisation in India that has evolved over millennia; it is based on an original division of the populace into four inherited classes (varna), with the addition of thousands of social distinctions based on occupation (jatis), which became the main cell of social life in India.
Brahmins
The Indian social class of priests.
Ban Zhao
A Chinese woman writer and court official (45-116 C.E.) whose work provides valuable insight on the position of women in classical China.
Aspasia
A foreign woman resident in Athens (ca. 470-400 BCE) and partner of the statesman Pericles who was famed for her learning and wit.
Varna
each of the 4 hindu classes
moksha
hindu belief of liberation from separate existence and union w/brahman
women in athens
had no role in government; had to be represented by a man in court; expected to remain at home
Women in Sparta
encouraged to take part in sporting events; given greater freedom than women elsewhere; had more authority at home
Confucian women
constantly subject to the 3 obediences
Jati
occupational groups that blend w/ the varna
Chinese elites
Chinese men who could pass the examination test that tested how intelligent you were.
Chinese landlords
owners of large estates that were able to avoid paying taxes, thus decreasing the state revenues and increasing the tax burden for the peasants. Sometimes they could mount their own military forces that might challenge the authority of the emperor.
Chinese peasants
throughout the history of china's civilization, the vast majority of it's population has been peasants, living in small households w/ 2 to 3 generations. they were the solid backbone of the country
Chinese merchants
widely viewed as unproductive, making a shameful profit from selling the work of others. Stereotyped as greedy, and materialistic, merchants stood in contrast w/ the alleged frugality and cultural tastes of the scholar gentry. seen as a social threat bc their ill-gained wealth deprived the state revenue.