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Chapter 9: Water and the Minerals

Nutrition For Health & Health Care, Fourth Edition
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Water Intoxication
Rare but can occur with excessive water consumption and kidney disorders that reduce urine production. Symptoms include headache, confustion, convulsions, and even death in rare cases. see Hyponatremia
Hyponatremia
Excessive water ingestion (several gallons) within a few hours dilutes the sodium concentration of the blood. see Water Intoxication.
Minimum Water Needed
The body must excrete a minimum of 500 milliliters per day as urine--enough to carry away the waste products generated by a day's metabolic activities.
Water Weight
Water makes up 60% of the body's weight
Water Balance
Intake from foods, liguids, and metabolism must equal losses from kidnesy, skin, lungs, and feces.
Major Minerals
The major minerals are so named because they are present, and needed, in larger amounts in the body than the trace minerals. Major Minerals > 100 mg.
Major Minerals List (7)
1. Calcium
2. Chloride
3. Magnesium
4. Phosophorus
5. Potassium
6. Sodium
7. Sulfer
Major minerals critical for to nerve transmission and muscle contration: (4)
1. Sodium
2. Potassium
3. Calcium
4. Magnesium
Major minerals involved in energy mmetabolism: (2)
1. Phosphorus
2. Magnesium
Major minerals contributing to the structure of bones: (3)
1. Calcium
2. Phosphorus
3. Magnesium
Major mineral helps in determining the shape of proteins: (1)
1. Sulfur
Principal electrolyte in the extracellular fluid (the fluid outside of the cells) and the primary regulator of the extracellular fluid volume:
Sodium
Sodium AI:
1500 mg/day for 19-50 year olds
Salt (sodium chloride) is about 40% sodium
1 g of salt then has 400 mg of sodium
6 g = 1 tsp.
1 tsp = 2300 mg sodium
Major negative ion of the extrcellular fluids, where it occurs primarily in association with sodium
Chloride
Chloride (Function)
Chloride is critical to maintaining fluid, electorlyte, and acid-base balances in the body.
Principal positively charged ion inside the body cells. Plays a major role in maintaining fluid and electorlyte balance and cell integrity. Also keeps the hearbeat steady.
Potassium
Potassium deficiency
Characterized by an increase in blood pressure, salt sensitivity, kidney stones, and bone turnover. As deficiency progresses symptoms include irregular heartbeats, muscle eakness, and glucose intolerance. Muscle weakness is often the earliest symptom.
Chloride AI:
2300 mg/day 19-50 years old
Potassium AI:
4700 mg Adults
AI
Adequate Intake
Richest sources of potassium
Fresh foods of all kinds--especially fruits and vegetables
Most abundant mineral in the body. 99% of it is stored in bones, where it plays two important roles.
Calcium
Two roles calcium plays in bones
1. integral in bone structure
2. calcium reserve should blood fluids drop in their calcium concentration
Calcium in Body Fluids Role (6)
1. important to nerve transmission
2. helps maintain normal blood pressure
3. role in clotting blood
4. essential for muscle contraction
5. allows scretion of jormones, digestive enzymes, and neurotransmitters
6. activates cellular enzymes that regulate many processes
NOTE: Blood calcium...
Blood calcium changes only in response to abnormal regulatory control, not to diet.
Peak Bone mass occurs at what age?
Around 30
Calcium AI:
1000 mg/day 19-50 years old
Calcium is found most abundantly in this food group?
Milk and milk products
Second most abundant mineral in the body. About 85% of it is found combined with calcium in the crystals of bones and teeth
Phosphorus
NOTE: Phosphorus is part of....
DNA and RNA
Plays a role in the transfer of energy that occurs during cellular metabolism. Helps transport other lipids in the blood. And are the principal components of all cell walls.
Phosphorus
Phosphours sources:
Animal proteins
Phosphorus RDA:
700 mg/day
Barerly qualifies as a major mineral. About 1 oz of magnesium is present in the body of a 130-pound person, more than half that in the bones.
Magnesium
Magnesium RDA:
Men:
400 mg/day 19-30 years old
420 mg/day 31 years and up
Women:
310 mg/day 19- 30 years old
320 mg/day 31 years and up.
Magnesium Tetany
A severe magnesium deficiency characterized by extreme and prolonged muscle contractions similar to calcium tetany. Is thought to cause the hallucinations commonly experienced by withdrawal from alcohol intoxiciation.
Sources of Magnesium
1. Hard water
2. Dark green, leafy vegetables
3. Nuts
4. legumes
5. whole-grain breads
6. seafood
7. choclate and cocoa
8. unprocessed foods are best
Sulfate
Oxidized form of sulfur as it exists in food and water.
Mineral containg amino acids responsible for determining shape of protein strains.
Sulfur / Sulfate
All the major minerals influence the body's fluid balance but these three are most noted:
1. Sodium
2. Chloride
3. Potassium
Excessive sodium in the diet contributes to:
High blood pressure
Trace Minerals
measured in micrograms; if you took all the trace minerals out of a body, only a bit of dust would be seen; not enough to fill a teaspoon.
This trace mineral helps carry oxygen and then releases it in red blood cells and muscle cells
Iron
Hemoglobin
Protein in the body composed of Iron which helps carry and release oxygen to the body's cells
Myoglobin
Protein in the body composed of Iron which holds oxygen in the muscles until needed during contraction.
Normally, only this amount of dietary iron is absorbed?
10-15 percent
What is the most common nutrient dedicincy world wide; affecting more than 1.6 billion people?
Iron Deficiency
Iron Deficiency
Refers to depleted body iron stores without regard to the degree of depletion or the presence fo anemia. Iron-deficiency anemia refers to teh severe depletion of iron stores that results in a low hemoglobin concentration.
Iron-Deficiency Anemia
Iron-deficiency anemia refers to teh severe depletion of iron stores that results in a low hemoglobin concentration.
Pica
Affects low-income groups and is associated with the craving for and consumption of ice, chalk, starch, and other non-food substances.
Hemochromatosis
Iron overload; It's caused by a genetic failure to prevent unneeded iron in the diet from being absorbed. Could also be caused by repeated blood transfusions, massive doses of supplementary iron.
Hemochromatosis Risks
Untreated, it aggravates the risk of diabetes, liver cancer, heart disease, and arthritis.
Iron RDA:
Men:
8 mg/day 19 and up
Women:
18 mg/day 19-50 years of age
8 mg/day >50 years of age; due to menopause
Heme Iron
The most absorbable form of iron. It is bound into the iron-carrying proteins hemoglobin and myoglobin in meat, poultry, and fish.

Contributes the smaller amount of iron consumed by people but is absorbed at a fairly constant rate of 23 percent.
Nonheme iron
Less absorbable form of iron, found in meats and plants. People absorb nonheme iron at a 2-20 percent rate; it's absorbtion rate depends on dietary factors and iron stores.
MFP Factor and Vitamin C
Iron absorbtion can be maximized by these two substances. Meat, fish and pultry contain a factor (MFP factor) other than heme that promotes the absorption of iron.

Vitamin C eaten ate the same meal doubles sometimes triples the absorption of nonheme iron.
Versatile trace mineral required as a cofactor by more than 100 enzymes
Zinc
Zinc functions:
1. Interacts with platelets in blood clotting
2. Affects thyroid hormone function
3. Assists in Immune function.
Zinc RDA:
Men:
11 mg/day
Women:
8 mg/day
Zinc sources:
Most abundant in foods high in protein such as shellfish (especially oysters), meats, and poultry.
Essential trace mineral that functions as an antioxidant nutrient.
Selenium
Note: Selenium and cancer....
The question is under investigation whether selenium protects agains the development of certain cancers, particularly prostate cancer.
Iodine
Traces of iodine ion (called Iodide) are indispensible to life. Iodide is an integral part of the thyroid hormones, which regulate body temperature, metabolic rate, reproduction, growth, the making of blood cells, nerve and muscle function and more.
Goiter
Iodine defiiency which is characterized by the visible swelling of the thyroid gland.
Iodine Sources
The ocean is the world's greatest source. In coastal areas, seafood, water, and even sea-mist are important iodine sources.
Copper
The body contains 100 mg. 1/4 in the muscles, 1/4 in brain, liver, and blood; the rest is in the bones, kidneys, and other tissues. The primary function is to serve as a constituent of enzymes. Catalyze the formation of hemoglobin, help make callagen, assists in wounds healing, and maintains sheaths around nerve fibers.

Important also in helping the cells utilize iron. Also needed in many reactions for respiration and metabolism.
Manganese
Manganese is a cofactor for many enzymes, helping to facilitate dozens of different metabolic processes.
Fluoride
When bones and teeth become mineralized, first a crystal called hydroxyapatite forms from calcium and phosphorus. Then fluoride replaces the hydroxy portion and forms fluorapatite, which makes the bones stronger and the teeth more resistant to decay.
Fluorosis
In some areas, the natural fluoride concentration in water is high, and too much fluoride can damage teeth.

In mild cases, the teeth develop small white specks. In severe cases, the enamel becomes pitted and permanently stained. Occurs only during tooth development and cannot be reveresed.
Chromium
Chromium enhances the activty of the hormone insulin.
Chromium Sources
Unrefined foods such as liver, brewer's yeast, whole grains, nuts, and cheeses are the best sources.