38 terms

US History Honors Unit 2

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Marbury v. Madison
right before John Adams leaves office, he pushes in new federal appointments->TJ said thats wrong->cheif justice John Marshal says a law is unconstitutional and that James Madison had to submit Adams appointment

(Towards the end of his presidency, John Adams appointed William Marbury as Justice of the Peace for the District of Columbia. After assuming office, President Thomas Jefferson ordered James Madison not to finalize Marbury's appointment. Under Section 13 of the Judiciary Act of 1789, Marbury brought an action against Madison in the United States Supreme Court requesting the Court to issue a writ of mandamus to force delivery of the appointment.)
Judicial Review
the ability of the Supreme Court to say a law is unconstitutional
Louisiana Purchase
napoleon had regained lost french land, needed money so he sold to TJ for $15 million in 1803, it more than doubles the size of the US
impressment
british government grabs US ship, draft them into their navy
Manifest Destiny
expressed the belief that the US was ordained to expand to the Pacific, Mexico, & Native American lands.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
a peace treaty signed, gave the US Texas, CA, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Arizona, and part of Colorado & Wyoming, also the US pays Mexico $25 million for land
Seneca Falls convention
approved all parts of the declaration including a resolution calling for women to have the right to vote
popular sovereignty
right to vote for or against slavery for residents of New Mexico and Utah.
Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
kansas & Nebraska want to enter union but are above 36°30 line, an idea to put Kansas in the south and Nebraska in the north and establish popular sovereignty, no more Missouri compromise
Confederacy
south states together write a constitution, protecting slavery (name Jefferson Davis as president)
Robert E. Lee
brilliant south general--> lee moves for DC but McClellan gets lucky finding Lee's orders wrapped around some cigars
income tax
congress paid for war by collecting income tax= takes a percentage of your income
What was Jeffersonian Republicanism?
TJ believed that the people should control the government, it shouldn't be too strong
Who were Lewis & Clark and what did they do for Jefferson?
Lewis was Jefferson's private secretary & Clark was a soldier
-they were sent to explore the new land (west/ Louisiana territory) for TJ
they show that continental travel is possible, the mapped out the lands
What were the THREE consequences of the War of 1812 with Britain?
-end of the Federalist party
-growth of industry
-status of US as an independent nation
What was the Monroe Doctrine?
says that European nations are not to interfere with Western hemisphere,--> no new colonies & US won't mess with them either
What was the Trail of Tears?
the US rounded up Cherokee and sent them off in groups on foot, many of them died on this trail
Explain the Missouri Compromise and the dividing line it created.
areas that lie sound of 36°30 are open to slavery, it divided North & South, antislavery/proslavery.
What are FIVE reasons people moved West?
-land
-new markets
-exploration
-gold
-escape persecution
Why did we fight the Mexican-American War AND what is the outcome?
-we fought because Mexico wouldn't sell us Texas, New Mexico, & CA, into the union, to President Polk
-the outcome was a peace treaty was signed, that gave us Texas, CA, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Arizona, and part of Colorado & Wyoming, we also pay $25 million for that land
Who are eight pioneer groups that went West?
-Mormons
-Forty-Niners
-Pioneer women
-Chinese Americans
-Donnor party
-Railroad owners
-African American pioneers
-vaqueros
What was the Triangle Trade?
-the trade of slaves from West Africa to the West Indies
-Sugar from the West Indies to the Southern Colonies
-rum/textiles from the Southern Colonies to West Africa
Why was Kansas Bleeding?
pro & anti-slavery fight over voting
Explain the Dred Scott decision and its impact on African-Americans.
-slave Dred Scott's master moved to a free state then back, and Dred Scott tried to argue that he was free since he entered a free state but supreme court said he was property and not a citizen so he can be free
-the impact was African American slaves could not be citizens??
What happened at Harper's Ferry?
abolitionist John Brown tries to rob the arsenal to start slave uprising, the rebellion was stopped by troops and he was hung
What really was the Underground Railroad?
secret routes and safe houses along the path to help slaves escape to a free state and canada
Where does the Civil War begin?
at Fort Sumter, South Carolina when the south captured the Federal fort
What are the North advantages?
-more food
-more people
-more railroads
-more factories
What are the South advantages?
-motivated soldiers
-home court
-"king cotton"
-top generals
Who was Stonewall Jackson?
Battle of bull run, 1st major battle, south wins and is inspired by general stone wall Jackson
What was the Union goal General Grant was in charge of attaining?
31) the union goal general grant was in charge of attaining was to cut the confederacy in two along the Mississippi River and decimate Lee's army
Why was the Battle of Antietam important?
it was the bloodiest battle in US history 26000 people died
also McClellan could've crushed Lee the next day but he didn't
What was conscription?
a forced military draft
What was the war like African-Americans AND women?
African Americans:
-10% union soldiers
-suffered discrimination
-segregated units
-paid less
women: there were 3000 nurses
What happened to the South AND North's economies after the war?
-kills south's economy
-expanded north's economy without increasing wages, which leads to stikes (owners hired free blacks, immigrants, and women)
Explain the Thirteenth Amendment.
abolishes slavery in the union and confederate states, after the war, except as a punishment for crimes where the party is persecuted
What TWO problems did the nation face after the end of the Civil War?
-how to restore the Confederate states to the union
-how to integrate about 4 million newly freed African Americans into national life
Explain the moral and military effects of the Emancipation Proclamation.
moral effects: slavery needs to end/stop

military effects: increasing soldiers for the union (getting any freed slaves to fight for union/north)