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73 terms

Karen Biology 9-13 skips 12

Test 3 Forough Biology 160
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anaphase
Stage of mitosis when sister chromatids separate and move to opposite spindle poles.
bipolar spindle
dynamically assembled array of microtubules that moves chromosomes during mitosis or meiosis.
cell cycle
The time a cell forms until it reproduces. In eukaryotes, it consists of interphase, mitosis, and cytoplasmic division.
centromere
region on a chromosome where sister chromatids are attached.
chromosome number
The sum of all chromosomes in a cell of a given type
cytokinesis
Cytoplasmic division
diploid
two (2n) of each type of chromosome characteristic
DNA replication
Process by which a cell duplicates its DNA before it divides.
growth factor
Checkpoint gene product that stimulates cell division.
histone
protein that structurally organizes chromosomes and part of nucleosomes.
interphase
The stage between mitotic divisions when a cell grows in mass, doubles its cytoplasmic, and replicates its DNA.
meiosis
cell division process that halves the chromosome number, to the haploid (n) number
metaphase
Stage of mitosis when cell's chromosomes align midway
mitosis
cell division mechanism that maintains the chromosome number.
neoplasm
abnormal mass of cells that lost control over their cell cycle.
nucleosome
Smallest unit of structural organization in chromosomes; around a spool of histone proteins.
prophase
Stage of mitosis and meiosis in which chromosomes condense a become attached to spindles.
sister chromatid
One of two attached members of a duplicated eukaryotic chromosome.
telophase
Stage of mitosis during which chromosomes arrive at the spindle poles and new nuclei form.
allele
A gene that arises by mutation and encodes slightly different versions of the same gene product.
asexual reproduction
Reproductive mode by which offspring arise from one parent and inherit that parent's genes only
clone
A genetically identical copy of DNA, a cell, or an organism.
crossing over
Process when chromosomes exchange corresponding segments; puts nonparental combinations of alleles in gametes.
egg
Mature female gamete
fertilization
Fusion of a sperm nucleus and an egg nucleus
gamete
Mature, haploid reproductive cell
gene
Heritable unit of information in DNA
germ cell
A cell that can undergoes meiosis and give rise to gametes.
haploid
one (n) of each type of chromosome characteristic of the species
homologous chromosome
except for the nonidentical sex chromosomes, members of a pair have the same length, shape, and genes.
meiosis
cell division process that halves the chromosome number, to the haploid (n) number
sexual reproduction
Production of offspring by gamete formation and fertilization.
sperm
Mature male gamete.
zygote
first cell of a new individual, fertilized
bell curve
Curve that results from a range of variation for a continuous trait; plotted against the frequency
codominance
alleles that are both fully expressed neither is dominant or recessive.
continuous variation
a range of small differences in a trait
dominant
an allele that masks the effects of a recessive allele paired with it
epistasis
products of two or more gene pairs that influence a single trait
gene
Heritable unit of information in DNA
gene expression
when the information in a gene converts to a structural or functional part of a cell.
genotype
specific alleles carried by an individual
heterozygous
two different alleles at a gene locus on the chromosome Aa
homozygous
identical alleles at a gene locus on the chromosome, AA.
homozygous dominant
a pair of dominant alleles at a locus on homologous chromosomes; e.g., AA.
homozygous recessive
a pair of recessive alleles at a locus on homologous chromosomes; e.g., aa.
hybrid
Heterozygote. Individual with two different alleles at a gene locus.
incomplete dominance
one allele is not fully dominant over another, the phenotype is somewhere in between
independent assortment
alleles are distributed into gametes independently of alleles of all other genes during meiosis.
linkage group
All genes tend to stay together during meiosis but may be separated by cross-overs.
locus
The location of a gene on a chromosome
multiple allele system
Three or more alleles persist in a population.
mutation
Permanent, small-scale change in DNA. Primary source of new alleles
phenotype
observable traits.
pleiotropy
a single gene can affect multiple traits.
probability
the chance a particular outcome of an event will occur; depends on the total number of outcomes possible.
Punnett square
A diagram used to predict the outcome of a testcross.
recessive
allele effects that are masked by a dominant allele on the chromosome.
sex chromosome
Member of a pair of chromosomes that differs between males and females.
adenine (A)
A nitrogen-containing base in nucleotides; also base-pairs with thymine in DNA and uracil in RNA.
cytosine (C)
A nitrogen-containing base in nucleotides; also, base-pairs with guanine in DNA and RNA.
ligase
Enzyme that seals breaks in double-stranded DNA.
polymerase
replication enzyme; assembles a new DNA from free nucleotides
DNA repair mechanism
One of several processes by which enzymes repair broken or mismatched DNA strands
guanine (G)
A nitrogen-containing base in nucleotides; also, base-pairs with cytosine in DNA and RNA.
nucleotide
a five-carbon sugar, a nitrogen base, and at least one phosphate group
reproductive cloning
Technology that produces genetically identical individuals; e.g., artificial twinning, SCNT.
semiconservative replication
Describes the process of DNA replication, by which one strand of each copy of a DNA molecule is new, and the other is a strand of the original DNA.
sequence
The order of nucleotides in a strand of DNA or RNA.
somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)
reproductive cloning where genetic material is transferred from an adult cell into an unfertilized enucleated egg.
thymine (T)
A type of nitrogen-containing base in nucleotides; also, base-pairs with adenine; does not occur in RNA.
kinase
removes phosphate group and inhibits mitosis
SRY
gene that affects testes and sperm