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Test 3 Forough Biology 160


Stage of mitosis when sister chromatids separate and move to opposite spindle poles.

bipolar spindle

dynamically assembled array of microtubules that moves chromosomes during mitosis or meiosis.

cell cycle

The time a cell forms until it reproduces. In eukaryotes, it consists of interphase, mitosis, and cytoplasmic division.


region on a chromosome where sister chromatids are attached.

chromosome number

The sum of all chromosomes in a cell of a given type


Cytoplasmic division


two (2n) of each type of chromosome characteristic

DNA replication

Process by which a cell duplicates its DNA before it divides.

growth factor

Checkpoint gene product that stimulates cell division.


protein that structurally organizes chromosomes and part of nucleosomes.


The stage between mitotic divisions when a cell grows in mass, doubles its cytoplasmic, and replicates its DNA.


cell division process that halves the chromosome number, to the haploid (n) number


Stage of mitosis when cell's chromosomes align midway


cell division mechanism that maintains the chromosome number.


abnormal mass of cells that lost control over their cell cycle.


Smallest unit of structural organization in chromosomes; around a spool of histone proteins.


Stage of mitosis and meiosis in which chromosomes condense a become attached to spindles.

sister chromatid

One of two attached members of a duplicated eukaryotic chromosome.


Stage of mitosis during which chromosomes arrive at the spindle poles and new nuclei form.


A gene that arises by mutation and encodes slightly different versions of the same gene product.

asexual reproduction

Reproductive mode by which offspring arise from one parent and inherit that parent's genes only


A genetically identical copy of DNA, a cell, or an organism.

crossing over

Process when chromosomes exchange corresponding segments; puts nonparental combinations of alleles in gametes.


Mature female gamete


Fusion of a sperm nucleus and an egg nucleus


Mature, haploid reproductive cell


Heritable unit of information in DNA

germ cell

A cell that can undergoes meiosis and give rise to gametes.


one (n) of each type of chromosome characteristic of the species

homologous chromosome

except for the nonidentical sex chromosomes, members of a pair have the same length, shape, and genes.


cell division process that halves the chromosome number, to the haploid (n) number

sexual reproduction

Production of offspring by gamete formation and fertilization.


Mature male gamete.


first cell of a new individual, fertilized

bell curve

Curve that results from a range of variation for a continuous trait; plotted against the frequency


alleles that are both fully expressed neither is dominant or recessive.

continuous variation

a range of small differences in a trait


an allele that masks the effects of a recessive allele paired with it


products of two or more gene pairs that influence a single trait


Heritable unit of information in DNA

gene expression

when the information in a gene converts to a structural or functional part of a cell.


specific alleles carried by an individual


two different alleles at a gene locus on the chromosome Aa


identical alleles at a gene locus on the chromosome, AA.

homozygous dominant

a pair of dominant alleles at a locus on homologous chromosomes; e.g., AA.

homozygous recessive

a pair of recessive alleles at a locus on homologous chromosomes; e.g., aa.


Heterozygote. Individual with two different alleles at a gene locus.

incomplete dominance

one allele is not fully dominant over another, the phenotype is somewhere in between

independent assortment

alleles are distributed into gametes independently of alleles of all other genes during meiosis.

linkage group

All genes tend to stay together during meiosis but may be separated by cross-overs.


The location of a gene on a chromosome

multiple allele system

Three or more alleles persist in a population.


Permanent, small-scale change in DNA. Primary source of new alleles


observable traits.


a single gene can affect multiple traits.


the chance a particular outcome of an event will occur; depends on the total number of outcomes possible.

Punnett square

A diagram used to predict the outcome of a testcross.


allele effects that are masked by a dominant allele on the chromosome.

sex chromosome

Member of a pair of chromosomes that differs between males and females.

adenine (A)

A nitrogen-containing base in nucleotides; also base-pairs with thymine in DNA and uracil in RNA.

cytosine (C)

A nitrogen-containing base in nucleotides; also, base-pairs with guanine in DNA and RNA.


Enzyme that seals breaks in double-stranded DNA.


replication enzyme; assembles a new DNA from free nucleotides

DNA repair mechanism

One of several processes by which enzymes repair broken or mismatched DNA strands

guanine (G)

A nitrogen-containing base in nucleotides; also, base-pairs with cytosine in DNA and RNA.


a five-carbon sugar, a nitrogen base, and at least one phosphate group

reproductive cloning

Technology that produces genetically identical individuals; e.g., artificial twinning, SCNT.

semiconservative replication

Describes the process of DNA replication, by which one strand of each copy of a DNA molecule is new, and the other is a strand of the original DNA.


The order of nucleotides in a strand of DNA or RNA.

somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)

reproductive cloning where genetic material is transferred from an adult cell into an unfertilized enucleated egg.

thymine (T)

A type of nitrogen-containing base in nucleotides; also, base-pairs with adenine; does not occur in RNA.


removes phosphate group and inhibits mitosis


gene that affects testes and sperm

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