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dynamically assembled array of microtubules that moves chromosomes during mitosis or meiosis.
The time a cell forms until it reproduces. In eukaryotes, it consists of interphase, mitosis, and cytoplasmic division.
The stage between mitotic divisions when a cell grows in mass, doubles its cytoplasmic, and replicates its DNA.
Smallest unit of structural organization in chromosomes; around a spool of histone proteins.
Stage of mitosis during which chromosomes arrive at the spindle poles and new nuclei form.
A gene that arises by mutation and encodes slightly different versions of the same gene product.
Reproductive mode by which offspring arise from one parent and inherit that parent's genes only
Process when chromosomes exchange corresponding segments; puts nonparental combinations of alleles in gametes.
except for the nonidentical sex chromosomes, members of a pair have the same length, shape, and genes.
Curve that results from a range of variation for a continuous trait; plotted against the frequency
when the information in a gene converts to a structural or functional part of a cell.
one allele is not fully dominant over another, the phenotype is somewhere in between
alleles are distributed into gametes independently of alleles of all other genes during meiosis.
the chance a particular outcome of an event will occur; depends on the total number of outcomes possible.
A nitrogen-containing base in nucleotides; also base-pairs with thymine in DNA and uracil in RNA.
A nitrogen-containing base in nucleotides; also, base-pairs with guanine in DNA and RNA.
DNA repair mechanism
One of several processes by which enzymes repair broken or mismatched DNA strands
A nitrogen-containing base in nucleotides; also, base-pairs with cytosine in DNA and RNA.
Technology that produces genetically identical individuals; e.g., artificial twinning, SCNT.
Describes the process of DNA replication, by which one strand of each copy of a DNA molecule is new, and the other is a strand of the original DNA.
somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)
reproductive cloning where genetic material is transferred from an adult cell into an unfertilized enucleated egg.
A type of nitrogen-containing base in nucleotides; also, base-pairs with adenine; does not occur in RNA.
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