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U.S. History Module Six
Terms in this set (50)
What candidate did John Quincy Adams defeat in the controversial election of 1824?
This idea of states' rights promoted the concept of _____________.
Which group was forcibly removed during the Trail of Tears?
Trail of Tears
An 800-mile trip/path President Martin Van Buren (the president after Jackson) ordered United States army troops to force the Cherokee on from Georgia to the new Indian territory west of the Mississippi River beginning in October and November of 1838. It was made partly by steamboat and railroad but mostly on foot and more than a quarter of the travelers died on it.
A policy of U.S. opposition to any European interference in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere, announced by President Monroe in 1823
Which development led to an explosive rise in slavery in the late 18th century?
The Cotton Gin
Which group of Americans benefited most from the Tariff of 1816? The Least?
Manufacturers from the North; Consumers from the South
A 363-mile-long artificial waterway connecting the Hudson River with Lake Erie, built between 1817 and 1825
Which candidate defeated Martin Van Buren for president by depicting himself as a common man?
What treaty allowed for the United States ability to acquire Florida from the Spanish?
The Adams-Onís Treaty
Bank of the United States
Either of the two national banks, funded by the federal government and private investors
Who designed and built the first successful steamboat?
The practice of winning candidates' rewarding their supporters with government jobs
Where did the Trail of Tears end?
In the new Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River or the modern state of Oklahoma
A series of agreements passed by Congress in 1820-1821 to maintain the balance of power between slave states and free states
Which state threatened to secede from the union and declared a number of tariffs unconstitutional? Why did they disagree with those tariffs?
South Carolina; they were "unauthorized by the Constitution" and "null, void, and no law"
Who was Andrew Jackson's Vice President? What did they disagree on?
John C. Calhoun; Tariffs
Which bank did Andrew Jackson believe threatened American democracy?
The Bank of the United States
What was the Monroe Doctrine a response to?
Spain and Portugal trying to move back into their old colonial areas, Russia pushing in from the northwest, and in general the interest of European nations in creating colonies in North and South America
Tariff of Abominations
John C. Calhoun's name for an 1828 tariff increase that seemed to southerners to be enriching the North at their expense
The American System
A pre-Civil War set of measures designed to unify the nation and strengthen its economy by means of protective tariffs, a national bank, and such internal improvements as the development of a transportation system
How did the American System help to bring the nation together?
An increasingly industrial North would produce the manufactured goods that farmers in the South and West would buy. Meanwhile, a predominantly agricultural South and West would produce most of the grain, meat, and cotton needed in the North. A nationally accepted currency and improved transportation network would facilitate the exchange of goods. With each part of the country sustaining the other, Americans would finally be economically independent of Britain and other European nations.
What three things did the factory system require?
Sufficient land and resources, large labor source, and capital
The "five civilized tribes" -
Cherokee, Choctaw, Seminole, Creek, and Chickasaw
Rejection of a federal law that is considered unconstitutional
What did the Whig Party support?
The American System
Who was the leader of the states' rights movement?
John C. Calhoun
The Industrial Revolution
The change in social and economic organization that resulted from the replacement of hand tools with machines and from the development of large-scale industrial production
Who invented the cotton gin?
McCulloch v. Maryland -
The state of Maryland levied taxes on the Second Bank of the United States, which refused to pay them. The state then sued James McCulloch, cashier of the Baltimore branch of the Bank of the United States.
The Court ruled that the bank did not have to pay taxes. As a federal entity, the Bank of the United States helped the federal government carry out its powers, and no state can interfere with the workings of the federal government.
The case established the principle of national supremacy, which states that the Constitution and federal laws always take priority over state laws.
A devotion to the interests and culture of one's nation; the belief that national interests should be placed ahead of regional concerns or the interests of other countries
A bill that allowed the federal government to use the army and navy against South Carolina if state authorities resisted paying proper duties
The tenth president of the United States and Harrison's vice-president; he favored annexation of Texas and signed the joint resolution of Congress into law three days before his term ended in 1845. He opposed many parts of the Whig program for economic recovery.
Panic of 1837
A U.S. financial crisis in which banks closed and the credit system collapsed, resulting in many bankruptcies and high unemployment, costing many people their savings; it also bankrupted hundreds of businesses and put more than a third of the population out of work.
Daniel Webster was a senator of Massachusetts. New Hampshire native Daniel Webster actually began his career in favor of states' rights. After moving to Boston, Massachusetts, in 1816, however, his views changed. New England's textile manufacturers needed a strong national government to protect their interests. As a lawyer and a congressman, Webster represented Boston's business interests. He argued several landmark cases before the Supreme Court, including Gibbons v. Ogden. Webster was best known for his skill as an orator, but he hungered after the presidency. He ran for the highest office twice, never winning. Late in his career he said: "I have given my life to law and politics. Law is uncertain and politics is utterly vain." He personally believed that the Union was created by and for the people.
William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison was an American politician who served as the governor of Indian Territory and fought Tecumseh in the Battle of Tippecanoe. He was the ninth president of the United States. He was the Whig Party candidate.
Samuel F. B. Morse
A New England artist who created the first telegraph in 1837
Railroads emerged in the 1840s but started being used a lot more in the 1860s. Railroads offered the advantage of speed, could operate in the winter, and could bring goods to people who lived inland. However, shipping by rail cost significantly more at first in the 1840s and was no at first comfortable, safe, or reliable. In the 1850s and 1860s railroads grew to be both safe and reliable, and the cost of rail freight gradually came down, but did have an environmental cost as they have to be built on level land.
A device for the electrical transmission of coded messages over wires
The economic system in which private businesses/corporations and individuals control the means of production --- such as factories, machines, and land --- and use them to earn profits
The steel plow was invented by John Deere in 1837 and could slice through heavy soil much more easily than existing plows and therefore took less animal power to pull. It enabled farmers to replace their oxen with horses.
The steamboat was first introduced by Pennsylvanian Robert Fulton in 1807. Ships could now drift northward since they were powered by steam engines. This type of transport was particularly important in moving heavy machinery and raw materials such as lead and copper.
John Deere was an American blacksmith and inventor who invented the steel plow to cut more easily through heavily soil in 1837.
A person who organizes, operates, and assumes the risk for a business venture
The raising of one or two cash crops for sale at home or abroad rather than a variety of foods for personal use
An artery whose construction began in 1811 and opened up western travel. By 1818 the road extended from Cumberland, Maryland, west to Wheeling, Virginia. By 1838 it reached as far west as Springfield, Illinois
The major change in the U.S. economy produced by people's beginning to buy and sell goods rather than make them for themselves
An American inventor who created a commercially successful mechanical reaper that allowed crops to be harvested more easily
An inventor-entrepreneur who developed vulcanized rubber in 1839
The mechanical reaper was invented by Cyrus McCormick and permitted one farmer to do the work of five hired hands for harvesting crops. It was packed in parts and shipped to the farmer, along with a handbook of directions for assembling and operating.
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