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Comm 3450 Midterm
Terms in this set (62)
When you assume that all members are the same. This is bad and not realistic.
Things that do not occur naturally, they are invented by society.
- Inequality and gender are social constructs.
Believing in the social, political and economical equality of men and women.
Quantitative research methods
Data that can be quantified and analyzed.
- Descriptive statistics
Qualitative research methods / interpretive methods
Understand nature of meaning or experiences.
- Textual analysis
Critical research methods
identify and challenge inequalities and problems
Structures, institutions and practices that uphold a given social order.
- communication is a vehicle for culture
Meaning is created through interaction with symbols.
The words we select and use actually create the world we see around us.
Experience -> leads to development of -> language -> influences our perceptions of ->
Where does gender come from?
- It is a learned collection of habits
- Socialization starts at birth
- It is taught though our values, hobbies, play, etc.
The process of experiencing the world around you and making sense out of what you experience.
The process of observing and interpreting the behaviors of other people.
- Our brains select, organize, interpret and recall information.
Things that our brain doesn't focus on because it would drive us crazy because our brain can't focus on everything.
- Example: when you really think about it, you can feel the clothes on your body. You don't always think about how you deal your clothes because it wastes energy.
Things that we focus on.
We select imperfectly, we only select the things that we feel are important.
We see the things that we want to see.
Example: With the picture of the old or young woman - whatever we are expecting to see, we see first.
- We organize information quickly and imperfectly.
- We often fill in the blanks and superimpose information not there based on our assumptions.
What are impressions?
Collections of perceptions about others that we maintain and use to interpret their behaviors.
Cognitively complex impressions
People consider more variables or details when categorizing others and do not categorize as easily or quickly.
Cognitively simple impressions
People have very few categories for understanding and categorizing others (the basis for racism, sexism, etc.)
Fundamental attribution error
If someone does something bad - its because they are a bad person. If someone does something good - it is because of context. It was an easy test that's why they got a good grate etc.
Self serving bias
If something bad happens to me it was from context. If i do something good it is because I am a good person.
Theories of gender development: Biological
Maintains that the biological characteristics of the sexes are the basis of gender differences.
1. Sex chromosomes - distinct X and Y chromosomes. (inherited from parents).
- X chromosomes = multitask
- Carry more genes
- Second X is active
- Y chromosomes = evolving faster
- Different chromosomal makeup -> potentially different gene expression
2. Hormones - sex hormones affect body and brain development
- Both men and women experience hormonal changes over time.
3. Brain specialization
Hormones: Biological Theory of Gender - Estrogen
Estrogen: The primary female hormone
- positive influence on cardiovascular functioning
- produce good cholesterol
- more flexible blood vessels
- strengthens the immune system
- creates greater deposits of fat around hips and chest
- slows liver processing of alcohol
- levels change during menopause.
Hormones: Biological Theory of Gender - Testosterone
Testosterone: the primary male hormone
- linked to violence, aggression, competition, changes in cognitive functioning
- judgement of moving objects
- gradually decreases over time
- around age 30
- becoming a father
- nurturing tendencies
- lower baseline T when partnered
- linked to sexual desire, arousal, interest.
Brain Specialization: Biological Theories of Gender
- Women and men use both right and left lobes
- Sexes tend to specialize in using different lobes
- Left brain: linear, logical, abstract, analytical
- main language center
- mathematical abilities
- Right brain: imaginative, artistic, intuitive, musical
- spacial recognition
- holistic thought
- nonverbal processing
- corpus callosum joins two sides of the brain
- allows for crossing lobes
- more developed in women
- prefrontal cortex restrains aggression (larger, develops earlier for women)
- insula affects intuition & empathy (larger for women)
- Amygdala center for emotions, esp fear & anger (larger for men)
- Differences are SMALL. Suggests interaction with socialization NOT innate difference.
Theories of gender development: Interpersonal
- Psychodynamic theory
- Social learning theory
- Cognitive development theory
Theories of gender development: Interpersonal - Psychodynamic theory
- relationships within the family
- influence of first relationship on identity
- understanding interactions
- mothers interact more with daughters
- physical/psychological closeness
- identification vs. differentiation
- likeness vs. independence
Theories of gender development: Interpersonal - Social Learning Theory
Social Learning Theory
- learning by imitating
- in real life
- in the media
- reinforced by others' reactions
- develop gender patterns that are social approved
- role modeling of parents and others (peers)
Theories of gender development: Interpersonal - Cognitive Development Theory
- Interactions influence self-definition
- internal desire for gender competence
- modeling same-sex behaviors
- children play active role and seek role models
- age 3 -> gender constancy -> competence
- Gender schema theory
- 12 months: faces/voices
- age 2: framework developed
- organize toys, clothes, activities, behaviors
Theories of gender development: Cultural
- Influence of biology and interpersonal factors are qualified by influence of culture
- anthropological theories
- how cultures construct / express gender
-Fathering in India (3-5 hours) vs. Japan (20 minutes)
- Polities encouraging fathering in Sweden & Germany
- Dominican republic: "conditional girls"
-Symbolic Interactionism (G.H. Mead)
- We learn who we are through communication with others
- Roles represent expectations for behaviors
- Value defined by society
- Value associated with roles
Theories of gender development: Critical
- How power functions in social categories
- how societies classify people into groups
- how dominant groups gain and maintain power
- attempt to empower oppressed groups and change dominant ideologies
- Standpoint Theory
- Queer Performative Theory
Theories of gender development: Critical - Standpoint Theory
Standpoint theory: (battery at the aquarium example)
- Different groups have different power and privilege
- group membership shapes experiences, feelings, understandings
- social world consist of positions and hierarchies
- Influenced by gender
- a standpoint is achieved though critical reflection
- all perspectives of social life are limited, some more than others
- marginalized groups have unique insights
Theories of gender development: Critical - Queer Performative Theory
Queer Performative Theory:
- Performances problematize cultural categories.
- Queer theory: challenges traditional notions of gender and normality/abnormality
- Queer anything outside of our standard views of "normal"
- Initial focus on heteronormativity; labels not useful
- identities are fluid, performance-based
- Performative theory: people don't have an identity, they do their identity
- no gender unless enacted
- we all perform our gender
- performances are social
- Queer performances can challenge cultural ideas
- Performances can be extreme, more often seen in everyday interactions.
Nonverbal communication - any communication behavior other than written or spoken language that creates meaning for someone.
- nonverbal communication reflects cultural views of masculinity and femininity
- it serves three functions
1. supplements verbal communication
2. it regulates communication
3. It effects relational meaning
U.S. American culture is incredibly heavily focused on appearance
Any object that communicates something about you.
Examples: jewelry, a cell phone, car, purse, etc.
- Pink razor for women vs. blue razor for men
- goes down to baby toys girls (barbie, princess) boys (tools, soldiers)
Types of nonverbal cues: Immediacy
Liking or pleasure
- friends tend to sit closer to each other, smile at each other, laugh at each other.
Types of nonverbal cues: Arousal
interest or excitement
- if someone starts talking really fast, or jumping up and down it shows that they are excited or really care about what they are talking about - these are arousal cues
Types of nonverbal cues: Dominance
status or control.
- to show power or control. Being more polite or more formal. People who are trying to show status or control tend to interrupt more, control the conversations taking place. They tend to be louder, shaking a hand harder than it needs to be.
Types of nonverbal cues: Display rules
measure appropriateness - culturally specific.
- nonverbal cues that are more appropriate, they are culturally specific. In some cultures, they stand closer to each other, or tough each other more, or make more eye contact.
- different genders tend to have different display rules
Types of nonverbal communication
- Physical appearance
Types of nonverbal communication: Proxemics
the study of how we communicate through personal distance.
- dominant people tend to take up more space (the CEO gets a bitter office rather than an intern)
- masculine communication tends to take up more space while feminine communication tends to take up less space.
Types of nonverbal communication: Haptics
or touch is another nonverbal channel through which we communicate.
- We touch to: emphasize our words, communicate affection, assert ourselves, manage interactions.
- women tend to touch more for affiliation men tend to touch more for power.
Types of nonverbal communication: Kinesics
Human body movement, posture, and gesture
Categories of kinesics:
- Emblems: commonly understood meaning (thumbs up means good)
- Illustrators: accompany a verbal message and either contradict, accent, or complement it (the fish was THIS big, nodding your head when you say yes, frowning when you say yes)
- Adapters: channel energy (indicate nervous energy - either when you are nervous or excited, pulling on your hear or swaying when you public speak)
- Regulators: control the flow of communication (indication to show that you are ready for the other person to speak
- Affect displays: communicate emotion (anything that communicates emotion - usually through your face.
Types of nonverbal communication: Paralanguage
- How you say and what you say
- vocal cues: includes tone
-rate and speed
- pitch (people tend to say lower pitch voices for men are more attractive and higher pitch voices for women as more attractive)
- Vocalics often communicate the entire meaning of the message.
Thinking that reinforces the idea that genders are absolute opposites.
- an all or nothing approach
- refuses the idea of a gender spectrum
- relies on the binary model of sex and gender
Group of people with shared communication norms, goals, strategies and methods for interpretation
- gendered speech communities are based on gender not sex
- you enter into communities through socialization
Feminine speech communities
-support / question asking
- conversational maintenance
- personal style / concrete thought
Masculine speech communities
- status / control
- instrumental objectives
- conversational command
- direct / assertiveness
- more abstract thought
- less responsive (minimal response cues)
Powerful language is generally more assertive and conveys confidence
"I have an important question"
"I loved that movie"
"Lets grab some coffee and talk"
"My skill set is a perfect fit for your company"
Powerless language signifies low status, low credibility
"This may sound like a dumb question but..."
"That was a good movie, don't you think?"
Levels of gender systems
1. Individual level - this is what we have been discussing so far - individual gender identity and how it is created and maintained
2. Cultural level - how gender is labeled and understood at the cultural or societal level
3. Interaction level - how gender is created through social interactions
Interpersonal gender: The interaction level
- Sex is very salient in interactions - people notice it first and remember it easily.
- since people are more likely to confuse two people of the same gender than two of the same age, race, or name it creates potential for:
- ingroup bias
- outgroup homogeneity
- group membership makes a differences when interpreting the communication of other people
- "being male" and "being female" has implications for interactions - these are NOT necessarily intentional
- people tend to talk down to outgroup members of lower status
Intergroup bias: Linguistic intergroup bias
- negative behavior displayed by an in-group member is described in concrete terms
- your team member "hit someone" (specific behavior one time)
- the same negative behavior shown by an out-group member will be described in more general terms
- "the other team member "is violent" (character trait, generalized across contexts"
- this all occurs on a subconscious level: when tested people report no differences in their descriptions.
Sexist Language: Forms, practices, and alternatives
-Marking: adding sex-identifying adjective (female boss, male nurse, women's golf team)
-Adding suffix: (actress-actor, hostess-host)
-Religious language: (God is male, Satan is male)
-Reduced to a body part: (negative reference to female body parts)
-Sexual language: (male-active, female passive) (look at which subjects precede verbs and the objects that follow them: Bob banged Jane, Jane was screwed by Bob)
Sexist language practices
-Parallelism and symmetry (appear parallel but are not.. man and wife)
-Ordering (boys and girls)
-Titles and salutations (Mr. vs Miss/Mrs)
a statistical summary of previous research findings
Dearth of theory
no theory explains how sex, gender and communication are related.
- need to give reasons NOT to explore sex differences.
Muted group theory
-Examines communication systems of social groups, particularly men and women
- men have dominant comm because they hold dominant role in society
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