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One of the principal compounds used to store and release energy


An organism that can capture energy from the sun; ex) plants


An organism that obtains energy from the food it consumes


A principal pigment of plants and some other organisms that attracts and absorbs light energy


An organelle found in plant cells that captures light energy and converts it to chemical energy


The process by which autotrophic organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates (effectively creating the organism's "food")


A saclike, photosynthetic membrane found in chloroplasts


A stack of thylakoids in a chloroplast


The region outside the thylakoid membranes and inside the outer membrane of a chloroplast

Calvin Cycle

Reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds; light-independent


Reactions dependent on the presence of light energy


Reactions that do not require light energy to function


An electron carrier; carriers excited electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules


Small openings on the underside of a leaf through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move

Electron Transport Chain

A series of proteins in which the high-energy electrons from the Krebs cycle are used to convert ADP to ATP

Cellular Respiration

The process by which glucose is broken down in the presence of oxygen to release energy


Not requiring oxygen


Requiring oxygen


The first step in releasing the energy of glucose; glucose is broken into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid


The process by which cells release energy in the absense of oxygen (anaerobic)

Krebs Cycle

The second stage of cellular respiration; pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide

Pyruvic Acid

The three-carbon compound that is produced during glycolysis and needed for both the aerobic and anaerobic pathways of cellular respiration that follow glycolysis

Lactic Acid

Substance resulting from the process of supplying energy during anaerobic exercise; a cause of muscle fatigue

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