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23 terms

Biology Terminology - Quiz 5

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ATP
One of the principal compounds used to store and release energy
Autotroph
An organism that can capture energy from the sun; ex) plants
Heterotroph
An organism that obtains energy from the food it consumes
Chlorophyll
A principal pigment of plants and some other organisms that attracts and absorbs light energy
Chloroplast
An organelle found in plant cells that captures light energy and converts it to chemical energy
Photosynthesis
The process by which autotrophic organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates (effectively creating the organism's "food")
Thylakoid
A saclike, photosynthetic membrane found in chloroplasts
Granum
A stack of thylakoids in a chloroplast
Stroma
The region outside the thylakoid membranes and inside the outer membrane of a chloroplast
Calvin Cycle
Reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds; light-independent
L.D.R
Reactions dependent on the presence of light energy
L.I.R
Reactions that do not require light energy to function
NADP+
An electron carrier; carriers excited electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules
Stomata
Small openings on the underside of a leaf through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move
Electron Transport Chain
A series of proteins in which the high-energy electrons from the Krebs cycle are used to convert ADP to ATP
Cellular Respiration
The process by which glucose is broken down in the presence of oxygen to release energy
Anaerobic
Not requiring oxygen
Aerobic
Requiring oxygen
Glycolysis
The first step in releasing the energy of glucose; glucose is broken into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid
Fermentation
The process by which cells release energy in the absense of oxygen (anaerobic)
Krebs Cycle
The second stage of cellular respiration; pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide
Pyruvic Acid
The three-carbon compound that is produced during glycolysis and needed for both the aerobic and anaerobic pathways of cellular respiration that follow glycolysis
Lactic Acid
Substance resulting from the process of supplying energy during anaerobic exercise; a cause of muscle fatigue