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12 terms

Electron transport chain

STUDY
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NADH FADH₂
The electron transport chain serves two major functions in respiration:
1) It is where the chemical energy of ____ and _____ is used to make ATP.
NAD+
The electron transport chain serves two major functions in respiration:
2) It regenerates ____ so that energy production can continue
electron transport chain
a series of electron carriers embedded in the cristae of the inner mitochondrial membrane.
reduced oxidized
STEP 1:
The electron carriers shift between _______ and ________ states as they accept and donate electrons.
NADH 2 hydrogen intermembrane
STEP 2:
____ provides _ electrons to the first carrier in the chain. This process releases energy because the electrons are at a lower energy state after being passed to the first carrier. The energy released is used to drive the transport of ________ ions into the ______________ space.
electrons electron carriers
STEP 3:
Moving along the chain:
This process continues as the _________ are passed to subsequent ________ ________, each at a lower energy state. The energy released with each transfer of electrons is used to drive more protons into the intermembrane space.
oxygen hydrogen
Termination: Step 4
This process is completed when the final electron carrier passes electrons to ______, which picks up two ________ ions (H+) and forms water.
stops
If oxygen is not available, electron flow _____ and NADH cannot be reconverted to NAD+.
chemiosmotic gradient
What is the point of pumping hydrogen ions into the intermembrane space? POINT 1: Seperation of charge and concentration
A ___________ ________ is established by pumping hydrogen ions into the intermembrane space.
ATP synthase
What is the point of pumping hydrogen ions into the intermembrane space? POINT 2: ___ ________

This chemiosmotic gradient results in hydrogen ions flowing back down their concentration gradient into the mitochondrial matrix. Specifically, the hydrogen ions travel back down through a protein called ___ ________
phosphorylation ADP oxidation
ATP Synthase uses the energy released to drive the _______________ of ___ molecules.

Because this ATP production relies on energy released from _________, it is called oxidative phosphorylation.
3 2
The yield is approximately _ ATP for each molecule of NADH and _ ATP for each molecule of FADH2.