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Terms in this set (84)

Narayan grew up in multiple countries, and thus has a wider view of the world

Third world feminists are criticised as being "westernized"

Western vs Non-Western women pitted against who better upholds femininity and values

They say there's a lack of respect for their culture

Argues that relationship with mother parallels relationship with country

If mother encourages daughter to be educated, oftentimes the country's overall culture does so, too (they are also both anxious about the idea of an educated female population) (This is in India)

Feminist movements develop around the world in a political climate in which the citizens are recognizing and calling attention to the ways in which they are affected negatively by practices and laws

Third world feminism addresses issues faced by women in the third world; it's an individual movement
women in India do not need the same things as women in the US (dowry deaths aren't a thing here)
There are similarities though to "western" women's issues

Rapid economic and social transitions make people feel their "traditional" way of life is being threatened postcolonialism (Nation and Culture are more important than the western changes)

Changes for women that are approved of/valued by society are not labeled as "western" ideas even if they align with western values, too (like an older age for marriage having to do with more education for women are valued, so not seen as threatening to culture)
Western is also seen as more sexually open

In India, couldn't wear "Western" clothes to a different part of the country, even though they were "Indian" enough where she was from
It is unfair to criticize third world feminists as outsiders because it is their position on the inside that gives them the ability to fairly critique their own culture
Naomi Anderson-Part of Women's temperance movement
Temperance- movement that seeked to limit alcohol bc men would abuse their wives when drunk, demanded suffrage so women could vote for prohibition
Had a target audience of formerly enslaved men

Lucretia Mott (& Elizabeth Cady Stanton)
Attended the World Anti-Slavery Convention (London, 1840)
Forced to sit in gallery as observers because they were women
Decided to hold their own convention at home on the "social, civil, and religious rights of women"
They hosted the Seneca Falls Convention (New York, 1848)
This was the genesis for the women's rights movement
Passed all the resolutions listed on the Declaration of Sentiments, which led to the right to vote becoming a rallying cry at every women's rights convention

Soujourner Truth
Born a slave (1797) named Isabella Van Wagnen
Freed after New York Anti-Slavery Law of 1827
Lived with a quaker family who gave her some education and helped her to find one of her children
This shows that education really is key to feminism
Became a traveling preacher
Campaigned for the abolition of slavery and equal rights for women
Women's movement grows out of anti-slavery movement
"Ain't I a Woman" speech was very powerful (1851)
Memorable wit, direct, unsentimental
Sang after it was over
Challenges thinking about the category of "woman"
Relational claims - shows how identities are constituted through power relations
-talking about women as a category allows us to mobilize action but flattens other issues-

Mary Ann Shadd Cary-
Worked well thru media
Second female attorney in the country

Elizabeth Cady Stanton
See above with Lucretia Mott, but also:
Wrote the "Declaration of Sentiments" for the Seneca Falls Convention to mimic/parallel the Declaration of Independence (it can be read as parody rather than criticism of it)
Sentiment means prevailing opinion/passion/idea
Race and class considerations are entirely excluded
Declaration of Sentiments was angry - listed all the wrongs done to women that bound them together against the men, as did the use of "we"
Complained about the tyranny of men (specifically the "civil death" that comes with getting married)
Argued that women are more than their identity as wives
Wanted expansion of equality under the law
The right to vote!!!!!!!

Nannie Helen Burroughs-
Educator, civil rights activist, business women
Founded national training school for women in DC
"When the ballot is put in the hands of American women, it is going to change the world"

Elizabeth Piper Ensley
In 1893 fought for all women (regardless of race) to gain voting rights in Colorado

Angelina Grimke (1805-1879)
One of two known white Southern women part of abolition movement (other is her sister)
Used the Declaration of Independence's natural rights, the Christian Bible, and her own experiences in the South to make arguments against slavery and for advancing women's rights
Very incisive
People protested while she made speeches because they were angry about what she was saying

Ida B. Wells
Anti-Lynching activist in nineteenth century
Founded Alpha Suffrage Club
Arrived in DC for a suffrage parade, was asked to march behind white women, to which she refused
Pauli Murray
Black, queer, feminist woman - who has been erased from history. She was a poet and thoughtful autobiographer.
arrested for not moving to the back of the bus (20 years before Rosa Parks!!!)
critiqued for not being radical enough.

Wilma Mankiller
Leading advocate for Cherokee chief
Became first woman chief
During her terms jobs doubled, built health centers, education rates soared
Signed a self-determination clause, received presidential freedom medal

Betty Friedan
Wrote "The Feminine Mystique" (1963)
Talks about the unhappiness that women face despite gains of the women's rights movement
Addresses "The Problem That Has No Name". Argues that traditional gender roles (of women not getting a secondary education and being domestic) stifle women's development
Treats gender roles as dehumanizing

Shirley Chisholm
First black woman in Congress
Ran for president

Gloria Anzaldua
Challenged white feminists solidarity claims based on "sisterhood" - emphasized intersectionality. Wrote La Concienca de la mesieza

Barbara Jordan-
First black woman in the house
Civil rights activist, educator, and lawyer
"A women's place in the House" famous quote

Bell Hooks
African American feminist, social activist
Ain't I a Woman (book, 1981) called attention to the way in which feminist writing mainly reflect the needs of white middle-class women.
Inaugurated a greater recognition of and response to diversity by feminist thinkers

Simone de Beouvoir
2nd wave feminist. Denies the gender differences are based in biology. Developed the sex/gender distinction. Recognizes "femininity" and "masculinity" as historically variable

Ada Deer
Native American feminist, activist, social worker, educator
first Native American woman in Wisconsin to run for U.S. Congress
First Menominee to earn an undergraduate degree at the University of Wisconsin.