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Arts and Humanities
Social and Political Philosophy
Gender and Women Studies 102 exam 1
Terms in this set (84)
Rich, Claiming an Education
-Knowledge can be power and used to construct an argument
-Women need to claim an education not receive one because received implies it was granted not earned
-We have constantly been taught the white man's perspective on everything bc they were "superior beings and the norm
-Women must seek people out that push them to their true potential rather than taking it easy on them and making excuses for them
Seek critics to better oneself
Kimmel, "Men's and Women's Studies: Premises, Perils, and Promise"
Made men visible because they were invisible before because they were the "norm"
White Men woke up every morning and looked in the mirror and didn't think about their identity like women and POC's do every day
Women's studies brought light to the topic of gender because before it was just innate information and women's history and perspective didn't matter
Introduced the idea of intersectionality by talking about what people see when they look in the mirror whether it is a woman, a black man, a poor white woman.
One doesn't see their privileges so white men just see a person because they don't have to think about it.
Argues that we assume gender is in our genes
We think gender is innate information because it has been so ingrained in our culture
Gender is constantly being created and recreated
We are constantly performing gender that we don't even think about it
If gender is a social construct, then sexual orientation is a social construct as well
Eckert and Ginet. "An Introduction to Gender."
Gender is embedded in our culture
Gender is performative
Distinguishes the difference between gender and sex
Anomalous babies are given surgery so they can conform to one sex
This could conflict with the person's gender identity
Gender does not flow directly or naturally from our bodies
Men can grow as much hair as women on their head and women can easily shave their head
Gender is the process of creating a dichotomy on everything
Focused gender as a social construction
We are gendered while we are in the womb with the ability to tell what gender we are with
Continues when we are named, how we are dressed, and throughout our entire life
Idea that boys and girls get rewarded and punished differently for the same types of things like choosing "gender-appropriate" toys
Idea of boys and girls separating and hanging out with people of the same gender
Truth, "Two Speeches" (EFR)
Born a slave name Isabella in upstate NY
Later became a Protestant Preacher
Insisted black and white women should have the same rights
Spoke on how men and women should have the same right to vote
She can do what a man does so why can't she get paid the same too
Says men will also benefit when women get the rights they deserve
Du Bois, "The Damnation of Women"
Male civil rights activist who worked to on intersectionality
Gave a speech in favor of women's suffrage
Critiqued the disparity between the idolization of mothers and virgins
"Despises mothers and despoils virgins"
Women are "damned" by having to choose between being a mother and having a job
Also spoke on the shared oppressions of black women, who always had to work
Clashing ideals of the working woman and the mother = broken families
Must respect the mother's identity as an independent worker
Critiques the idea that a woman's use is dependent on her beauty
Stanton, "Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions"
African american women were a part of the women's suffrage movement
Can be read as a parody of the Declaration of Independence
One of righteous indignation lists all the wrongs in one group
Uses we to build a team mindset
Main criticism is that it does not acknowledge race and class
Wollstonecraft. "A Vindication of the Rights of Women"
Attacked aristocracy and women
Did not include racism
Written against backdrop of French Revolution
Critiques prevailing notion that women are helpless adornments of a household
The key is educational reform, giving women access to the same educational opportunities as men
argues educational reform would give boys and girls the skills they need
Women are essential to the the nation
They educate children
Could be "companions" to their husbands rather than mere wives
Women deserve same fundamental rights of men
Was an 18th century writer, philosophy, and women's right advocate
Attribution of gender differences to socialization
Suggests both men and women should be treated as rational beings and imagines a social order founded on reason
Anthony. "Social Purity"
Drunkenness leads to domestic abuse of women by men
Men need to hold themselves to a higher standard the way women are
Prostitution is a result of the financial dependence women have on men due to occupational & wage discrimination as well as denial of equal suffrage
Men are the reason there is a market for prostitution
To end prostitution must lift these women out of poverty by providing education so they can obtain a lucrative job the way men can
Marriage should be a luxury not a necessity to lift oneself out of poverty
Only way for women to become equal and make a great change is gaining the right to vote
Need for representation of women in the workforce
De Beauvoir, Second Sex
Women have been constrained by culture
Regarded as inferior by philosophy, literature, psychology, religion
Always been subjected to men, only allowed what men have been willing to grant
There is also no solidarity amongst women as there are in other marginalized groups
ex. A white woman's solidarity is with the white man not the black woman
Bond that unites women to their oppressions(men) is unique
Women have been pressured back into their home roles bc men feared economic competition from women
Women always seen at "Other"- idea that women are defined in opposition from the viewpoint of men, which is why men have been able to exert their will over women
Argued economic freedom along w birth control, abortion, and child care would allow women control of their destinies
Initially believed socialism would free women, Marxist feminist
Freidan, Feminine Mystique
Targeted towards heterosexual, white, middle-class women
Urged women to have a life outside of their home
Talked about the problem without a name
Kicked off second wave
Gave women a push to do more and be more
But only white, middle-class women
Basically says homsexual women are ruining the feminist movement
Doesn't include people of color
Doesn't include impoverished women who will end up taking care of their kids while they try to find more meaning in their life
Collins, "The Construction of Black Feminist Thought"
Bringing the marginalized voices into discourse
Reflected on rhetoric of second wave feminism
Critical of integrating into dominant schools of thought
Find a way to support black experiences
Black women have their own ways of speaking and relating
Not rejecting mind-body dualism
Might be better to dismantle system because the system is not doing any good
De la Cruz, "The Reply to Sor Philotea"
Draws on her Catholic faith, she argued equality of women's souls entitled them to education to prepare themselves spiritually
Speaks of great female figures in the Bible who did not let men dictate what they learned yet were still celebrated by God to prove equality of men and women in spirit
What God inspired should not be thwarted by church
Men who try to use interpret the bible to restrict the education of women are unworthy of reading the Holy Scripture
Laments the lack of older women teachers bc it would solve the issue of the lack of education provided to young girls due to families not wanting the girls to interact with unfamiliar male teachers
Toshiko, "Daughters in Boxes"
Questions the Asian perspective on women and their place in the family
Compatibility of marriage and education
Bring up daughter's feelings to their families
Dinez, "Equality of Rights"
Founded a school for girls in Brazil
Fought for Brazilian's women's right to vote
Said women were enslaved in the roles expected of them
Emphasized the importance of education in the emancipation of women
Demanded women's right to vote and hold office as their human right, it is the justice deserved to them
Critiqued the hypocrisy of men in power that said all humans are equal yet do not allow women to have equal rights
Amin, "The Liberation of Women"
Egyptian male judge who believed women's path to virtue was education
Argued that if religious beliefs dictated the freedom of women than Muslim women would be at the forefront
Islamic system the Shari'a stipulated equality of men and women before any other legal system
Problem with Islamic law is polygamy
If men have a problem with their desire they should be controlling their urges, women shouldn't have to cover up/be blamed for their lack of self control
Advocated for women's independent will and education
Best way to achieve women's liberation in a safe manner is by gradual integration according to Amin
Ransome-Kuti, "We Had Equality till the British Came"
Questioned the idea of European progress
Led a women's union that offered literacy classes for poor women and evolved into a national women's movement to improve schools and health care and to end unfair taxation of women
Led demonstrations to bring about the abdication of the Nigerian king
This article is about the condition of women in Nigeria, written for a British newspaper
Argues that the condition of women has worsened since the British rule began because women used to have more freedoms (they could own property, had political influence, etc.)
Argues women are the main source of wealth in the workforce but are paid next to nothing
Talks about level of education of Nigerian women (less than 1% can read or write, there are 4 secondary schools for girls
Discusses health conditions (disease-ridden) - no free treatment for women and children in publicly-owned institutions
There are very few child care centers, and those that exist are in poor condition
Maternity and child welfare services are in experimental stages if they exist at all
Brings up unfair taxation of women (sometimes simply on the grounds that she is "mature" enough to pay taxes based on appearance)
Makes emotional appeal to British women for help, as their country is in charge of her country
Combahee River Collective, "A Black Feminist Statement"
Touched on the intersectional issues of black women, written by black feminist lesbians
Experienced racism from white women and sexism from black men, is hard to separate it as different experiences bc they experience it simultaneously and everyday
This is why it is hard to organize black feminists
Some black women have been able to achieve things due to tokenism and use that privilege to fight for their own liberation
Black women are inherently valuable yet are treated like dirt at the rest of the western hemisphere
That is why black women have to fight for their own liberation which makes their struggle even more isolated
"Personal is Political"
Disillusionment with other feminists groups due to lack of direction in black feminist groups and racism in white feminist groups
Do not believe in lesbian separatism bc it excludes too many people
Anzaldúa. "La Conciencia de la Mestiza"
Women from non-black minority backgrounds wrote essays and poems about their experiences with racism in the women's movement
Wrote in both English and Spanish to highlight the intersection/merging of cultures and identities
This idea of "cultural collision" was central to her piece (borderlands/border theory)
She advocated for a tolerance for ambiguity, as having a "plural personality" required that
The future will depend on the breaking down of paradigms and the inclusion of many cultures/languages/thoughts
How do we find power in identities when they can change so easily?
Narayan. "Westernization, Respect for Cultures, and Third World Feminists."
Narayan grew up in multiple countries, and thus has a wider view of the world
Third world feminists are criticised as being "westernized"
Western vs Non-Western women pitted against who better upholds femininity and values
They say there's a lack of respect for their culture
Argues that relationship with mother parallels relationship with country
If mother encourages daughter to be educated, oftentimes the country's overall culture does so, too (they are also both anxious about the idea of an educated female population) (This is in India)
Feminist movements develop around the world in a political climate in which the citizens are recognizing and calling attention to the ways in which they are affected negatively by practices and laws
Third world feminism addresses issues faced by women in the third world; it's an individual movement
women in India do not need the same things as women in the US (dowry deaths aren't a thing here)
There are similarities though to "western" women's issues
Rapid economic and social transitions make people feel their "traditional" way of life is being threatened postcolonialism (Nation and Culture are more important than the western changes)
Changes for women that are approved of/valued by society are not labeled as "western" ideas even if they align with western values, too (like an older age for marriage having to do with more education for women are valued, so not seen as threatening to culture)
Western is also seen as more sexually open
In India, couldn't wear "Western" clothes to a different part of the country, even though they were "Indian" enough where she was from
It is unfair to criticize third world feminists as outsiders because it is their position on the inside that gives them the ability to fairly critique their own culture
Walker. "Becoming Third Wave
Pioneer in third wave feminism
Women's experiences of sexual assault are often admonished and told to keep silent
Feminism is to integrate an ideology of equality and female empowerment
Was prompted into action by confirmation of Clarence Thomas as a Supreme Court Justice despite sexually harassing Anita Hill
Dismissal of women's experiences should not be taken lightly which is why we still need feminism
Turn outrage to political power
Do not support men that do not support and aid women in their fight to liberation
Riot Grrl Manifesto
Riot Grrrl was an underground feminist punk movement
Their concerts were supposed to be a safe space for women to get to enjoy the music of the day
Created manifestos with political news involving women and feminism (ie, why they were feminists)
Questioned girl vs girl hatred
Challenged the culture of eating disorders that was forming in young women
Guerilla Girls, "Do Women Have to be Naked to Get into the Met?"
Second wave feminism
Uses visual rhetoric
Women artists weren't recognized as much as male artists
Only 5% of art in the Met were by women but 85% of nudes in the Met are of women
Mills. "Queer is Here?"
LGBT History Month in the UK
Tries to open dialogue - forum for debate and discussion
'Queer is Here' section in Museum of London
the art "focused on the shifting fortunes of London's lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered communities since the decriminalization of homosexuality in 1967"
The goal is essentially to normalize LGBT ideas/practices/history in popular culture so more people are accepting of LGBT people
It is difficult to show the tensions present at the time as well as the differing storylines of queer people (experiencing acceptance and homophobia, not being fully 'in' or 'out' of the 'closet')
Sexual orientation has taken precedence over gender identity historically - people accept lesbian, gay, homosexual
while they exclude "effeminate men, butch women... and transgendered people"
Exhibition highlights queer people of history
failed to tell the stories of the average LGBT Londoner, focusing more on prominent people of power or fame
Museum has to be careful not to depict a queer object/art piece/story in a way that makes it seem representative of all queer people - there is more than one way to interpret history
Free to Be You and Me: "Boy Meets Girl"
Emphasizes that babies don't know what gender is and that there are certain roles genders take on when they're older and that should no longer be the case
Emphasizes the gender dichotomy
Interchanges sex with gender (??)
Challenged the idea that women should strive to marry and nothing else
Challenged the idea that women can't do what men can and showed that women have the same capabilities
Challenged that a man has the final say over a woman's life and that women have the ability to take control of their life
Parents are People
Grown ups are able to be whatever they want to be
Challenged the career roles for each gender
Untold Women Who Changed The World | The Great Feminist Movement | Biography
Focus on women's reproductive rights access to a safe and legal abortion, birth controlment
Focus on political representation in the 70s
Passage of important cases such as Roe vs Wade
Momentum of women's movement lost after defeat of ERA
1980s marked regression of women's movement with the fight against abortion
Ruth Bader Ginsberg- won prominent women's rights cases
Title 9 marked a big victory for women's movement, women had to be granted the same opportunities as men in college
led to increase in college sports for women, and increase of women in medical and law schools
Criticism of women's movement- teaches women to be victims
Battle of Sexes- highly publicized tennis match that sparked girl power, Billie King Jean wins tennis match against male chauvinist(Riggs)
Patricia Schroeder won a spot in Congress, early member of NOW, year she was in the 93rd session was the most women in the Congress had then, 14
Shirley Chisholm became first African American woman in Congress who admitted she faced more discrimination as a woman than black
Definition: the study of women that places women's own experiences in the center of inquiry; the examination of women's experiences that recognizes women's achievements and addresses their status in society
Reflects commitment to personal and social change (from women's movement)
complements/corrects established disciplines
Involves the study of gender as a central aspect of human existence
Aims: to critically think about gendered stereotypes and cultural norms and values; to explore intersections of gender, race ethnicity, sexuality, etc.; to empower students to work toward social change
Definition: the theory of political, economic, and social equality of the sexes; organized activities on behalf of women's rights (Merriam-Webster)
Feminism is different to everyone
There are different types of feminism
There have been "waves" of it (definitely two, potentially three or even four)
The different types of Feminism. A way someone has expressed feminism. The main actors in the Big Bang Theory have taken pay cuts so that the female actresses can be paid more.
Part of the social order of society
Govern behavior and expectations of individuals
Law, language, education, marriage
Social knowledge and institutions are created by actors within the system, rather than having any inherent truth on their own
People's understanding of reality is partially if not entirely socially situated
Social construction --- always involves power relations
Ongoing, dynamic process
Gender is the social/cultural significance we attach to presumed biological differences
also the meaning cultures give to biological differences
A system that organizes virtually every realm of our lives (clothes, media, education, etc.)
Something we do, not something we are
Learned and performed
Attached to stereotypes (e.g., caring vs tough, emotional vs rational)
inner sense of 'being' a man, woman, both, or neither; includes sense of self and one's images presented to the world
May be flexible or fixed
May or may not be the same as the gender they are assigned at birth
It is a self-identification
How you define yourself and the way one wants to be referred to
How someone performs their gender identity
The behaviors and decisions one makes based on their gender
Which bathroom you choose to go to
The way you dress
Preferred Gender Pronouns
What one wants to be referred to as whether it is she/her/hers, him/his, it/its, they
Gender Performativity-Judith Butler
The idea that gender is not something concrete
It is something that is performed over and over again that it has the illusion it is innate information
Examples would be the clothes you wear, the way you talk, the way you walk, the bathroom you use
The biological classification of a person based on their reproductive organs
The preference a person has for who they are attracted to
Woman being attracted to a man
Woman being attracted to a woman
Sexual identity that relates to the gender one is attracted to
Homosexual, heterosexual, bisexual
Physical characteristic pertaining to skin color, hair color, eyes, etc that distinguish groups of people from other groups
An intersection of gender
Definition: the cross-cutting inequalities that complicate gendered differences
Slides); the complex, cumulative way in which the effects of multiple forms of the complex, cumulative way in which the effects of multiple forms of discrimination (such as racism, sexism, and classism) combine, overlap, or intersect - especially in the experiences of marginalized individuals or groups (Merriam-Webster)
LGBTQ-Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning
Gender identity and/or sexual preference
system of oppression which privileges heterosexuals and discriminates against lesbian, gay, and bisexual people.
Suffrage, Seneca Falls
1848 convention in New York. Discussed social, civil, and religious condition and rights of women.
"Declaration of Sentiments" Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
Equality with men before the law, in education, and in employment
Suffrage was a social movement
Aimed for inclusion in political process rather than radical change in political process
Wisconsin was the first state to ratify the 19th amendment
Ada James, suffragette, was a driving force behind headquarters and women's suffrage headquarters
refers to political positions based on the interests and perspectives of social groups with which people identify
Movements based upon an identity shared amongst multiple persons.
standing in solidarity with our LGBTQ brother and sisters by being aware of ally suggestions such as challenging heterosexism and stereotypes
Rhetoric, characteristics and functions, parts of the rhetorical situation
Rhetoric is an intentional attempt to overcome obstacles in a given situation for a given audience to achieve a desired goal (context matters)
Which audience(s) did the speaker address?
-How were different audiences treated
-Did the speaker choose the appropriate audience
-Did the speaker address the audience effectively
-What constraints were present?
-How did the speaker address them?
-Did the speaker effectively overcome the constraints?
Exigence: A problem that can be overcome through discourse
-How did the speaker define it?
-Was it defined appropriately?
-Was it addressed effectively?
The use of cartoons and art to persuade an audience of a certain viewpoint
Communicate messages without explicitly saying it
Use of colors, design, shapes, shading
Often refers to political cartoons in this
First Wave Feminism- main concerns: (early 20th century)
women are human beings
women should have property rights
women should have voting rights
Vindication of the Rights of Women
Susan B. Anthony
Fought for women's suffrage
Second Wave Feminism- early 1960s
many women in the workforce.
focus: total gender equality.
Concerned with sexuality, reproductive rights, family, discrimination in the workplace, sexual violence and political inclusion (Equal Rights Amendment during this wave)
Same social, political, and economic rights as men
Concerned with white feminism
Simone de Beauvoir
Denies gender based on biology
The Second Sex
Began second wave
Women seen as object to the subject "man"
Third Wave Feminism
The most inclusive wave of feminism to date - focus on intersectionality
Questions second wave and their exclusion of women of color and impoverished women and homosexual women
Kicked off around the 90s
Focus on sex-positivity, inclusivity, taking back power
Argues second wave failed to include
Women with different religious backgrounds
Women in Global South
Shira tarrant argues that the waves is a bad analogy to make when it comes to the feminist movement
Brings up how the waves line up with European and Western cultured feminist movements instead of the whole globe
There was still progress in between the waves especially in other parts of the world
Kinds of feminisms
Liberal Feminism-known as mainstream feminism, argues sexism is biggest issue, primary goal is gender equality in public sphere, done primarily thru legal changes
Radical Feminism- attempt to transform the system rather than adapting to the existing system
Black Feminism- racial divisions complicate feminism, awareness of intersectionality
Marxist/Socialist Feminism- calls for an end to capitalism thru economy
Cultural Feminism- emphasizes differences between men and women based on biological differences
Eco-feminism- claims that solutions to environmental problems require a feminist perspective and that feminist theory needs to take into account environmental concerns
Multiracial Feminism-assert that gender is constructed by a range of interlocking inequalities that work simultaneously to shape women's experience
Global Feminism-feminist action concerned with the development of women's rights on a global scale
Hegemonic Feminism- Focusing that Sexism is the ultimate Oppression in the US, ignores class and race, MAIN GOAL: Equality with men
The idea that all women are connected in at least some ways (there is a patriarchy in every country)
Critique: ????? something about not including those who do not identify as women but still experience similar oppression; Contains women's struggles to patriarchy??
The "personal is political"
the idea that what happens in our private lives reflects the relationships to power in our society (i.e. your private life matters when running for public office)
key way for women to organize and discuss issues -studying the whole gamut of women's lives, starting with the full reality of one's own
a way of keeping the movement radical by preventing it from getting
sidetracked into single issue reforms and single issue organizing
a way of carrying theory about women further than it had ever been carried before, as the groundwork for achieving a radical solution for women as yet
Term emerges around 1983
Feminism has succeeded in eradicating sexism
No need to push for political change
Celebrates diversity of identity
Positive endorsement of consumerism
Third wave seen as "anti feminism"
Naomi Anderson-Part of Women's temperance movement
Temperance- movement that seeked to limit alcohol bc men would abuse their wives when drunk, demanded suffrage so women could vote for prohibition
Had a target audience of formerly enslaved men
Lucretia Mott (& Elizabeth Cady Stanton)
Attended the World Anti-Slavery Convention (London, 1840)
Forced to sit in gallery as observers because they were women
Decided to hold their own convention at home on the "social, civil, and religious rights of women"
They hosted the Seneca Falls Convention (New York, 1848)
This was the genesis for the women's rights movement
Passed all the resolutions listed on the Declaration of Sentiments, which led to the right to vote becoming a rallying cry at every women's rights convention
Born a slave (1797) named Isabella Van Wagnen
Freed after New York Anti-Slavery Law of 1827
Lived with a quaker family who gave her some education and helped her to find one of her children
This shows that education really is key to feminism
Became a traveling preacher
Campaigned for the abolition of slavery and equal rights for women
Women's movement grows out of anti-slavery movement
"Ain't I a Woman" speech was very powerful (1851)
Memorable wit, direct, unsentimental
Sang after it was over
Challenges thinking about the category of "woman"
Relational claims - shows how identities are constituted through power relations
-talking about women as a category allows us to mobilize action but flattens other issues-
Mary Ann Shadd Cary-
Worked well thru media
Second female attorney in the country
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
See above with Lucretia Mott, but also:
Wrote the "Declaration of Sentiments" for the Seneca Falls Convention to mimic/parallel the Declaration of Independence (it can be read as parody rather than criticism of it)
Sentiment means prevailing opinion/passion/idea
Race and class considerations are entirely excluded
Declaration of Sentiments was angry - listed all the wrongs done to women that bound them together against the men, as did the use of "we"
Complained about the tyranny of men (specifically the "civil death" that comes with getting married)
Argued that women are more than their identity as wives
Wanted expansion of equality under the law
The right to vote!!!!!!!
Nannie Helen Burroughs-
Educator, civil rights activist, business women
Founded national training school for women in DC
"When the ballot is put in the hands of American women, it is going to change the world"
Elizabeth Piper Ensley
In 1893 fought for all women (regardless of race) to gain voting rights in Colorado
Angelina Grimke (1805-1879)
One of two known white Southern women part of abolition movement (other is her sister)
Used the Declaration of Independence's natural rights, the Christian Bible, and her own experiences in the South to make arguments against slavery and for advancing women's rights
People protested while she made speeches because they were angry about what she was saying
Ida B. Wells
Anti-Lynching activist in nineteenth century
Founded Alpha Suffrage Club
Arrived in DC for a suffrage parade, was asked to march behind white women, to which she refused
Feminist Writers, Activists, and Politicians
Black, queer, feminist woman - who has been erased from history. She was a poet and thoughtful autobiographer.
arrested for not moving to the back of the bus (20 years before Rosa Parks!!!)
critiqued for not being radical enough.
Leading advocate for Cherokee chief
Became first woman chief
During her terms jobs doubled, built health centers, education rates soared
Signed a self-determination clause, received presidential freedom medal
Wrote "The Feminine Mystique" (1963)
Talks about the unhappiness that women face despite gains of the women's rights movement
Addresses "The Problem That Has No Name". Argues that traditional gender roles (of women not getting a secondary education and being domestic) stifle women's development
Treats gender roles as dehumanizing
First black woman in Congress
Ran for president
Challenged white feminists solidarity claims based on "sisterhood" - emphasized intersectionality. Wrote La Concienca de la mesieza
First black woman in the house
Civil rights activist, educator, and lawyer
"A women's place in the House" famous quote
African American feminist, social activist
Ain't I a Woman (book, 1981) called attention to the way in which feminist writing mainly reflect the needs of white middle-class women.
Inaugurated a greater recognition of and response to diversity by feminist thinkers
Simone de Beouvoir
2nd wave feminist. Denies the gender differences are based in biology. Developed the sex/gender distinction. Recognizes "femininity" and "masculinity" as historically variable
Native American feminist, activist, social worker, educator
first Native American woman in Wisconsin to run for U.S. Congress
First Menominee to earn an undergraduate degree at the University of Wisconsin.
Salsa Soul Sisters
Oldest Black Lesbian organization in the U.S. (until 1990, both Black and Latina women invited, after 1990 it became exclusively Black lesbian org.).
Today they're named African Ancestral Lesbians United for Social Change.
Focus on the ways spiritual uplifting change affects social change
Combahee River Collective
Black Feminist Lesbian Collective concerned with sexism, racism, classism and heterosexism (took an intersectional approach to feminism). 1974-1980 in Boston.
consciousness raising group that met weekly.
(Their name is historical and points to Harriet Tubman's campaign that freed over 750 slaves)
concerned with heteronormativity and homophobia encountered in other black feminist movements
Focused on the limitations of white feminism's sense of gender as the primary point of oppression (and how white feminists ignored intersectionality).
A liberal feminist group concerned with legal equality (was formed by Dr. Pauli Murray and Betty Friedman in 1966).
Key purpose = "to take action to bring women into full participation in the mainstream of American society now, assuming all the privileges and responsibilities of citizenship thereof in truly equal partnership with men"
Women of All Red Nations (WARN)
advocated for indigenous women's health, particularly against forced sterilization
South Asian Sisters
Based in San Francisco
Aimed to bring South Asian women together and allied with similar groups
Created a performance similar to The Vagina Monologues that highlighted the experiences of South Asian Women ("Yoni Ki Baat"), since they are often overlooked
Looks at issues faced by South Asian women that are considered taboo
According to Berger, what institutions have a significant impact on our thinking? Why is this of interest to women's studies scholars?
We have internalized and external rules that guide our behavior
What early Greek philosophers suggest about gender differences?
They suggest that women are fundamentally inferior to men.
Aristotle stated that women are incomplete men and they are defective and they should be treated that way.
What were Professor Judith Lorber's contributions to the study of the social construction of gender?
Gender is not innate, it is created by society as a way to differentiate between sexes
It involves power relations and is always changing
Gender is pervasive bc we assume it to be part of our genes & it becomes a part of our reality
Le Barre - What does he mean by "the brain is not sexed"
We are not programmed to do one gender but socially ascribed to one gender
What were Professor Michel Foucault contributions to the study of sexuality? What institutions (such as religion or education) have influenced our understanding of sexuality? How?
People avoided the subject of sex (taboo) in the 19th century
People try to uncover the secret of sex
Religion influenced our understanding because people were encouraged to confess their sexuality, which made it part of their identity
Interconnection between power, sexuality, and knowledge
What is Judith Butler's notion of gender performativity?
Gender is performed and not innate knowledge. She believes that gender performativity is a parody
*how are Butler and Foucault related?
Both discuss power relations
External forces are disciplinary of our sexual and gendered actions
7 of the rights outlined in the Declaration of Sexual Rights. Describe what they involve.
Right to consent
Right to privacy
right to reproductive rights
right to sexual healthcare and education
right to associate freely
right to autonomy, integrity,
right to to sexual pleasure
right to sexual equity
What are some of the reasons the suffrage movement began and what challenges were faced?
Stanton and Motte - anti-slavery convention led to Seneca Falls Convention
Women oppressed by men, this movement started on the tails of abolition
Faced legal constraints, faced oppositions in the liquor industry because many women who supported suffrage also supported temperance (no alcohol)
Problems with the movement: not intersectional, racism within the movement, ignored class differences
Sub-disciplines of Women's History and Communication- What is focused upon? Examples?
Role women played in history, social issues, cultural norms, political systems, wholesale values and cultures, educational systems
History of growth of women's rights, most traditional studies of history have ignored the influence of women and their contributions and the effects of historical events on women
What were some important milestones (legal and not-legal) in the first, second and third waves of feminism?
-brought to light the differences between treatment of married versus unmarried women,
-gathering for right to vote was a huge moment of solidarity,
-Seneca Falls Convention
-birth control, Roe vs. Wade (abortion rights
-equal rights amendment (not ratified, tried to end the legal distinctions between women and men) (some women didn't want to be treated the same- didn't want to be drafted), workplace rights,
-Title VII (Civil rights act (1964), prevents discrimination - win for Civil Rights and Women's movements),
-Title IX (women in college need same opportunities as men - expanded women's sports, led to increase of women in law school), sexual safety and freedom, increase of women in politics
Third: LGBTQ right to marry, higher focus on intersectionality, pop culture acceptance of diverse backgrounds
What were some critiques of the Feminine Mystique?
Doesn't consider race or class
Focuses on white middle class women
Re-enforces gender binary of "what is a woman"
What are some critiques of Hegemonic Feminism?
Ignores race and class and feminism in other countries
What were some of the key issues for feminist movements in the 1960s and 1970s?
sexuality, reproductive rights, family, discrimination in the workplace, sexual violence and political inclusion
Women as a universal category - Why might it be useful? Critiques?
Patriarchy is in every culture
Ignores the different identities that women have
Women have different struggles in different cultures - intersection of gender with other oppressed identities
ex. Black Lesbian Feminism - Combahee River Collective
What are some cross-cutting identities and Identity Movements in the U.S.?
Why have Black, Native American, Latina, or Asian women sometimes been hesitant to identify with the feminist movement in America?
Why has it been important to these women that sexism as well as racism, be addressed in their communities?
Gender with: race, class, sexual orientation, ethnicity, religious backgrounds
Feminist movement in America has been geared toward middle class white women historically - they don't feel like they have a voice
Both forms of oppression are experienced simultaneously, so they cannot be separated for these women
Kusalik. - Why might it be useful to organize around experience rather than identity?
This includes non-conformative gender identities, includes all people who experience sexism (effeminate men, "butch" women)
LGBTQ organizing and activism - Key issues at stake today?
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