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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. two major efferent systems
  2. ependymal cells
  3. generation of an action potential
  4. summation
  5. nodes and internodes
  1. a internodes - myelinated segments of axon
    nodes - gaps between internodes; where axons may branch
  2. b -to trigger an action potential
    -one EPSP is not enough
    -EPSPs (and IPSPs) combine through summation
    -temporal summation
    -spatial summation
  3. c -line central canal of spinal cord and ventricles of brain
    -secrete cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
    -circulate CSF
  4. d somatic nervous system (SNS) -
    autonomic (visceral) nervous system (ANS) -
  5. e

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. -bundle of axons with connective tissues and blood vessels
    -carry sensory inf and motor commands in PNS
    -cranial nerves - connect to brain
    -spinal nerves - attach to spinal cord
  2. ...
  3. -fewer synapses mean faster response
    -reflexes may involve only one synapse
  4. -cells that provide brain power
    -most located in brain, spinal cord, autonomic ganglia
    -between sensory and motor neurons

5 True/False questions

  1. neuroglandular junctionsynapse between neuron and muscle


  2. four steps in the generation of action potentials1. depolarization to threshold
    2. activation of Na+ channels
    -rapid depolarization
    -Na+ ions rush into cytoplasm
    -inner membrane changes negative to positive
    3. inactivation of Na+ channels, activation of K+ channels
    -at +30 mV
    -inactivation gates close (Na+ channel inactivation)
    -K+ channels open
    -repolarization begins
    4. return to normal permeability
    -K+ channels begin to close
    -when membrane reaches normal resting potential (-70 mV)
    -K+ channels finish closing
    -membrane is hyperpolarized to -90 mV
    -transmembrane potential returns to resting level
    -action potential is over


  3. type C fibers-myelinated
    -large diameter
    -high speed
    -carry rapid information to/from CNS
    -e.g. position, balance, touch, motor impulses


  4. resting potentialalso, local potentials

    -changes in transmembrane potential that cannot spread far from site of stimulation
    -any stimulus that opens a gated channel; produces a graded potential


  5. hyperpolarization-increasing the negativity of the resting potential
    -result of opening a potassium channel
    -opposite effect of opening a sodium channel
    -positive ions move out, not into the cell


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