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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. efferent division
  2. soma
  3. passive forces - gradients
  4. graded potential (more info)
  5. axon hillock
  1. a cell body
  2. b -chemical gradients -
    -electrical gradients - potassium ions leave cytosol (ICF) more rapidly than sodium enters; makes interior more negative
    -electrochemical gradients - sum of chemical and electrical forces acting across the membrane
  3. c -'switch' - if info is strong enough, switch is turned on
  4. d -transmembrane potential is most affected at point of stimulus and then diminishes with distance
    -spreads passively
    -may involve either depolarization or hyperpolarization
    -the stronger the stimulus the greater the effect
  5. e -carries motor commands
    -from CNS to PNS muscles and glands

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. sodium potassium exchange pump
  2. on a postsynaptic membrane -
    -depends on the receptor
    -not on the neurotransmitter

    E.G. acetylcholine (ACh) -
    -usually promotes action potentials
    -but inhibits cardiac neuromuscular junctions
  3. -neurotubules within the axon
    -transport raw materials
    -between cell body and synaptic knob
    -powered by mitochondra, kenesin, and dynein (molecules that do the physical moving)
  4. also, synaptic knobs
    -neuromuscular junction
    -tips of telodenria
    -contain synaptic vesicles of neurotransmitters
  5. multiple sclerosis -
    - disorder of oligodendrocytes
    -weakness, incoordination, visual impairment, speech disturbances
    -trouble walking up stairs or grasping objects
    -most common among women 20-40
    -autoimmune disorder or viral
    -no cure
    tumors -
    -gliomas
    -multiple neurofibromatosis

5 True/False questions

  1. type B fibers-myelinated
    -large diameter
    -high speed
    -carry rapid information to/from CNS
    -e.g. position, balance, touch, motor impulses

          

  2. four steps in the generation of action potentials1. depolarization to threshold
    2. activation of Na+ channels
    -rapid depolarization
    -Na+ ions rush into cytoplasm
    -inner membrane changes negative to positive
    3. inactivation of Na+ channels, activation of K+ channels
    -at +30 mV
    -inactivation gates close (Na+ channel inactivation)
    -K+ channels open
    -repolarization begins
    4. return to normal permeability
    -K+ channels begin to close
    -when membrane reaches normal resting potential (-70 mV)
    -K+ channels finish closing
    -membrane is hyperpolarized to -90 mV
    -transmembrane potential returns to resting level
    -action potential is over

          

  3. overview of neural activities

          

  4. three classes of gated channelschemically gated channels -
    -open in presence of specific chemicals (hormone or neurotransmitters)
    -found on neuron cell body and dendrites

    voltage-gated channels -
    -respond to changes in transmembrane potential
    -found in neural axons, skeletal muscle sarcolemma, cardiac muscle

    mechanically gated channels -
    -respond to membrane distortion
    -found in sensory receptors (touch, pressure, vibration)

          

  5. electrochemical gradients for potassium and sodium ions