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Chap 7: Commerce and Culture 500-1500 CE
Terms in this set (34)
The Silk Road
One of the first trade routes in the world,an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean Sea extending some 6,440 km (4,000 mi) and linking China with the Roman Empire. Marco Polo followed the route on his journey to Cathay.
prospering times of the Silk Road
trade networks prospered most when large and powerful states provided security for merchants and travelers.
1. second wave era: roman and Chinese empires
2.7th and 8th centuries CE during the Byzantine and Tang empires
3. 13th-14th centuries during the Mongol Empire
goods traded along silk road
preciosities. luxury goods intended for an elite market.
east: silk, gunpowder, paper, bamboo, mirrors, ginger
north: furs, walrus tusks, amber, livestock, horse saddles, slaves
India: cotton, incents, medicines, and spices
Europe: gold, glassware, jewelry, art, wool, textiles
status goods. transported by camels on the silk road
Origin of silk
China-4th millennium BC.
Women and Silk
women figured hugely in the process of silk production, both in terms of supply and demand. Chinese women, mostly rural, were in charge of every step of the enterprise of silk production. Chinese homes became the primary site of textile production with rural women as its main labor force.
Uses of Silk
Central Asia-used as currency and as a means of accumulating wealth.
Silk became a status of wealth.
Silk became associated with the sacred in the expanding worlds of Buddhism and Christianity
Spread of Buddhism Along the Silk Road
-Buddhism came to China from merchants along the silk road.
-Buddhism enjoyed a strong sponsorship from merchants on the silk road.
-elite in China were the first to adopt it
-Dunhuang-major site for Buddhist texts
Spread of Buddhism among Chinese Peasants
Spread slowly among the peasants. lack of written language in the highly literate religion and the nomadic ways of the people made it hard to found monasteries.
ruler of the nomadic Jie people who ruled northern china after the collapse of the Han Dynasty. In early fourth century CE, Shi Le becomes acquainted with a Buddhist monk called Fotudeng. Shi Le and his people convert to Buddhism
Buddhist monk. Miracle worker, rainmaker, fortune teller and skilled military advisor. helps lead to the conversion of Shi Le
Changing Buddhism along the Silk Road
more devotional form of Mahayana Buddhism was popular on the silk road. Picked up influences form other cultures along the silk road. Monasteries in the rich oasis towns on the Silk Road became more involved in secular affairs
Spread of Disease Along the Silk Road
1. black death
2. Plague in Athens
3. Bubonic Plague-Istanbul
**exchange of diseases gave Europeans a huge advantage when they confronted the peoples of the western hemisphere after 1500s(Americas)
*disease strengthened the appeal of religion because it offered compassion in the face of immense suffering
. 13th and 14th centuries. came from the expansion of the Mongol Empire. identified variously with the bubonic plague, anthrax, and other epidemic diseases. 1/2 of European population killed by the plague.
Tenant farmers and urban workers, now in short supply, could demand higher wages or better terms.
Plague in Athens
430-429 CE. unidentified infectious disease that come form sea trade with Egypt. 25% of army killed.
534-750 CE. intermittent outbreaks of bubonic plague ravaged the coastal cities of the Mediterranean as black rats that carried the disease arrived via the seaborne trade with India. prevented the Byzantine Empire from reintegrating Italy. weakened the ability of Christendom to resist Muslim armies from Arabia in the 7th century CE.
emerged in 1000 CE. major center of Indian Ocean trade.
mastery and understanding of the Monsoon season allowed for more trade along the Indian ocean
Rise of Trade in 3rd wave civilizations
1. political and economic revival of China (Tang and Song dynasties) in 600 CE. China actively encouraged maritime trade and produced goods.
2.Rise of Islam block in 7th century in Arabia initiated more trade.
Goods exchanged along the silk road
relatively expensive, luxury goods
*transported in bulk due to lower costs of the sea trade because ships could carry heavier, larger cargo
Sea Roads as a Catalyst for Change: Southeast Asia
trade stimulated political change and cultural changes in the area. a series of cities and states or kingdoms emerged in the area.
670-1025 CE. Malay kingdom that emerged due to Malayan sailing through the straits of Malacca. Plentiful supply of gold, access to the source of highly sought after spices, and taxes levied on ships passing through straits of Malacca provided resources to attract supporters and military and naval bases to the area. imported new government and economic systems as well as Hinduism. Major center of Buddhism
Kingdom of Angkor. 800-1300 CE. Located in what is now southern Vietnam and Cambodia. exported exotic forest products. Angor Wat
Southeast Asian Kingdoms
Pagan, Vietnam, Khmer Empire, Funan, Champa, Srivijaya, Sailendra
enormous mountain shaped structure of 10 levels. found in Sailendra kingdom in central Java. Largest Buddhist monument anywhere in the world. distinctly Javanese creation
largest religious structure in the modern world. Built by King Suryavarmann II as a Hindu religious complex. later adapted to a Mahayana Buddhist site. 1300's-transferred to Theravada Buddhism
evidence against "Indianization"
no imperial control accompanied Indian culture influence. VOLUNTARY borrowing of culture. societies traced an individuals ancestry from both the mother's and father's line. Women had fewer restrictions and a greater role in public life.
emerged in the 8th century CE. commercial city-states stretching all along the East African Coast. blend of Bantu and Islamic cultures. stimulated by growing demand of east African products. Politically independent states ruled by separate kings. one of he first areas to adopt Islam. Urban.
1250-1350 CE. motivated because of wealth coming from the Swahili Coast. Huge stone enclosures.
Agricultural Regions of Sub-Saharan Africa
2 ecological zones.
Savanna grasslands immediately south of the Sahara.
forest areas in the south
introduction of the camel to west Africa in early centuries CE. emerged inn 300-400CE. Gold, as well as ivory, kola, nuts and slaves were transported from west Africa to North Africa. international trade route. trade stimulated formations of new and larger political empires-Ghana, Mali
Slavery in West Africa
early on, most slaves were women. male slaves put to work as officials, porters, craftsmen, and miners. slaves came from non-Islamic and stateless societies farther south. trade in slaves across Sahara developed.
Why no trading networks in the Americas
absence of horses, donkeys, camels, wheeled vehicles and large ocean going vessels limited long distance trade. environmental and geographic differences made transportation difficult. North/south orientation of the Americas-required significant adaptation. only trade present was between Mesoamerica and the Andes.
Aztec traders that conducted large scale trading expeditions
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