26 terms

population

the entire collection of items that is the focus of concern

sample

a subset that is representative of the population

sample size

the number of people used for a particular survey

survey

a study of one or more characteristics of a group

random sample

a sample in which everyone in the population has an equal chance of selection

sample bias

a sample that is not representative of the population

question bias

a question that encourages a particular response. a biased question is a question worded in such a way that a particular answer is favored over others

data

information, especially numerical information; usually organized for analysis

prediction

to state in advance on the basis of observation, experience, or scientific reason

statistics

the science of collecting, organizing, representing, and interpreting data

box-and-whisker-plot

a diagram based on the five-number summary of a data set

frequency table

a table that lists items and uses tally marks to record and show the number of times they occur

histogram

a graphical representation of the distribution of data

inter-quartile-range (IQR)

the difference between the upper quartile (Q3) and lower quartile (Q1). it represents the middle 50% of the data

maximum value

the number of greatest value in a set of data

mean absolute deviation (MAD)

a measure of statistical dispersion or variability using absolute values from the mean

mean

the average of a set of data. the sum of the numbers divided by the number of numbers

measures of center

mean, median, and mode

measures of spread

range, IQR, and MAD

median

the number which is in the middle of a set of data after the numbers are arranged in order from least to greatest

minimum value

the number of least value in a set of data

mode

the number which occurs the most frequently in a set of data

mutually exclusive

two events are "mutually exclusive" if they cannot occur at the same time

outlier

a number which is much greater or much less than others in a set of data

range

the difference between the largest and smallest of the numbers in a set of data

stem-and-leaf plot

a special table where each data value is split into a "leaf" (usually the last digit) and a "stem" (the other digits)