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Criminology midterm part 2
Terms in this set (14)
Functions of Delinquent Subculture
- Achieving status
- Legitimation of Aggression
- Rejecting middle class values and morality
- The sum is greater than its parts
- Boys are more likely to act up in a group as opposed to alone.
Messner and Rosenfeld (Dark American Dream/Values of American society)
- Achievement Orientation
> Individual worth is measured by financial success.
> Protestant values and spirit of capitalism
> Encouraged to make it on your own
> Fellow citizens are seen as competitors
>Striving toward upwards mobility is encouraged
> Pressure to win
Capitalism is the overwhelming organizing principle of all social institutions
Family, Schools and the Political System are propagating profit orientation, competition and monetary success.
US subscribes to these values in more extreme ways than other Western European countries which explains the high crime rates in the United States.
- Economic considerations dominate social institutions.
- Economic institutions always have the strongest claim.
- Social institutions cannot fulfill their control function anymore.
- Goal justifies the means.
- Primary goal is monetary success.
- Cultural Pressure to innovate.
- There is always more money to be made with illegal means.
Crime exists because
- People justify/neutralize their actions (Sykes & Matza)
- People are not adequately controlled (Hirschi Social Bond Theory)
- People lack self control (Godfredson & Hirschi)
Hypothesis and Assumption (Sykes & Matza)
People who commit crimes need to neutralize what they do in their minds because criminals don't have different values from non-criminals.
• Criminals continue to be embedded in mainstream (nondelinquent) society
• Criminals experience shame
• They respect certain mainstream values such as honesty
• Criminals are opposed to criminal behavior when it affects their family or significant other
Techniques of Neutralization (Sykes and Matza)
1. Denial of responsibility
2. Denial of injury
3. Denial of the victim
4. Condemnation of the condemners
5. Appeal to higher loyalties
A General Theory of Crime (Gottfredson & Hirschi)
Crime is caused by the lack of self- control created in early childhood.
3 assumptions for the lack of self control (Gottfredson & Hirschi)
- Overall lack of self control
- Engage in other risk taking behavior
- Lack of self-control can be counteracted, the person can change
Direct versus Indirect Social Control
- Direct: you affect yourself, lack of self control.
- Indirect: social factors affect you, how you relate to society, social bond theory, Hirschi.
What causes the lack of Indirect Social Control?
- Parent and child attachment
- Recognition of deviant behavior
- Punishment of deviant behavior
- Parental criminality
Implications for assumption personality of the criminal
- Offender patterns remain STABLE over the life course!
- The crime is only one of many ways in which an individual manifests the lack of self-control
The Age-Crime Curve on the left is a phenomenon that is valid across cultures and offender types.
Offending peaks during teenage years and continues to decrease as older as an individual gets.
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