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328 terms

Study for Pharmacology

STUDY
PLAY
ceph- or cef-
Cephalosporin antibiotics
-cycline
Tetracycline antibiotics
-floxacin
Fluoroquinolone antibiotics
-mycin/micin
Aminoglycoside antibiotic
-romycin
Macrolide antibiotics
-azole
Antifungal
-vir
Antivirals
-artan
Cardiac drug - Angiotensin 2 receptor blocker
-dipine or -mil
Cardiac drug - Calcium channel blocker
-pril
Cardiac drug - ACE inhibitor
-zosin
Cardiac drug - Alpha-adrenergic blocker
-prazole
Gastrointestinal drug - Proton pumb inhibitor
-tidine
Gastrointestinal drug - Histamine H2-blockers
-ide
Diuretic
-lam or -pam
Benzodiazepines
-parin
Anticoagulant
-sone
Anti-inflammatory corticosteroid
-statin
HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor (lower cholesterol and lipids)
-triptan
Antimigraine - seratonin (5-HT1d) agonist
-coxib
Cox-2 inhibitor
-ase
Digistive enzyme or thrombolytic
-lax
Laxative
-mab
Monoclonal antibody
-cillin
Penicillin antibiotics
-olol
Cardiac drug - Beta-adrenergic blocker
Children's dose =
(safe dose/kg) * (weight of child in kg)
When does our body physiological function start declining?
Between 24-30 yrs of age by 1% each year.
The Nursing Process
Assess
Diagnose
Plan
Intervention
Evaluation
6 Rights of Drug Administration
Drug
Dose
Documentation
Pt.
Route
Time
Hepatic Function Labs
AST
ALT
Alkaline Phosphatase (PT, aPTT)
Renal Function
BUN
Serum Creatine
Creatine Clearance
CBC
H&H
WBC
RBC
Platelets
How do I treat angina?
Nitroglycerin
How do I treat Afib?
Warfarin sodium (Coumadin)
How do I treat CHF?
Digoxin
How do I treat dysrhythmias & shock state?
Epinephrine
How do I treat HypoTN?
Dopamine
How do I treat normal HTN?
Clonidine
Metoprolol
Verapamil
How do I treat severe HTN?
Fenoldopam
How do I treat radio contrast dye procedure?
Fenoldopam
How do I treat asthma/COPD/emphysema?
Albuterol
How do I treat nasal congestion?
Pseudophedrine
How do I treat TB?
Isoniazid + (ethambutol, rifampin or streptomycin, pyrazinamid (PZA))
How do I treat constipation?
Psyllium
How do I treat diarrhea?
Diphenoxylate HCl c atropine sulfate
How do I treat heartburn?
Aluminum hydroxide
How do I treat GERD?
Omeprazole
How do I treat ALS (Lou Gherig's Disease)?
Riluzole
How do I treat Alzheimer Disease?
Rivastigmine
How do I treat anaphylaxis?
Epinephrine
Diphendydramine
Corticosteroids
How do I treat a cholinergic crisis?
Atropine sulfate
How do I treat closed-head trauma?
Levetiracetam (Keppra)
How do I treat digitalis intoxication?
Propranolol
How do I treat acute gout?
Colchicine
How do I treat chronic gout?
Probenecid, Allopurinol
How do I treat Hansen's Disease (leprosy)?
Rifampin
How do I treat hyperthyroidism?
Radioactive iodine
How do I treat migraines?
Sumatriptan
How do I treat parkinson's disease?
Carbidopa-levodopa
How do I treat a prostatic outflow obstruction?
Prazosin
How do I treat UTI?
Ciproflaxin, Bactrim
How do I treat fungal infection?
Amphotericin B
How do I treat avian or swine flu?
Oseltamivir
How do I treat cytomegalo virus (CMV)?
Ganciclovir
How do I treat herpes?
Acyclovir sodium
What are S&S of hepatotoxicity?
Hepatitis
Jaundice
Increased liver enzyme fx
What are S&S of nephrotoxicity?
Decreased UO
Increased BUN
Increased serum creatine
Altered pH
Electrolyte imbalances
What are S&S of neurotoxicity?
Drowsiness
Auditory & visual changes
Restlessness
Nystagmus
Tonic-clonic seizures
What are S&S of ototoxicity?
Tinnitus
Vertigo
What are S&S of allergic reaction?
Release of histamine
Redness
Itching
Swelling
Rash
Hives
Bronchoconstriction
Anaphylaxis.
What are S&S of anaphylaxis?
Acute resp. distress
Significant hypoTN
Edema
Tachychardia
Cyanosis
Pale/cool skin
Convulsions
What are S&S of hypersensitive reaction?
n/v/d
What is a paradoxical reaction?
An unusual or abnormal reaction to a drug.
What are S&S of EPS?
Loss of muscle control (muscle twitching and tremors)
Parkinson'like effects (cog-wheeling, fine tremors)
Akathisia (restlessness)
Tardive dyskinesia (involuntary facial distortions, ect).
What are S&S of Serotonin Withdrawal Syndrome?
Flu-like symptoms
Light headedness, dizziness, or both
Uneasiness, restlessness
Sleep and sensory disturbances
Headache
What are S&S of cholinergic crisis?
Increased salivation, sweating, and GI motility
Bradycardia
Flaccid paralysis
Respiratory failure
What are S&S of myasthenic crisis?
Muscle weakness
SOB
Inability to move or swallow
How do you know if your pt. is having a cholinergic or myasthenic crisis?
Challenge dose of Edrophonium
improvement: myasthenic crisis
What are S&S of anticholinergic effect?
Can't see, can't pee, can't spit, can't poop
What are S&S of anticholinergic overdose?
Mad as a hatter, dry as a bone, red as a beet, blind as a bat
What are S&S of digitalis toxicity?
GI (earliest S&S)
Visual (yellow and green halos),
Cardiac irregularities (most serious)
What are S&S of superinfection?
Diarrhea
Mouth sores
Vaginal itching
What are S&S of blood dyscrasia?
changes in CBC
Which drugs in small doses can kill children?
Beta-blockers
Calcium chanel blockers
lonidine
What is the number one cause of death by overdose across all ages?
Acetaminiphen (hepatotoxicity)
Pregnant pts can only safely receive which category of drugs?
A and B
What is the difference between non-adherence vs. non-compliance?
Non-Cdherence (unable to follow therapy)
Non-Compliant (not willing or having no desire to follow therapy)
Which drugs should your never abruptly stop?
Beta-blockers
If a drug is metabolized via P450 the pt. should not consume what kind of juice?
Grapefruit
How can a pt. avoid orthostatic hypoTN?
Change positions slowly
How long do antidepressant medication take to have full therapeutic effect? What are concerns during this period of time?
Therapeutic effect may take weeks. In the meantime there is an increase risk for SI due to an increase in energy
What is the most important pt. teaching regarding MAOIs?
They should not be taken with other medications. Maintain a diet s tyramine and tryptophan
What is important to remember about anti-gout drugs?
They are not given to treat increased uric acid s presence of gout
What is the number one reason for digitoxicity?
Hypokalemia. Must maintain a steady diet of salt/potasium
Do anticoagulant dissolve clots?
NO!!!
What drugs dissolve clots?
Trimbolytic Agents like alteplase/Activase -given within 3 hours of MI
How do we treat microbial infections?
Right drug for the right bug.
What is the most common AE of penicillin?
n/v/d
What is the number one reason for bacteria resistance?
Poor hand washing habits by staff.
Patients not taking antibiotics as prescribed.
What should we do as nurses before administering any drug?
Triple check
Can long-acting or enteric-coated drugs be opened, crushed, or chewed?
No
What does enteral mean?
Oral route
What does parenteral mean?
Avoids GI route
What is the difference between a Syrup and an Elixirs?
Syrups are sugar base and Elixirs have EtOH (be careful c polypharmacy!)
Before you administer a medication through a G-tube you should...?
Verify placement and then elevate the HOB
What is the max IM dose to the deltoid?
1 mL
What is the max IM dose to any muscle other than deltoid?
3 mL
What is a good location for an IM for an elderly?
Ventrogluteal
What is a good location for an IM for pre-todlers?
Vastus lateralis
Lidocaine and epinephrine should never be administered simultaneously to which body parts?
Ears
Nose
Fingers
Genitelia
How long does it take to reach steady state?
4-5 half lives
When should we make drug adjustments?
After reaching steady state.
What is the therapeutic index?
difference between ED50 and LD50
What drugs have narrow therapeutic ranges?
Litium carbonate (0.5 - 1.3 mEq/L)
Digoxin (0.5 - 2.0 ng/mL)
What is the first sign of anemia?
Sore throat
What is preemptive intervention?
It is the use of adequate pain medication that results in lower total qty of drug use. The infusion pump is an example.
Who should not receive narcotic analgesics?
Pts. how have had head injury or have a depressed level of consciousness.
What is a hypoglycemic agent?
An agent that lowers blood glucose levels. The biggest side effect is hypoglycemia.
What is an antiglycemic agent?
An agent that halts the further increase of blood glucose levels.
What is a prandiol insulin?
One that is given with a meal.
What is a basal insulin?
One that is given without a meal.
What is an ACE inhibitor?
Number 2 anti-HTN drug. Blocks the conversion of Angiotensin I to II. Angiotensin II might help avoid and increase in BP and vasoconstriction.
What is an A2RB?
Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker.
What is an SSRI?
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor. Increases Serotonin levels.
What is a Proton Pump Inhibitor?
Inhibit the action of the gastric proton pump, reduces gastric acid production.
What is an opiod?
Narcotic Analgesic. Decreases the perception of pain and increases the pain tolerance.
What is an NSAID?
Non Steroidal Anti-Inflamatory commonly used as pain killer and fever reduction agent
What is a HMG-CoA Reducer Inhibitor?
Inhibit the body's cholesterol production
What is a Diuretic?
Primarily used as an anti-HTN. Promote evacuation of water front he body, decrease the load on the cardiovascular system.
What is a Calcium Channel Blocker?
It is an anti-HTN that blocks calcium channels in cardiac muscle and blood vessels, slowing down the activity.
What is a Beta Blocker (B1)?
It is an anti-HTN that blocks adrenaline receptors decreasing the flight or fight response and thus affecting the heart.
What is a benzodiazepine?
It is a n anti-anxiety agent, muscle relaxer, sedative, and hypnotic.
What is an anti-diabetic/sulfonylureas?
Lowers glucose levels in the blood. Only used for Type II.
What is an anticonvulsant?
Suppress the rapid firing of neurons in the nervous systems. Anti-epileptic or anti-seizure drug.
What is an antibiotic?
It is an agent that inhibits the reproduction of new bacteria cells.
What do we call drugs that mimic the effects of norepinephrine?
Adrenergics
Sympathomimeitcs
Adrenergic agonist.
What do we call drugs that block the effects of norepinephrine?
Sympatholytics
Adrenergic blockers
Adrenergic antagonist
What do we call drugs that mimic the effects of acetylcholine?
Cholinergic drugs
Parasympathomimetics
Cholinergic agonists
Cholinomimetics
Cholinergic stimulants.
What do we call drugs that block the effects of acetylcholine?
Anticholinergic
Parasympatholytics
Cholinergic antagonists.
With what drug do we worry about first dose syncope?
Prazonin (Minipress)
What is the drug category of:
epinephrine (Adrenalin)
phenylephrine (Dristan, Neo-synephrine)
clonidine (Catapress)
dopamine (Intropin)
fenoldopam (Corlopam)?
Adrenergic antagonist
Cathecolamine drugs (norepinephrine, epinephrine, isoproterenol, dopamine, dobutamine) can't...
be taken orally
cross the blood-brain barrier
be taken with MAO and COMT
They must also be infused because of their brief duration of action.
What is the most important nursing implication with clonidine (Catapress) and metropolol (Lopressor)?
NEVER ABRUPTLY STOP THERAPY
What is the drug category of:
prazosin (Minipress)
metroprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL)?
Adrenergic Antagonists
When using fenoldopam (Corlopam) how does the nurse achieve the optimal BP?
Titrating every 15 min
What is the drug category of:
pilocarpine (Akarpine)
nicotine (Nicotrol)
neostigmine (Prostigmin)?
Cholinergic Agonist
Hoe do we treat open-angle-glaucoma?
Pilocarpine (Akarpine)
How do we treat myathesnia gravis?
Neostigmine (Prostigmin)
What is the drug category of:
atropine sulfate?
Anticholinergic
What is the antidote of choice for muscarinic excess?
Atropine sulfate
What is the drug category of lorazepam (Ativan)?
Benzodiazepine
How do we treat cronic insomnia?
Lorazepam (Ativan)
Should a pregnant pt. use benzodiazepines during pregnancy?
No, it is a category X
Is there an antidote for barbiturates?
No :(
What are S&S of withdrawal?
Anxiety
Insomnia
Cramping
Tremors
Paranoid behavior delirium
Convulsion
Death
How do we treat withdrawal?
With benzodiazepines
What is the drug category of sertraline (Zoloft)?
SSRI
What are S&S of serotonin toxicity or serotonin syndrome?
Dilated pupils
Tachychardia
ECG changes
Anxiousness
Decreased LOC
Vomiting
Irritability
Hostility
Sweating
Fever
Increased BP
Abdominal pain
Diarrhe
Muscle spasm
Increased motor activity
What is the drug classification of nortryptyline (Pamelor)?
Tricyclic Antidepressants
What is an important risk with TCAs?
CV Toxicity
What are S&S of antihistamine effects?
Sedation
Hypotension
Weight gain
What is the drug classification of phenelzine sulfate (Nardil)?
MAOI
What is the drug category of Lithium Carbonate?
Mood stabilizer
What are S&S of Lithium Toxicity?
Early: coarse hand tremor, severe GI distress, blurred vision, drowsiness, mental dullness, slurred speech, confusion, muscle twitching, and dizzy or spinning sensation.
Late: seizure, coma, dysrhythmias, permanent neurological impearement
What is the drug classification of haloperidol (Haldol)?
Typical Antipsychotic
What is the blackbox warning on haloperidol (Haldol) and Olazapine (Zyprexa)?
Increased risk of death when given to patients with dementia.
What are S&S of Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)?
Fever
Sweating
Tachychardia
Muscle rigidity
Tremor
Incontinence
Stupor
Leukocytosis
Elevated CPK levels
Renal failure.
How do we treat EPS?
diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
What is the drug classification of olanzapine (Zyprexa)?
Atypical Antipsychotic Agent
What is the drug classification of:
phenytoin (Dilantin)
carbamazepine (Tegretol)
valproic acid (Depakene)
levetiracetam (Keppra)?
Antiepilectic - Decrease Na Influx
How do we treat status epilepticus?
phenytoin (Dilatin)
valproic acid (Depakene)
In general, before administering a new drug if the pt. is taking MAOIs, they must dc the MAOIs for how many weeks?
2 weeks
What is the drug classification of: ethosuximide (zarontin)?
Antiepileptic - Decrease Ca Influx
What is the drug classification of cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril)?
Centrally-Acting Muscle Relaxant
What is the drug classification of baclofen (Lioresal)?
Centrally Acting Spasmolytics
What is the drug classification of dantrolene (Dantrium)?
Peripherally acting spasmolytic
How can we treat malignant hyperthermia?
dantrolene (Dantrium)
What is the drug classification of carbidopa-levodopa (Sinemet)?
Dopaminergic Agent
What is the drug classification of Morphine?
Opiate
What is the antidote for opiates?
naloxone (Narcan)
What is the drug classification of acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin)?
Anti-inflamatory and antipyretic
Should a nurse administer an opiate to a pt. c < 12 RPM?
No!
What is the drug classification of Tramadol (Ultram)?
Non-opiod drug
Can children with a viral infection take acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin)?
No, it may cause Reye's syndrome
What are S&S of salicylism?
Headache
Tinnitus
GI distress
Paresthesia
Respiratory stimulation
Drowsiness or confusion.
What are S&S of salicylate poisoning?
Lethal dose for a child is 5-8 g and for an adult: 10-30g.
Respiratory depression
Acid-base imbalances
Seizures
High temp
Shock --> coma --> death.
What is the drug classification of ibuprofen (Motrin)?
NSAID
What is the drug classification of calecoxib (Celebrex)?
Cox II Inhibitor
What is the drug classification of acetaminophen (Tylenol)?
Para-aminophenol derivative
What is the antidote for acetaminophen (Tylenol)?
acetylcysteine (Mucomyst).
What are S&S of acetaminophen (Tylenol) overdose?
Early: anorexia, nausea, vomiting, pallor, diaphoresis
Intermediate: RUQ pain, decreased UO
Late: jaundice, elevated AST, elevated PT, potential renal failure, CNS stimulation, CNS depression.
What is the drug classification of sumatriptan (Imitrex)?
Serotonin-selective drug
Why should the pt. always carry the sumatriptan (Imitrex) with them?
Because it should be administered at the first S&S of a migraine headache!
What is the drug classification of verapamil hydrochloride (Calan)?
AntiHTN - Ca Channel Blocker
What is the drug classification of captopril (Capoten)?
ACE Inhibitor
What is the drug classification of lorsatan (Cozaar)?
Angiotensin II Blocker
What is rhabdomyolysis?
The breakdown of muscle tissue
What is the drug classification of aliskiren (Tekturna)?
Renin inhibitor
What is the drug classification of eplerenone (Inspra)?
Aldosterone receptor blockers
What is the drug classification of hydrazine hydrochloride (Apresoline)?
Direct vasodialator
What is the drug classification of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)?
Thiazide diuretic
Patients taking hydrochlorothiazide and digoxin are at risk for...?
Digitalis toxicity
What is the drug classification of Furosemide (Lasix)?
Loop diuretic
What is the drug classification of triamterene (Dyazide, Maxzide)?
K Sparing Diuretic
What is the drug classification of mannitol (Osmitrol)?
Osmotic Diuretic
How do we treat an overactive bladder?
Tolterodine (Detrol)
What is the drug classification of tolterodine (Detrol)?
Antimuscarinic agent
What is the drug classification of digoxin (Lanoxin)?
Cardiac Glycosides
How do we calculate the correct dose for digoxin?
Calculate the correct dose based on ideal body weight rather than actual body weight.
When should the nurse not adm. digoxin?
When the apical HR is < 60 BPM
What is the antidote for digoxin?
Digoxin immune fab (Digibind)
What is the risk of having low K when taking digoxin?
Increases the risk for digoxin toxicity.
What is the drug of choice for acute CHF?
nesiritide (Natrecor)
What is the drug classification of nesiritide (Natrecor)?
Natriuretic Peptides
What is the drug classification of nitroglycerin (NTG)?
Nitrates
What is the max number of doses of sublingual nitroglycerin that can be taken?
3 doses
How often can we give sublingual nitroglycerin?
q5min
What route of nitroglycerin if approved for acute pain?
Sublingual
What are the nursing implications for an antidysrhthmic agent?
Monitor HR and rhythm, BP, plasma drug level, and drug-interactions.
What is the drug classification of lovastatin (Mevacor)?
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor
What is the drug classification of heparin sodium (Heparin)?
Drug affecting coagulation
What is the antidote for Heparin?
Protamine Sulfate
What is the drug classification of enoxaparin (Lovenox)?
Low-molecular-weight heparin
What is the blackbox warning for Lovenox?
Pts. c epidural or spinal anesthesia or spinal puncture can develop hematomas
What drug do we use as a prophylaxis of DVT post surgery?
Fondaparinux (Arixtra)
What is the drug classification of warfarin sodium (Coumadin)?
Oral anticoagulant
What is the INR for an anti coagulated pt.?
2-3
What is the antidote for Coumadin?
Vitamin K (Aqua Mephyton)
What is dabigatran (Pradaxa)? Does it require monitoring? Does it have an antidote?
It is an oral anticoagulant that does not require blood monitoring but does not have an antidote.
What is the drug classification of clopidogrel (Plavix)?
Antiplatelet drug
What should the nurse assess when using Plavix?
The use of proton pump inhibitor drugs because it aggects the therapeutic index.
What is the drug classification of pentoxifylline (Trental)?
Hemorheologic drug. It is a true blood thinner.
What is the drug classification of alteplase recombinant (Activase)
Thrombolytic Agent. It is a true clot breaking agent.
What is the drug classification of epoetin alfa (Epogen, Procrit)
Erythropoiesis stimulant
What is the drug classification of filgrastim (Neupogen)?
Colony-Stimulating Factor (increases neutrophil count)
What is the drug classification of oprelvekin (Neumega)?
Interleukins (increases platelets)
What is selective toxicity?
The ability to injure a target cell or target organism without injuring other cells or organisms that are in intimate contact with the target. The ability of the antibiotic to kill an invading microbe.
How are nosocomial infections primarily transmitted?
Through the contaminated hands of the health care provider
How does penicillins, cefazolin, cephalexin, and vancomycin work?
They affect the bacterial cell wall.
If a pt. taking an antibiotic that causes ototoxicity shows S&S of hearing loss what should the pt. do?
STOP THE DRUG IMMEDIATELY to prevent permanent damage.
What is the most serious AE of a drug ending in MYCIN?
Ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity.
What is the drug classification of gentamicin sulfate (Garamycin)?
Antibiotic - Aminoglycoside that affects protein synthesis
What should be monitored with Garamycin?
Peaks and Trophs because it is a very toxic drug.
How can the pt. prevent nephrotoxicity?
By staying well hydrated.
How does clindamycin (Cleocin) work?
Affects protein synthesis.
What is the drug classification of erythromycin (E-mycin)?
Antibiotic - macrolide that affects protein synthesis.
Why should a pt. taking an antibiotic experiencing a rash should see a doctor immediately?
Because many antibiotics have Stevens-Johnson as an AE.
What is the drug classification of tetracycline hydrochloride (Achromycin)?
Antibiotic - tetracycline that affects protein synthesis.
Why can't children <8y.o, pregnant women, or lactating women should not take tetracycline hydrochloride?
It causes permanent damage to teeth.
What is the dietary restriction for tetracycline hydrochloride (Achromycin)?
Avoid dairy products to prevent the formation of chelates.
When taking antibiotics women of childbearing age and taking the pill should be aware that...
...they need a backup method!
What is the drug classification of Chloramphenicol (Chloro-fab)?
Antibiotic that prevents protein synthesis.
What is Chloramphenicol reserved for?
Serious infections
What is the drug classification of ciprofloxacin (Cipro)?
Antibiotic - fluoroquinolones that inhibit DNA synthesis
What drug has a serious AE of tendonitis and tendon rapture?
ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
What is the drug classification of linezolid (Zyvox)
Antibiotic - Oxazolidinones
What is the criteria to prescribe linezolid (zyvox)?
Proof that other antibiotics has been used s success.
What is the drug classification of quinypristin/dalfopristin (Synercid)?
Antibiotic - streptogramins that blocks ribosome functioning. Used for VREF.
What is the drug classification of daptomycin (Cubicin)?
Antibiotic - Cyclic Lipopetides that interferes with the integrity of the cell wall.
What is the drug classification of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (Bactrim, Septra, Co-trimoxazole)?
Antibiotic - Sulfonamides
What is the drug of choice for prophylaxis of TB?
Isoniazid (INH)
When should the nurse stop Ganciclovir (Cytovene) infusion?
When the neutrophil count <500/mm3
How do I treat candidiasis?
fluconazole (Diflucan)
What is the drug classification of zidovudine (AZT retrovir)
HIV agent - nucleoside/nucleotide analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTIs)
What is the drug classification of efavirenz (EFV, Sustiva)?
HIV agent - non-nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor
What is the drug classification of raltegravir (Isentress)
HIV agent - integrase inhibitors
What is the drug classification of saquinavir (Invirase)?
HIV agent - Protease inhibitors (PIs)
What is the drug classification of enfuvirtide (T-20, Fuzeon)?
HIV agent - Fusion Inhibitor
What is the drug classification of maraviroc (Selzentry)?
HIV agent - Chemokine Coreceptor Antagonist
What is the drug of choice for pregnant pt. who are HIV +?
Zidovudine
What is the drug classification of metronidazole (Flagyl)?
Antiprotozoan drug
What is the drug classification of mebendazole (Vermox)?
Anthelminthic drug
What is the drug classification of permethrin (Elemite, Nix)?
Antiectoparasitic drug
What is the drug classification of dextromethorphan?
Antitusive
What is the drug classification of pseudo ephedrine (Sudafed)?
Decongestants
What is the drug classification of fexofenadine (Allegra)?
Antihistamine
What is the drug classification of diphenhydramine hydrochloride (Benadryl)
1st generation antihistamine
What is the drug classification of fluticasone (Flonase)?
Inhased Nasal Steroid
What is the drug classification of cromolyn sodium (NasalCrom)?
Inhaled mast cell stabilizer
What is the drug classification of guaifenesin?
Expectorant
What is the drug classification of acetylcysteine (Mucomyst)?
Mucolytic Agent
What is the drug classification of albuterol (Proventil) and salmeterol (Serevent)?
Bronchodilating Drugs
What is the difference between albuterol and salmeterol.
Albuterol is short-acting.
What is the drug classification of ipratropium bromide (Atrovent)?
Inhaled anticholinergic used for maintenance of COPD
What is the drug classification of theophylline (Slo-Bid, Theo-Dur)?
Metrylxanthine agent - asthma maintenance drug
What is the drug classification of flunisolide (AeroBid)?
Steroid - maintenance drug for COPD
What is the use of Cromolyn Sodium (Intal)?
Prophylaxis of allergic disorders.
What is the drug classification of omalizumab (xolair)?
Monoclonal antibody against IgE - maintenance drug for asthma pts. c perennial allergens
What is the drug classification of Zafirlukast (Accolade)
Leukotriene Receptor Antagonist - maintenance drug for COPD
What is the drug of choice for organ transplant rejection prevention?
prednisone (Deltasone)
What is the drug classification of prednisone (Deltasone)?
Glucocorticoidsteroid
What is the drug classification of fludrocortisone (Florinef)?
Mineralocorticoid
How do I treat hypothyroidism?
levothyroxine (Synthroid)
What is Liothyronine (Cytomel)?
T3
How can I treat hyperthyroidism without doing iodine isotope therapy?
Methimazole (MMI) an antithyroid compound.
What is the drug classification of interferon alfa-2a (Roferon-A)?
Cytokine used to treat Hepatitis B and C and Kaposi sarcoma related to AIDS
What is the blackbox warning on Roferon-A?
SI, Depression, Anxiety.
What is the drug classification of cyclosporin (Sandimmune, Neoral)?
Immune modulator used to prevent organ rejection and graft-versus-host disease.
What are the types of parenteral hypoglycemic agents?
Rapid acting Insulin: lispro (Humalog)
Short acting Insulin: Regular (Humulin R)
Intermediate acting Insulin: isophane (NPH)
Long acting Insulin: glargine (Lantus)
Incretin Mimetic Agent: exenatide (Byetta) (Type 2)
Amyling Analog: pramlintide (Symlin)
What is the drug classification of glyburide (DiaBeta)
Oral hypoglycemic- sulfonylureas - insulin release
What is the onset, peak, and duration of rapid, short, intermediate, and long acting insulin?
Rapid: 25min, 30-90min, 3-4 hs
Short: 30-60 min, 2-3hs, 8-12 hs
Intermediate: 60-90 min, 4-12 hs, 18-24 hs
Long: Basal Inuslin no pronounced peak.
What are S&S of hypoglycemia?
Anxious, sweaty, hungry, confused, blurred or double vision, cold, clammy, shaky, irritable
What is the drug classification of repaglinide (Prandin)?
Oral hypoglycemic - meglitnide - insulin release, only taken with meals.
What is the drug classification of metformin (Glucophage)?
Oral antiglycemic - biguanide
What is the drug classification of rosiglitazone (Avandia)?
Oral antiglycemic - thiazolidinediones - makes new receptors
What is the drug of choice for obese type 2 diabetes?
rosiglitazone (Avandia)
What is the drug classification of acarbose (Precose)?
Oral antiglycemic - prevents complex carbohydrate absorption in small intestine
What should the nurse expect when given a pt. glucagon?
That the pt. will throw up.
What is the drug classification of omeprazole (Prilosec)?
Proton pump inhibitor to treat GI ulcers and GERD
What is Sucralfate (Carafate)?
Is a drug used for short term management of duodenal ulcers.
What is the drug classification of ranitidine (Zantac)?
Is a histamine 2 receptor antagonist used to treat GERD
What GI distress drug is a category X?
misoprostrol (Cytotec)
What is the drug classification of aluminum hydroxide with magnesium hydroxide (Maalox)?
Antacid agent
What is the drug classification of metoclopramide (reglan)?
Antiacid agent - appears to produce an increase sensitivity to acetylcholine
What antacid drug has the most dangerous for AE?
Sodium Bicarbonate
What is the drug classification of pancrelipase (Pancrease, Viokase)?
Digestive Enzyme
What is the drug classification of ondansetron (Zofran)?
Antiemetic
How can nausea after chemotherapy be prevented?
By adm. ondansetron (Zofran) 45 min before the start of chemotherapy
What is the drug classification of simethicone (Gas-X)?
Antiflatulents.
What is the drug classification of diphenoxylate HCL with atropine sulfate (Lomotil)?
Antidiarrheals
What is the drug classification of magnesium hydroxide (Milk of Magnesia)?
Saline laxative - adds bulk to the intestine
What is the drug classification of cascara sagrada (Cas-Evac)?
Stimulant laxative - the most dangerous!
What is the drug classification of psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid (Metamucil)?
Bulk forming laxative - adds water to stool - safest daily laxative.
What is the drug classification of docusate sodium (Colace)?
Stool Softner
What is the drug classification of polyethylene glyco-electrolyte solution (Reg-ES)?
Bowel evacuant.
What is the drug classification of methylnatreone (Relistor) and alvimopan (Entereg)?
Mu Opiod Receptor Antagonist use for OIBD
What is the drug classification of sodium polystyrene (Kayexalate)?
Cationic Exchange Resin - used to get rid of K+
What is the use of Lactulose (Cephylac)?
It is a hyperosmotic laxative used to decrease blood ammonia levels in hepatic coma or hepatic encephalopathy.