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Terms in this set (84)
Mental activity involved in understanding, processing, and communicating information.
Mental categories used to group together objects, relations, and events. Concepts are the building blocks of cognition
We tend to organize concepts in what is known as
Examples that best match the essential features of categories. Prototypes are good examples, they're guides.
A specific example
Over inclusion of instances in a category.
Successful understanding of a problem requires three features.
The parts or elements of our mental representation of the problem relate to one
another in a meaningful way, the elements of our mental representations of the problem correspond to the elements of the problem in the outer world, we have a store house of background knowledge that we can apply to the problem.
A specific procedure for solving a type of problem. Yields right answers as long as the right formula is used.
Systematic Random Search
Every possible combination is examined.
Rules of thumb that help us simplify and solve problems. But they don't guarantee a correct solution to a problem, they permit more rapid solutions.
Asses the difference between our current situation and our goals and then do what we can to reduce this discrepancy.
Partial similarity among things that are different in other ways.
Experts solve problems more efficiently and rapidly than novices do. Experts know the particular area well, good memory for the elements in the problem, they form mental images or representations that facilitate problem solving, relate the problem to similar problems, efficient methods for problem solving.`
Tendency to respond to a new problem with the same approach that helped solve similar problems.
Aha!: It seems as if pieces if information in the problem have suddenly been reorganized so that the situation leaps out at you. It's a sudden awareness.
Standing back away from the problem may allow for insight. Process within us continues to work on it.
Hinder problem solving by thinking of an object in terms of its name or its familiar function.
People make judgments about events according to the populations of events that they appear to represent. Example: The white male is aggressive so all his white friends are aggressive.
Estimates of frequency or probability are based on how easy it is to find examples of relevant events. Example: You think everyone on campus is a business major because the majority of your dorm is, but in reality it's education.
Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic
Great deal of bias in our judgments, the initial view or presumption that is an anchor. Example: If your brought up in a republican household, you go to college and meet and are exposed to democratic viewed people and ideas, but stay republican.
Wording, or the context in which information is presented, can influence decision making.
When people refuse to alter their judgments even in the face of statistical evidence that shows them to be flawed.
"We knew it all along"
Communication of thoughts and feelings by means of symbols that are arranged to rules of grammer.
Refers to the fact the sounds of a language have meaning.
Refers to the capacity to create rather than imitate sentences. Example: Their are 26 letters but 25,000 words in combination. Combination of new words, and concepts.
Capacity to communicate information about events and objects in another time and place.
Language structures the way we perceive the world. Examples: We have one word for camel; Arabs have more than 250 words for camel.
Crying, cooing, Babbling, these are inborn.
Single words that can express complex meanings.
Grammatical rules for forming the past tense and plurals. Applying the word "up" when a kid wants to go up.
Nativist Theory of Language
Hold that language development is innate or inborn (Genetic)
Nature Theory of Language
Cause children to attend to and acquire language in certain ways. (Environment)
Language acquisition involves the interacting of environmental influences such as exposure to parental speech, reinforcement and an inborn tendency to acquire language.
Language Acquisition Device
Or LAD prepares the nervous system to learn grammar.
Permits us to adapt to conditions and to challenge our physical limitations, broadly thought of as the underlying ability to understand the world and cope with its challenges.
Suggested that intelligence has an underlying factor called "g" for general intelligence. "G" is broad reasoning and problem solving skills. People are relatively superior in some areas. This would be an "s" factor for specific abilities.
Proposed that intelligence is compromised
Triacrhic Theory of Intelligence
Robert Sternberg proposed an intelligence with three types: Analytical, Creative, and Practical. Analytical intelligence is academic ability. Creative intelligence is the ability to cope with novel situations and profit from experience. Practical is "street smarts."
Ability to do things that are novel and useful. These type of people take chances, refuse to accept limitations, challenge social norms, and appreciate art and music.
Thought is limited to present facts.
Problem solver associates freely to the elements of the problem.
Mental Age, indicates the intellectual level at which the child is functioning.
Intelligence quotient, IQ reflects the relationship between a childs mental age and their actual chronological age.
Mental age/Chronological age x 100
Require Knowledge of verbal concepts
Designed to predict a persons future performance, aptitude is the capacity to learn.
A test designed to asses what a person has learned.
Refers to substantial limitations in present functioning characterized by significantly sub-average intellectual functioning existing concurrently with related limitations in two or more of the following applicable adaptive skill areas.
Bell Curve Hernstein and Murray
Believes IQ is an accurate mesaure of intelligence, intelligence is mainly due to heredity.
The whys of behavior, motives are hypothetical states that activate behavior towards goals.
Needs for achievement, power, self-esteem.
Needs necessary for survival (Oxygen, food)
Incentives; objects, or situations viewed as capable of satisfying a need or as desirable for its own sake.
Animals naturally prewired to respond to certain stimuli in certain ways.
The organism is motivated to increase stimulation not reduce a drive.
People are motivated by the conscious desire for personal growth.
Self initated striving to become whatever we believe we are capable of being.
Maslow's Hierarchy of needs
Self Actualization, Esteem needs, love/belongingness, safety needs, psychological needs.
Thematic Apperception Test
Or TAT, contains cards with pictures and drawings that are subject to various interpretations.
Feeling states with physiological, cognitive, and behavoiral components.
Deals with positive emotions such as happiness and love.
Emotions follow rather than cause behavioral response to events
Events might simultaneously trigger bodily responses and the experience of emotion.
Theory of Cognitive Appraisal
Label we give to an emotion depends on cognitive appraisal of the situation.
Lie Dector Test
Monitors sympathetic arousal, as in blood pressure, respiration rate, and electrodermal response (sweating)
Studies the nature and causes of behavior and mental processes in social situations.
Social influence can goad (bribe) people into doing things unusual with their usual behavior.
Attitudes are comprised of: Cognitive evaluations, feelings, Behavioral tendencies.
The links between attitudes (A) and behaviors (B) tend to be weak to moderate.
We can better predict specific behavior from specific attitudes than from global attitudes.
Brought easily to mind
People evaluate information and form or change attitudes, including stereotypes, on the basis of new information.
Ascribe a person's behavior to internal factors such as personality traits and free will.
Attributions attitude a persons actions to external factors such as social influence or socialization.
People are likely to ascribe their successes to internal, dispositional factors but their failures to external, situational influences.
People are taught from a young age to obey authority figures
Social norms are widely accepted expectations concerning social behavior.
The effects on performance that result from the presence of others.
Impaired performance because of the group.
Members tend to be more influenced by group cohesivness and a dynamic leader than by the realities of the situation.
In problem solving with heuristic devices, the discrepancy between our current situation and our goals is bridged.
Theories suggest that needs create a state of tension and that behavior relieves that tension and returns the organism to a calm, resting state.
Is signaled when there is a drop in blood sugar due to food deprivation.
Recommended textbook explanations
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley
Myers' Psychology for the AP Course
David G Myers
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