5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- structural equivalence
- mental imagery
- implicit encoding
- conceptual-propositional theory
- functional equivalence
- a -a mental representation that mirrors or resembles the thing it represents; mental images can occur in many and perhaps all sensory modalities
- b A. Theoretical Claims:
1. ALL information stored in Propositional codes
--sentence-like: CHASED (Dog, Cat)
--it is these propositional codes which do all the work when we answer visual-spatial questions?
2. All spatial information must be Explicitly represented, or able to be inferred from other explicitly-stated propositions:
BEHIND (Jim, Todd)
BEHIND (Annie, Jim)
3. All information stored is conceptually dependent.
-E.g., Piaget's children without knowledge of
Geocentric levels in tilted beaker experiment
4. Epiphenomenalism: though people may have a subjective experience of having generated an image, the image itself is non-causal to being able to answer an imagery-type question
- c don't know 2.
- d -the structure of Images is like that of actual perceived objects, and can be re-organized & re-interpreted.
-Images are analogous to 2-1/2 D sketches.
--Images are assembled; assembly based on description (and interpretation) of component parts
--more complex images take longer to generate
- e -spatial relations can be implicitly represented in a picture/ image (without explicit attention ever having been paid to the spatial relations).
5 Multiple choice questions
- -images can be scanned, rotated, etc. in the same way as actual pictures or spatial stimuli
E.g., "mentally" walking around one's house
1. Mental Rotation
a. Letter Rotation
--when NOT told to use imagery (Cooper & Shepard, 1973)
***pictured: normal F and rotated F***
--when told explicitly to use imagery (Cooper, 1976): start rotating figure; closer the second letter was to calculated orientation, faster the RT.
b. Block Figures Rotation in 2- and 3-dimensions (Shepard & Metzler, 1971)
***pictured: 3D block configurations***
c. Polygon rotation independent of stimulus complexity (Cooper, 1975)
- -between imaging processes & seeing
1. Higher activity in occipital lobe and posterior cortex during imagery tasks (including dreaming), based on:
a-Cerebral blood flow (Roland & Friberg, 1985; (but not during mental arithmetic or imaging a tune)
-either way you do math, you do it mentally, and occipital lobe will light up
-sometimes, when you are imaging a tune, your auditory cortex will light up. For ex: if you are listening to a song on the radio and it cuts off, you will keep singing the song, if you know it
b-PET Scans (Goldenberg et al., 1990; Kosslyn et al., 1993) - will use more glucose
*visual questions caused occipital cortex to light up, but factual/imperative questions did not
*can also use fMRI
ex: Pine trees a darker green than grass?
-you have to generate an image of both to know which is darker.
ex(p2): Is the categorical imperative an ancient grammatical form?
-this question does not make you generate an image
2. Creation of visual images activates occipital lobe (Kosslyn & Ochsner, 1994); Kosslyn, Thompson, Kim, & Alpert, 1995).
**Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) to area 17 interrupts imaging (Kosslyn et al., 1999).
3. Many Agnosia patients (like John and L.H.) report that they don't dream, and can't image; those with achromatopsia report that they don't image in color (Farah)
-parallel deficits in imaging and perception for many patients (ex. Oliver sachs who mistook his wife for a hat)
4. Many Hemispatial neglect patients also "neglect" the left side of space in their images.
- -A task in which participants are presented with a rotated figure and must discern whether the figure is normal or, say, mirror-reversed. Participants apparently must visualize the figure rotated to an upright position before responding.
-The response time is linear with how many degrees the subject has to mentally rotate the pictures (i.e., the less necessary the rotation, the quicker the response time)
- -imaging is like seeing (with a "mind's eye"); the same 'visual screen' is used
1. Perky's (1910) tomato/leaf/banana experiment
2. Farah (1985), like Perky (1910), found that Ss found it easier to perceive a low-contrast letter (an H or a T) if they had been imaging that letter.
- States that imagery is like perception, in that images retain some of the sensory qualities of perception.
-There is a more or less direct relationship between representation and referent.
-Spatial relationships are also directly captured.
-Relations represented implicitly.
-Different kind of representation for each sense.
5 True/False questions
parallel processing → -The processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 210)
Demand Characteristics → -Elements of an experimental situation that might cause a participant to perceive the situation in a certain way or become aware of the purpose of the study and thus bias the participant to behave in a certain way, and in so doing, distort results.
image scanning → (Kosslyn, Reiser, Farah, Fliegel, 1983)
-a. Takes longer to construct more detailed images, or those described as having more parts, e.g., "two overlapping rectangles" vs. "five squares in form of a cross"
-----Four columns of dots, 3 per column, vs. Three rows of dots, 4 per row
-b. The smaller the image size (or smaller the part/detail asked about), the longer the RT
--does a rabbit have ears, vs.does a rabbit have whiskers? (more obvious in our image generation that a rabbit has ears)
(also structural equivalence)
intramodal interference → (part of spatial equivalence)
-Kosslyn: image & perception share a "visual buffer"
a. Brooks (1968)
--Visual/Verbal Task x Visual/Verbal Response
RT (in sec) as a function of Task x Response Mode
*table shown with this info*
*(also implicit encoding of spatial information)*
propositions → -A term used in logic to describe the content of assertions. Assertions are non-linguistic abstractions from sentences and can be evaluated as either true or false.
-The nature of ____________ is highly controversial amongst philosophers, many of whom are skeptical about the existence of _____________.
-Many logicians prefer to avoid use of the term, in favour of using sentences