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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. spatial equivalence
  2. image generation
  3. Demand Characteristics
  4. quasi-picture view
  5. serial processing
  1. a (Kosslyn, Reiser, Farah, Fliegel, 1983)

    -a. Takes longer to construct more detailed images, or those described as having more parts, e.g., "two overlapping rectangles" vs. "five squares in form of a cross"

    -----Four columns of dots, 3 per column, vs. Three rows of dots, 4 per row

    -b. The smaller the image size (or smaller the part/detail asked about), the longer the RT

    --does a rabbit have ears, vs.does a rabbit have whiskers? (more obvious in our image generation that a rabbit has ears)

    (also structural equivalence)
  2. b -The steps in the processing of sensory information that operate sequentially, an item at a time, on the available sensory information.
  3. c -Represents like pictures (not like sentences).
    -Location, size, and distance are arranged in an image as they are in physical space.
    --spatial relations among objects in an array are preserved

    --1) Intramodal Interference
    ------Kosslyn: image & perception share a "visual buffer"
    --------a. Brooks (1968)
    ----------Visual/Verbal Task x Visual/Verbal Response
  4. d (Shepard, Kosslyn, Finke)

    -mental images are Analog/ Geometric representations of visual stimuli; and are "functional isomorphs" to Euclidean space (Shepard)

    -*visual imaging is functionally equivalent to seeing, with our "mind's eye"
  5. e -Elements of an experimental situation that might cause a participant to perceive the situation in a certain way or become aware of the purpose of the study and thus bias the participant to behave in a certain way, and in so doing, distort results.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. ??
  2. -A term used in logic to describe the content of assertions. Assertions are non-linguistic abstractions from sentences and can be evaluated as either true or false.
    -The nature of ____________ is highly controversial amongst philosophers, many of whom are skeptical about the existence of _____________.
    -Many logicians prefer to avoid use of the term, in favour of using sentences
  3. -A task in which participants are presented with a rotated figure and must discern whether the figure is normal or, say, mirror-reversed. Participants apparently must visualize the figure rotated to an upright position before responding.
    -The response time is linear with how many degrees the subject has to mentally rotate the pictures (i.e., the less necessary the rotation, the quicker the response time)
    - (Shephard)
  4. -between imaging processes & seeing

    1. Higher activity in occipital lobe and posterior cortex during imagery tasks (including dreaming), based on:

    a-Cerebral blood flow (Roland & Friberg, 1985; (but not during mental arithmetic or imaging a tune)
    -either way you do math, you do it mentally, and occipital lobe will light up
    -sometimes, when you are imaging a tune, your auditory cortex will light up. For ex: if you are listening to a song on the radio and it cuts off, you will keep singing the song, if you know it

    b-PET Scans (Goldenberg et al., 1990; Kosslyn et al., 1993) - will use more glucose
    *visual questions caused occipital cortex to light up, but factual/imperative questions did not
    *can also use fMRI

    ex: Pine trees a darker green than grass?
    -you have to generate an image of both to know which is darker.
    ex(p2): Is the categorical imperative an ancient grammatical form?
    -this question does not make you generate an image

    2. Creation of visual images activates occipital lobe (Kosslyn & Ochsner, 1994); Kosslyn, Thompson, Kim, & Alpert, 1995).

    **Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) to area 17 interrupts imaging (Kosslyn et al., 1999).

    3. Many Agnosia patients (like John and L.H.) report that they don't dream, and can't image; those with achromatopsia report that they don't image in color (Farah)
    -parallel deficits in imaging and perception for many patients (ex. Oliver sachs who mistook his wife for a hat)
    4. Many Hemispatial neglect patients also "neglect" the left side of space in their images.
  5. -spatial relations can be implicitly represented in a picture/ image (without explicit attention ever having been paid to the spatial relations).

5 True/False questions

  1. analogical representationStates that imagery is like perception, in that images retain some of the sensory qualities of perception.

    -There is a more or less direct relationship between representation and referent.
    -Spatial relationships are also directly captured.
    -Relations represented implicitly.
    -Different kind of representation for each sense.


  2. parallel processing-The processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 210)


  3. intramodal interference(part of spatial equivalence)

    -Kosslyn: image & perception share a "visual buffer"
    a. Brooks (1968)
    --Visual/Verbal Task x Visual/Verbal Response

    RT (in sec) as a function of Task x Response Mode
    *table shown with this info*
    *(also implicit encoding of spatial information)*


  4. structural equivalence-the structure of Images is like that of actual perceived objects, and can be re-organized & re-interpreted.

    -Images are analogous to 2-1/2 D sketches.
    --Images are assembled; assembly based on description (and interpretation) of component parts
    --more complex images take longer to generate


  5. transformational equivalencedon't know 2.