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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. mental rotation
  2. implicit encoding
  3. mental imagery
  4. neurological equivalence
  5. transformational equivalence
  1. a -A task in which participants are presented with a rotated figure and must discern whether the figure is normal or, say, mirror-reversed. Participants apparently must visualize the figure rotated to an upright position before responding.
    -The response time is linear with how many degrees the subject has to mentally rotate the pictures (i.e., the less necessary the rotation, the quicker the response time)
    - (Shephard)
  2. b -between imaging processes & seeing

    1. Higher activity in occipital lobe and posterior cortex during imagery tasks (including dreaming), based on:

    a-Cerebral blood flow (Roland & Friberg, 1985; (but not during mental arithmetic or imaging a tune)
    -either way you do math, you do it mentally, and occipital lobe will light up
    -sometimes, when you are imaging a tune, your auditory cortex will light up. For ex: if you are listening to a song on the radio and it cuts off, you will keep singing the song, if you know it

    b-PET Scans (Goldenberg et al., 1990; Kosslyn et al., 1993) - will use more glucose
    *visual questions caused occipital cortex to light up, but factual/imperative questions did not
    *can also use fMRI

    ex: Pine trees a darker green than grass?
    -you have to generate an image of both to know which is darker.
    ex(p2): Is the categorical imperative an ancient grammatical form?
    -this question does not make you generate an image

    2. Creation of visual images activates occipital lobe (Kosslyn & Ochsner, 1994); Kosslyn, Thompson, Kim, & Alpert, 1995).

    **Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) to area 17 interrupts imaging (Kosslyn et al., 1999).

    3. Many Agnosia patients (like John and L.H.) report that they don't dream, and can't image; those with achromatopsia report that they don't image in color (Farah)
    -parallel deficits in imaging and perception for many patients (ex. Oliver sachs who mistook his wife for a hat)
    4. Many Hemispatial neglect patients also "neglect" the left side of space in their images.
  3. c -spatial relations can be implicitly represented in a picture/ image (without explicit attention ever having been paid to the spatial relations).
  4. d -a mental representation that mirrors or resembles the thing it represents; mental images can occur in many and perhaps all sensory modalities
  5. e -images can be scanned, rotated, etc. in the same way as actual pictures or spatial stimuli
    E.g., "mentally" walking around one's house
    1. Mental Rotation
    a. Letter Rotation
    --when NOT told to use imagery (Cooper & Shepard, 1973)

    ***pictured: normal F and rotated F***

    --when told explicitly to use imagery (Cooper, 1976): start rotating figure; closer the second letter was to calculated orientation, faster the RT.
    b. Block Figures Rotation in 2- and 3-dimensions (Shepard & Metzler, 1971)

    ***pictured: 3D block configurations***

    c. Polygon rotation independent of stimulus complexity (Cooper, 1975)

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. (Shepard, Kosslyn, Finke)

    -mental images are Analog/ Geometric representations of visual stimuli; and are "functional isomorphs" to Euclidean space (Shepard)

    -*visual imaging is functionally equivalent to seeing, with our "mind's eye"
  2. -the structure of Images is like that of actual perceived objects, and can be re-organized & re-interpreted.

    -Images are analogous to 2-1/2 D sketches.
    --Images are assembled; assembly based on description (and interpretation) of component parts
    --more complex images take longer to generate
  3. **key idea: images can be scanned, in much the same way as physical percepts can be
    - imaginal scanning is functionally equivalent to peceptual scanning

    -Kosslyn's experiment: participants were shown a map of an imaginary island, participants studied until they can reproduce it accurately from memory
    -instructed that on hearing name of an object on the island, they should picture the map, mentally scan directly to the mentioned object, and finally press a key as soon as they arrived at the location of the named object
    • Results: almost perfect linear relationship between the distances separating successive pairs of objects in the mental map and the amount of time it took participants to press the button
    • -in other words, participants seem to have encoded the map in the form of an image
  4. (Kosslyn, Reiser, Farah, Fliegel, 1983)

    -a. Takes longer to construct more detailed images, or those described as having more parts, e.g., "two overlapping rectangles" vs. "five squares in form of a cross"

    Or,
    -----Four columns of dots, 3 per column, vs. Three rows of dots, 4 per row


    -b. The smaller the image size (or smaller the part/detail asked about), the longer the RT

    --does a rabbit have ears, vs.does a rabbit have whiskers? (more obvious in our image generation that a rabbit has ears)

    (also structural equivalence)
  5. -Images leave out significant details, and cannot be re-analyzed for those details the way that pictures can.
    *E.g., image of a tiger does not specify an exact number of stripes

5 True/False questions

  1. perceptual reference frame-imaging is like seeing (with a "mind's eye"); the same 'visual screen' is used
    1. Perky's (1910) tomato/leaf/banana experiment

    2. Farah (1985), like Perky (1910), found that Ss found it easier to perceive a low-contrast letter (an H or a T) if they had been imaging that letter.

          

  2. functional equivalence-Represents like pictures (not like sentences).
    -Location, size, and distance are arranged in an image as they are in physical space.
    --spatial relations among objects in an array are preserved

    --1) Intramodal Interference
    ------Kosslyn: image & perception share a "visual buffer"
    --------a. Brooks (1968)
    ----------Visual/Verbal Task x Visual/Verbal Response

          

  3. intramodal interference(part of spatial equivalence)

    -Kosslyn: image & perception share a "visual buffer"
    a. Brooks (1968)
    --Visual/Verbal Task x Visual/Verbal Response

    RT (in sec) as a function of Task x Response Mode
    *table shown with this info*
    *(also implicit encoding of spatial information)*

          

  4. serial processing-The steps in the processing of sensory information that operate sequentially, an item at a time, on the available sensory information.

          

  5. propositions-A task in which participants are presented with a rotated figure and must discern whether the figure is normal or, say, mirror-reversed. Participants apparently must visualize the figure rotated to an upright position before responding.
    -The response time is linear with how many degrees the subject has to mentally rotate the pictures (i.e., the less necessary the rotation, the quicker the response time)
    - (Shephard)

          

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