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EVR1001 TEST 2
Terms in this set (197)
________ capture solar energy and use photosynthesis to produce sugars.
Secondary succession ________.
occurs after a fire or flood
________ terrestrial biome has the most biodiversity.
Which of these is a starting point for primary succession?
a surface exposed by a retreating glacier
The first colonizing organisms during primary succession tend to be:
lichens and mosses
Which one of the following is a general characteristic of plants that are early colonizers during primary succession?
plants have wind-dispersed seeds
Microbes in our digestive tract that help us digest food demonstrate a ________ association.
Some models of climate change for North America predict that the grassland regions of the prairie states will become warmer and dryer. This would result in ________.
1. Temperate deciduous forestDescribes biome in the eastern United States, north central Europe, and eastern China; characterized by stable precipitation and seasonal temperature variation
Temperature deciduous forest
Describes the region west of the Mississippi River; characterized by limited precipitation, thick organic soils and extreme temperature variation in winter and summer
Describes the Pacific Northwest of the United States and Nagasaki, Japan; characterized by heavy rainfall and relatively stable temperatures
Describes the terrestrial biome bordering the Mediterranean Sea; characterized by wet winters and warm dry summers
Describes an equatorial zone with moderate precipitation that fluctuates seasonally; characterized by warm temperatures year round
Tropical dry forest
Describes Cairo, Egypt, and northwest Mexico; characterized by sparse rainfall and much variation in temperature
Many wild orchids cannot be successfully dug up and transplanted because they need the native mycorrhizae (a fungus) in the soil to survive. What kind of interaction is this?
Which continent contains the most desert shrub?
Tundra is often present in relatively warm regions of South America and Asia. What factor or factors are chiefly responsible for the presence of tundra in these regions?
elevation and altitude
Which climate type primarily borders arid lands (deserts)?
Which of the climates listed would contain the LEAST amount of biodiversity?
Subarctic climates contain primarily which type of vegetation?
Techniques to eradicate zebra mussels ________.
include introducing predators and diseases
Chaparral has a climate most similar to ________.
How does predation differ from parasitism?
Parasites rarely kill their host, while predators kill their prey.
What kind of relationship exists between multiple organisms who seek the same limited resource?
-two species of mussels relying on the same space of phytoplankton as a food source
-a rabbit eating the leaves of a dandelion plant
-a cheetah capturing and consuming a gazelle
-a ticking sucking a dog's blood
-algae obtaining nutrient fro symbiotic coral, and cereal obtaining sugars form algal photosynthesis
Two species of lizard live on the same tree and consume the same sorts of food. Regardless, neither species is in direct competition with the other. The key to this scenario is that one of the species is nocturnal; the other is diurnal. What is this called?
_____ are secondary consumers.
Approximately _____% of the energy at one trophic level is passed on to the next highest trophic level.
10,000 kcal of producer could support approximately _____ kcal of tertiary consumer.
In general, when one views a food chain, they can expect the biomass of herbivores (organisms that eat plants) in an ecosystem to be about _____ of the biomass of the plants and other photosynthetic organisms in the ecosystem.
What moves through the community from one trophic level to another as organisms feed on one another?
matter and energy
Why do we classify lionfish populations near the eastern United States as an invasive species? What suggests that these new populations are not an expansion of the lionfish's natural range?
Lionfish are native to the tropical Pacific. There are no natural water routes of warm water between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans.
Based upon what we are learning about the lionfish diet, what is most likely going to happen to Caribbean coral reefs invaded by lionfish?
What characteristics of lionfish contribute to their ability to spread and become established in new areas?
A single lionfish female may produce up to 2 million eggs a year. The eggs float for up to a month, spreading the lionfish populations.
How did the fish biologists determine the diet of lionfish in the regions where the lionfish have invaded?
Biologists examined the contents of the stomachs of lionfish caught in the wild.
Based upon what we are learning about invasive lionfish populations in the Caribbean and along the Atlantic coast of the United States, these lionfish populations __________.
cannot be eliminated by any means currently known
Which statement is an accurate description of a keystone species?
A keystone species that is a predator controls the herbivore populations, which in turn maintains the plant populations and keeps balance.
________ are typical primary consumers in a temperature deciduous forest.
Which of the following biomes has the most annual rainfall?
If the climate warms significantly, tundra permafrost may melt, exposing underlying rock. This may next lead to ________ in the community.
Which of the following organisms has a feeding pattern most similar to a bald eagle?
A high concentration of eagles that spend several days in a small region is most likely the result of __________.
What is occurring in the region around the Chilkat River in Alaska that allows chum salmon to spawn during the winter months?
Thermal springs heat and break up the ice.
When many bald eagles are concentrated within a small region, their feeding behavior usually involves __________.
sharing prey and taking turns feeding on the same organism
This biome often features wildfires due to extensive dry seasons.
This cold, dry biome is populated by lichens and shrubs that can survive great seasonal variations in sunlight and temperature
In this hot, dry biome, populations of zebras, gazelles, and giraffes are concentrated around widely spaced watering holes
Also called steppe or prairie, this biome has been extensively developed for agricultural use due to its nutrient-rich soils
Despite having lush vegetation and diverse biological communities, the soil in this biome has low nutrient content and cannot support long-term agriculture.
This is the driest biome, where many plants have water-conserving features such as thick leaves and needles
This biome is characterized by broad-leaved trees that lose their leaves each fall and remain dormant during winter
temperate deciduous forest
What kind of interaction occurs when two cardinals (birds of the same species) are trying to build a nest in the same tree?
How much energy is available to the third trophic level, a secondary consumer, if its prey in the second trophic level, a primary consumer, is only able to obtain 10% of the available energy of the first trophic level?
Zooplankton-eating fish are ________.
The energy content and biomass of ________ is lowest in any food web.
Imagine a large state park near your home. Which of the following are probably the most crucial and essential part of that park's ecosystem?
Imagine a square meter of leafy forest soil underneath an oak or maple tree. Which of the following is likely to exist within this patch of soil?
All of the listed responses would be expected to occur within this patch of soil.
After examining every single cell in your body, you would conclude that humans are made up mostly of __________.
Which of the following are probably the most abundant but least understood of all forms of life on Earth?
How is energy transferred from one trophic level to the next? Select all that apply.
What are the two major factors determining the distribution of terrestrial biomes?
temperature and rainfall
Which of these biomes is characterized by little rainfall?
Which of these is the largest terrestrial biome on Earth?
Which biome is characterized by an extensive canopy that allows little light to penetrate to the ground and by the presence of epiphytes?
tropical rain forest
Which biome is characterized by the presence of permafrost?
In an ecosystem, phytoplankton are _____.
An earthworm that feeds on the remains of plants and animals is acting as a _____.
When a human eats a steak, the human is acting as a _____.
A cow eating grass is an example of a _____.
A seal that just ate a clam is eaten by a shark. The shark is acting as a _____.
What are ecosystem services?
These are essential processes such as soil formation, nutrient cycles, the pollination of plants, etc.
How do economists assess (calculate) the economic health of a nation?
Gross Domestic Product
What is the term that refers to the substances and forces that sustain our society and everyday lives?
What is meant by "market failure"?
This occurs when markets do not take into account the environment's positive effects on economies (such as ecosystem services) or when they do not reflect the negative impacts of economic activity on people or the environment (external costs).
What costs are associated with transactions that can result in damage to the environment, human health, and property?
Which of the following correctly illustrate the two ways that economic growth can occur?
increased inputs to the economy and improvements in efficiency through technology
Environmental damage from industry or land development has traditionally been labeled as ________ by economists.
The economic principles in play with the fate of U.S. wetlands have been governed by ________.
traditional neoclassical cost-benefit analysis, excluding environmental damage
Which of the following is NOT an external cost that affects people who are not involved in some environmentally damaging transaction?
A distinguishing feature of ecological economics is the concept of ________.
steady-state economies that, like natural systems, neither grow nor shrink
Rising per capita consumption of goods and rising population growth lead to ________.
more resource extraction, waste and pollution
In the United States, wetlands are primarily considered to be ________.
important because they provide many valuable ecosystem services
There has been legislation designed to encourage protection of wetlands, but funding has been greatly reduced, because ________.
the ecosystem services of wetlands has been ignored
What event is credited with leading to the passage of the Clean Water Act?
the Cuyahoga River catching fire
During the second wave of U.S. environmental policy, in 1872, Congress designated Yellowstone as the world's first __________.
The environmental justice movement started because __________.
people realized that environmental damage is not equally distributed among all classes and racial groups; minority and low-income communities tend to contain a much larger share of the environmental damage (such as landfills, incinerators, toxic waste sites, etc.)
Environmental policy aims to ________.
promote fairness among people and groups in the use of resources
Regarding the issue of global warming, until the hurricane season of 2005, the federal government's official stance was that the information available from the scientific community was neither conclusive nor persuasive. This governmental position was probably due to ________.
the private sector's reluctance to change manufacturing and land use strategies
A company that produces household cleaners decides to produce a "green" version of its products, even though the formulas are virtually unchanged compared to the original formulas. This is an example of __________.
An environmental impact statement is required ________.
for any federal action that may affect U.S. environmental quality
The social changes in the United States in the 20th century gave rise to environmental laws concerned primarily with ________.
reducing pollution caused by industry
Wetlands in the United States ________.
have decreased due to human development
Part of the reason for the lack of good flood control in the United States is that ________.
government spending priorities have shifted, and flood control funds have been cut
What is sustainable development?
promoting a viable economy while maintaining a viable environment and meeting social needs
Lobbying, legal action, and campaign funding are all means used by ________ to influence governmental environmental policies.
the public sector
The distinction of scientific study's input into governmental solution of environmental problems is that it ________.
is independent of any other influences in its effect on forming government policy
Most of the environmental progress made over the past few decades has come about through __________ methods.
The first national park in the world was ________.
Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring, published in the 1960s, ________.
warned of insect pollinator losses through pesticide use
Which kind of development would be promoted if a government worked on finding a balance between economic security, environmental protection, and social equity?
Which term is used to describe the conversion of natural resources into goods and services in addition to the ongoing trade of such goods and services?
Which of the following groups advocates economies that neither grow nor shrink but remain stable?
In which of the following ways did neoclassical economics contribute to environmental problems?
by encouraging society to view the supply of resources as infinite
What type of economic discipline maintains that society, like natural populations, cannot surpass environmental limitations?
Which of the following is a type of ecosystem service in the United States?
All of the listed choices are examples of ecosystem services in the United States.
In Costa Rica, cutting down forests will almost immediately increase the cost of producing __________.
In Central and South America, people are more likely to protect the natural environment because they are learning that __________.
the natural environment provides most of their basic needs
Today, the reasons conservationists have given for protecting natural environments are shifting from arguments based upon __________ to arguments based upon __________.
Which of the following best explain the "free rider" predicament?
This allows one party to "get away" with an environmental impact while other parties continue to use best environmental practices.
According to the figure, the basis for government policy regarding environmental issues ________.
comes from the sciences, with additional input from the public and private sectors
Which of the following is the main concern of neoclassical economics?
How does the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) differ from the GPI (Genuine Progress Indicator)?
The GPI takes into account externalities (both good and bad) and other nonmarket values, while the GDP does not.
To control pollution, industry has been given limits and been threatened with punishment if these limits are violated. This approach is called ________.
command and control
The human population is approximately ________.
Which of the following best describes the human population from early times to the present?
Slow, uneven growth until the 1800s, then increasingly rapid growth
If a population roughly doubles in the course of 50 years, its growth rate would be close to ________%.
The world population growth rate is currently close to ________%.
The most accurate terms describing the trend over the past 50 years for human use of natural resources are ________.
increasing and unsustainable
Malthus was responsible for ________.
the idea that without social restrictions increasing human population would lead to famine and war
Which of the following statements about growth rate and population size is true?
If the growth rate remains steady, population size will continue to increase by greater increments with each generation.
When birth rates decline, what happens to a given population?
The average age of the population grows older.
Which of the following are the three principal effects of a human population that determine its impact on the environment (the IPAT model)?
population, affluence, technology
Which part of the IPAT model represents the influence of wealth and its environmental impact?
A for affluence
Which large country is currently experiencing zero or even negative population growth?
Ignoring migration, the age structure of a human population likely to increase in size will have what shape?
Ignoring migration, the age structure of a human population likely to decrease in size will have what shape?
Ignoring migration, the age structure diagram of a human population likely to maintain a relatively stable size will have what shape?
a rectangle tapering toward the top
In a country where there are increasingly more households, ________.
consumption should increase
According to the IPAT model, technology that enhances our acquisition of minerals, fossil fuels, timber, and ocean fish ________.
increases environmental impact
The view held by both Malthus and Paul Ehrlich suggests that depletion of resource supplies due to greater numbers of people ________.
A) is not a problem because new resources can always be found to replace depleted ones
Despite dire predictions in the past, humans still inhabit Earth. A few economists would argue that this is because ________.
technological developments have alleviated some of the strain on Earth's resources
Which of these statements about the growth of the human population is true?
The rate at which the population has been growing has slowed in the past 50 years, but the human population is still getting larger.
If a country has a growth rate of 2%, how long will it take to double its population?
Why do we study demography?
Demography investigates the relationship between population ecology and population changes.
What is the maximum population size that a given environment can sustain?
Of the following, which provide the most complete picture of whether a population of humans grows, shrinks, or remains stable?
rates of birth, death, immigration, and emigration
What occurs during the final stage, the post-industrial stage, of the demographic transition model?
Both the birth rate and the death rate continue along at very low levels.
When an agrarian economy transitions to an industrial economy, what effect does it have on the population?
Population growth rate slows.
How do women cause a reduction in the TFR?
through empowerment, personal choice and education
Which of the following statements about Earth's carrying capacity for humans is true?
Human beings are not unlike other animals concerning carrying capacity, but we utilize technology to artificially raise the carrying capacity increasingly higher.
Which of the following was a factor in helping to reduce total fertility rate of developed countries in the recent past?
better medical care
. As a group, these nations have the lowest rates of population growth today.
The nations in this group have populations with many more people in the pre-reproductive age class than in the post-reproductive class
. These nations will experience the vast majority of population growth in the coming decades
A high proportion of the nations in this group have total fertility rates below replacement level fertility
Some nations in this group are in the transitional stage of the demographic transition model
In general, women in these nations have higher access to education, employment, and contraception.
These nations account for only about 20% of the global human population.
Which climate contains the highest population density?
Why does Africa have the highest total fertility rate but a lower population density than parts of southern and eastern Asia?
people in Africa are spread out over a greater area
Which of the following climates contains the LOWEST population density?
Which region has the highest percentage of its population under age 15?
Which of the following is not one of the world's top five most populous nations?
What does a high percentage of population under age 15 tell us about a region's potential for population growth?
The region's population will likely increase.
Replacement fertility ________.
is equal to 2.1 in stable populations
Increasing levels of literacy among women is shown to ________.
Declining death rates due to increased food production and improved medical care while birth rates remain high is characteristic of the ________ stage.
Which of the following countries has the highest population growth rate?
The richest one-fifth of the world's population possesses approximately ________ times the income of the poorest one-fifth, and the richest one-fifth uses over 86% of the world's resources.
In the demographic transition model, the highest population growth rate in a country is likely to occur during ________.
stage 2, the transitional stage
A population which is not growing will have a TFR of ________.
Because of the success of China's population control programs, ________.
China's population growth rate is much lower than it was in the 1970s
What causes a decline in fertility rates?
(NOT an increase in family planning and birth control
a decrease in family planning and birth control)
Which term describes the amount of cumulative land and water required to provide the raw materials a person or population consumes and to dispose of the waste that is produced?
Why are diseases such as AIDS, which reduce population density, undermining the ability of developing countries to make the transition to more modern, industrialized societies?
They are causing "demographic fatigue," which leaves these countries without a professional class.
Normal Borlaug, who passed away in 2009, pioneered the development of ________.
Diabetes and cardiovascular disease can be caused by chronic
______occurs in people who consume adequate calories but lack essential nutrients, such as vitamins and minerals.
The condition __________ occurs in people whose diets include ample calories but very low levels of essential amino acids and proteins.
People who regularly lack access to sufficient food calories suffer from
Inadequate caloric intake coupled with protein deficiency leads to the condition
What type of agriculture is found in most of this region?
Oasis and irrigated agriculture are found most often __________.
near large cities
Which climate supports little or no agriculture?
tropical and subtropical desert
The Nile River supports significant amounts of __________.
oasis ad irrigated agriculture
The midlatitude steppe climate supports mostly which type of agriculture?
The breakdown of large rocks into smaller pieces is ________.
affected by rainfall, freezing and thawing
the layer form the base geologic material in a particular location; it s sometimes called bedrock
the layer consists or organic matter, humus, and inorganic miners. It facilities plant rooting
the layer consists of plant residue atop the soil surface. on a forest floor, it may be leaves and twigs. In a field, it may be crop residue left after harvest
the layer losses mineral and organic matter to the layer beneath it
eluviated (leaching layer)
this layer accumulates minerals and organic matter leached from upper soil layers
Farming practices that minimize disturbance to soil are collectively called
________ is the practice of planting different crops in strategic arrangements within the same field.
Alternating the crops grown on a field from one season to the next is called______
________are rows of trees or other tall plants grown at the edges of farm fields in order to slow down winds.
Tilling sideways across a hillside to slow water running down the slope is called__________
__________creates level platforms for crops on steep hillsides in order to hold rainwater and reduce soil erosion.
-relies on human and animal power
-controls pests with natural pesticides and planting of multiple crops
-many crops grown together on small plots of land
-controls pests w synthetic pesticides
-relies on fossil fuel-fuel powered machinery
-single crops grown on large plots of land
-heavy use of synthetic fertilizer
Terracing, contour farming, intercropping, and crop rotation all ________.
are techniques for conserving soil resources and fertility
Since 1960, pesticide use has increased ________ worldwide.
Why do soybeans, corn, cotton, and canola dominate the GM crop market?
They are ingredients in processed foods, so they are more easily accepted.
If GM crops can decrease pesticide use, why are environmentalists still concerned about them?
Inserted genes can spread to non-target species.
Monoculture, the practice of planting large areas with a single crop ________.
is a development of industrial agriculture
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