APUSH Test 3 important parts

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John Quincy Adams
-National Republican (formed after election of 1824 split the Democratic-Republican Party)
President; really bad; wanted to make lofty reforms that wouldn't appeal to the American people. Highly educated but without good people skills. The definition of an eastern aristocrat.
new democratic age
-Universal white male suffrage (becomes widespread just before and after the election of 1828)
-no entrenched upper class
-capitalism
-budding industrialism
-"Age of the Common Man"
-political parties (before, everyone was some kind of Republican; Jackson represents a break from politics dominated by the upper class)
-trying to get rid of traditional/eastern monopolies
mass politics
- politics aimed at large groups of people instead of just the upper class; the state legislature used to choose presidential electors,
-change in the method of choosing presidential electors—less elitist; instead of politics of deference
-TP should choose the president, not the caucus members
-popular participation
-belief that political parties are a good thing
-states had given the vote to most white males
-Jackson gets support from the People (wins in 1828)
Election of 1824
Jackson v. Clay v. John Quincy Adams for president; questions of how to expand the nation's economy
"corrupt bargain"
(1824)
in the election of 1824, Clay throws his support behind Adams to help Adams win because he was opposed to Jackson; Jackson's supporters call this a corrupt bargain

-everybody is some kind of Republican
-principles and policies of the Federalists still exist
-Jackson represents a different democratic future
-Clay believed in Neofederalism (Second Bank of the U.S., money for internal improvements, ); Jackson openly didn't support Neofederalism
-Clay throws his support behind Adams
Tariff of Abominations
1828 tariff designed to protect the economy of the northern United States.
Martin Van Buren
Jackson's secretary of state; built the organizational structure of Jacksonian democracy.
Election of 1828
Jackson v. Clay/Adams; popular participation in politics rises as "The People" want to choose the president instead of the caucaus members. Jackson wins by getting the support of the masses by using his image as the president of the Common Man.

-most states had given the vote to all white males
-Jackson's supporters want to get the support of the People
-the People should choose the U.S. president
not the caucaus members
Second Party System
Democratic Party v. Whig Party; the second system of politics, arising during the 1828 election when popular participation in elections expanded
"spoils system"
fired a bunch of high-level bureaucrats
opponents felt that he was choosing people based on who would do anything to support him
turning the U.S. government into his own political machine
John C. Calhoun
Jackson's Vice President and a leading Southern politician during the first half of the 19th century; was an advocate of slavery, states' rights, limited government, and nullification
Nullification Controversy
South Carolina attempts to secede from the Union on the grounds that their states' rights are being oppressed. SC claims the right to nullify federal laws within their state. Jackson threatens them into retaining the Union.

-How to protect slavery in the face of indifferent/hostile North? (tax on clothes for slaves)
-assertion of states' rights : threat to federal system
-Who is sovereign? (Federal/states/the People)
-SC nullifies the tax (1832)
-presidential proclamation: do you want to break apart the Union? ; the Union is perpetual; it is not a union of states, it is a union of people ; I have sworn to enforce the laws
-Clay devises a compromise to lower the tariff
Removal Act
Jackson decided to forcibly remove the Five Civilized Tribes from their lands so that western expansion could continue.
Trails of Tears
the Five Tribes' path to westward lands that the United States government forced them to move to; marked by disease, death, etc.
Bank War
Conflict between Jackson and the Second United States Bank. Jackson thought that the bank was too powerful and it wasn't responsible to the United States citizens. He destroyed the bank and by doing so caused an economic depression.

-American economy is being run by people by unelected bankers; could control peoples' lives and political system
-corporations
-opponents passed a bill to renew the Bank's charter; Jackson vetoed it (1832)
Nicholas Biddle
the president of the Second United States Bank who fought Jackson in the Bank War. He attempted to foil Jackson's plan to destroy the bank by causing economic distress so that popular opinion would force Jackson to stop. It didn't work.
"pet banks"
Jackson moved the government funds that had been in the Second Bank of the United States into these smaller banks during the Bank War.
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
one of the companies had a charter to build bridges in an area, while the other was a new company that wanted to build there. The Court that the new company could build. Part of the Jacksonian ideal of "out with the old, in with the new".
Whig Party
the Second Party system party that opposed the Democrats (Jackson's party); consisted mainly of Washington elite who did not like the changes that Jackson was making in government
-supported the American System (protective tariffs for American industry, Second Bank of the United States, internal improvements)
Anti-Masonic Party
An extension of the Whig Party, which feared the power of the political group of Free Masons (of which Jackson was a member); championed internal improvements and the protective tariff.
American System
Henry Clay; supported American internal economy and improvements; included protective tariff (Tariff of Abominations)
-Whig Party
-Second Bank of the United States
Independent Treasury
President Van Buren's plan to keep government funds in its own vaults and do business entirely in hard money. Banks at the time were unstable.
Jackson's opposition
-creation of a new political party (Democrats v. Whigs)
-firing a bunch of high-level bureaucrats who had been around forever (getting rid of entrenched upper class)→ generates fear in aristocracy
-fear of Jackson as an "imperial" president, unchecked by other bodies of government, because of his support from the masses (eastern aristocracy can't check his power)
Market Revolution
-America gains connection to a larger, global economy
-sectional differences
-trade between halves of the North, more so than the South
-agriculture in the North is mostly in the Northwest
-little change in the South, except now connected to larger markets for crops like cotton
-transportation innovation-->sectional interdependence
Transportation Revolution
Innovations included:
-turnpikes
-steamboats
-canals
-railroads
factory system
use of machinery, originally powered by steam and later by electricity, to replace the putting out system. Developed in England.
Erie Canal
a canal in New York used to transport goods by mule power
corporation
a larger form of company with many more investors; developed in the North
cotton gin
a machine that could separate the seeds from cotton in a fairly easy process; made it economically viable for cotton production in the South to work
-supported the rise of King Cotton in the South
first Industrial Revolution
-American system was a reaction to how bad the British system was; they wanted to create better conditions for the workers and make it not a horrible place to be
-Technological innovations from Britain came overseas and were modified
-Surplus of workers in Northeast after farming moved to Northwest, so they went to work in factories (Market Revolution)
-merchants encouraged by protective tariffs not to trade overseas, so they become capitalist factory owners instead
-American system
-power supply: water wheel
-consistent with republicanism: does not impede human rights, allows women to be respectable workers
Lowell system
young farm girls come to work in exchange for pay; respectable work; come to socialize, to save for a dowry; make up an impermanent working class
Lowell Offering
paternalistic system inside Lowell; offers to fathers of the young girls a place to send their daughters where they can make money but also be well taken care of; from the company's perspective, this will ensure better work
Commonwealth v. Hunt
Supreme Court Case about labor unions that ruled that they were legal in the U.S.
Immigrants in the 19th century
-German and Irish immigrants
-settled in eastern and northern cities
-came because of economic hardship in their own countries
-they got the worst jobs and were treated inhumanely (b/c little education and no money)
Know Nothing party
political party formed that opposed immigration
social structure of Northern society
-very wealthy upper class and poorer lower class
-distribution of wealth= lost independence (lure of wages- dependence on the factory, giving up economic secutiry; cyclical depressions)
-urbanization
-immigration
-growing middle class
Politics
-era of the Common Man and mass politics
-contentious parties (Democrats v. Whigs)
-Know-Nothing Party
Culture and world view
-Gospel of Mobility
-Capitalism
-Romanticism
-Puritanism (work hard, advance the community)
-Perfectionism
Nativism
opposition to immigration and an attempt to deteriorate their legal or political status within society
Gospel of Mobility
ideal of economic mobility within the new society; not actually made real for most
American Romanticism
a belief in pursuit of cultivation of the individual self and emotions, and that imagination and subjectivity can lead to a higher existence than monotonous labor. (ideals: individualism, subjectivity, spontaneity, intuition, imagination, nature, self-cultivation)
Slave codes
slaves couldn't own property, learn to read or write
free blacks
-blacks who had been emancipated from slavery and now generally lived in poverty in the lower class of society
-A threat to white Southerners because they suggested an alternative to slavery
task and gang labor system
the labor system used on plantations; teams of slaves lead by a slave driver would work until he felt that they were finished
Nat Turner's Rebellion
a slave rebellion led by a preacher named Nat Turner, which threatened white Southerners who feared black insurrection
manumission
the gradual emancipation of slaves
Southern economy
-Expansion of plantations: King Cotton's rise in the West
-Slavery was very profitable for individual slave owners
-Restricuted urban development/ transportation development: not a lot of innovation in the South
-decrease in slavery
Southern social structure
-planter elite: Southern gentlemen and ladies, plantation owners; owned a large plantation and a large number of slaves
-whites with a fewer number of slaves
- tiny middle class
-yeoman farmers
-poor whites (lower class whites identify with the upper class more because of race distinctions and connections through politics)
-free blacks
- Blacks
King Cotton
cotton and cotton-growing considered, in the pre-Civil War South, as a vital commodity, the major factor not only in the economy but also in politics.
Perfectionism
Due to the new liberal movements and religious fervor, many Americans believed that perfection was attainable. Therefore, a series of movements took place to perfect society, such as prison reform, temperance, etc.
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
Joseph Smith
Founded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel. 1843, his announcement that God sanctioned polygamy split the Mormons and let to an uprising against Mormons in 1844; translated the Book of Mormon and died a martyr.
Brigham Young
A Mormon leader that led his oppressed followers to Utah in 1846. Under his management, his Mormon community became a prosperous frontier theocracy and a cooperative commonwealth. He became the territorial governor in 1850. Unable to control the hierarchy of Young, Washington sent a federal army in 1857 against the harassing Mormons.
Mormons
Church founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah, religious group that emphasized moderation, saving, hard work, and risk-taking; moved from IL to UT
Methodism
A religion founded by John Wesley. Insisted strict self-discipline and a methodical approach to religious study and observance. Emphasized an intense personal salvation and a life of thrift, abstinence, and hard work.
Transcendentalism
-philosophy
-1830's and 1840's
-each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need for organized churches.
-mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the invisible is truly real.
-Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions.
Brook Farm
A transcendentalist Utopian experiment, put into practice by transcendentalist former Unitarian minister George Ripley
Oneida
A group of socio-religious perfectionists who lived in New York. Practiced polygamy, communal property, and communal raising of children. By John Humphrey Noyes, called a "free love" community.
Temperance Society
Organization whose mission was to ban all alcoholic beverages
Horace Mann
United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education
Dorothea Dix
A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill.
Seneca Falls
(1848) the first national women's rights convention at which the Declaration of Sentiments was written
American Colonization Society
A society that thought slavery was bad. They would buy land in Africa and get free blacks to move there. One of these such colonies was made into what now is Liberia. Most sponsors just wanted to get blacks out of their country.
William Lloyd Garrison
A prominent American abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer. The editor of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator.
Anti-Slavery Society
1st national antislavery organization to be devoted to immediate abolition and racial equality