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Arts and Humanities
Terms in this set (86)
In an oligarchy, power is in the hands of a small, wealthy elite. Not necessarily hereditary.
government in which the people (landholding males) hold ruling power like they were aloud to voice their views in all government decisions. They voted for representatives.
led by hereditary landholding elite; government headed by a privileged minority or upperclass (few); its hereditary
a government in which a hereditary ruler exercises central power; one dominant ruler that makes all decisions.
Sparta and Athens
The spartans are militaristic, they had 2 kings and council of elders, War or being a solider ruled and took over their life, the women ran the households because the men were gone in training, they had to have strong men. In athens education was important, democracy, the representation would be important for the people, they came up with the olympics, physically fit and educated. Athens is also larger than Sparta b/c Sparta kills the girls b/c they cant be soliders or week baby
persia vs. athens in the begging but eventually persia vs. greek city states. Athens protected the ionians, so the persians were pissed. Athens defeats the persians at the battle of marathon. Athens going to the other greek city states and said we will need help. The persians fight Sparta and loose and then head to athens but the athenians had left. Athens have a very strong navy and they just sail their boats into the persians and watched the persians sink. The greek city states won. From there they formed the Delian League.
The fight amoung the Greek city states (Athens vs. Sparta) it lasted 27 years. Sparta wins b/c they over power them and all athens power was in their navy but this was was fought on land not in the water. So the Spartans use falinx to win
an alliance between all the Greek city states;
plato did not trust the democracy b/c of socrates. He believed in an ideal (perfect) society. The government would have to be involved for a perfect society.
He made people question things that they wouldn't usually question. He would encourage people to think "why". He is corrupting individuals, so he was sentenced to death. He believed in the idea of democracy.
(golden age) it was at its all time high because of the direct democracy; He is re-building Athens and the economy is thriving as well as culture and education. The arts, economics, art etc. Everybody is happy and great in this time. He instituted a fixed salary for government workers.
studied under plato. His views on democracy are the same as plato. He believed 1 strong individual should rule, but he is mostly known for the golden mean (the happy medium) and he made the lyceum (this was his school)
Alexander the Great
(he wanted to conquer the world) He conquered a lot of things including Persian and Egypt; his spread of culture
there is an increase in knowledge; advances in math and medicine. The blending of greek, persian, egyptian and indian culture. It originated in the MIddle East, and spread and begun by Alexander the Great. Its still noteworthy today b/c we use a lot of the advances in math, etc.
a ruler who gains power by force. They impower the general population of Greece and give them some rights, and they give it through force.
All observant Muslims must perform these five individual duties; They are based off Muhammad's examples: 1. Declarations of Faith, 2. Daily Prayer, 3. Alms for the poor, 4. Fast during ramadan, and 5. Hajj.
he was born in the oasis town of Mecca around A.D 570. He become known for his honesty in business and was a devoted husband and father. He married Khadija, wealthy widow who ran a caravan business. In his youth, he worked as a shepherd. Then later he led caravans across the desert and became a successful merchant. When he was 40 years old he heard the voice of angel Gabriel calling him to be the messenger of God. He devoted his life to spreading Islam. He urged Arabs to give up their worship of pagan gods and submit to the one true God. He was not accepted by the Mecca he was at median. He changes the Kaaba.
Is the most sacred temple of Islam, located at Mecca; he temple that he believed Abraham had built to worship the one true God. Most important land mark in Muslim faith.
live in Iran, Lebanon, Iraq and Yemen.A member of the two major Muslim sects; believe that the descendants of Muhammad's daughter and son in law Ali are the true Muslim leaders. Believe that Muhammad's descendants should be the rulers. Basically genetics, decedents of Muhammad. Had divine spirit.
-a member of one of the largest Muslim sects:Sunnis believe that inspiration are from the example of Muhammad as recored by his early followers. Any faithful religious, Muslim man could be leader.
member of the Sunni dynast of caliphs that ruled a Muslim empire from 661 to 750;
dynasty that ruled in Bagdad. Tried to create an empire based on the quality of all Muslims. Rulers halted large military conquests ending the dominance of the Arab military class. Empire of the Caliphs reached its greatest wealth and power. During this empire it reaches it peck the move the capitol to Bagdad(city of peace, gift of God, paradise on earth).
the holy book of Islam; It states that people are responsible for their own actions. It teaches that God is all-powerful and compassionate.
The Romans established their state with a form of government called a res publica or that belongs to the people. Thought it would prevent and individual from gaining too much power.
member of the lower class, including farmers, merchants, artisans and traders.
member of the landholding upper class. In the early republic the senate made laws and controlled the government. It was made up of 300 patricians.
inscription of the Roman laws that were set up in the forum.
ambitious military commander. Set out with his army to take new conquests. After 9 years of fighting he completed the conquest of Gaul( the area that is now France and Belgium. Crushed Pompey and his supporters. Caesar pushed through a number of reforms intended to deal with Rome's many problems. Launched public works to employ jobless and gave public land to the poor. Reorganized the government of provinces and granted Roman citizenship to more people. Intro to new calendar based on the Egyptians. Was killed.
also known as Octavian was Caesars grandnephew. Was given the title Augustus or Exalted one and declared him princeps or first citizen.Brought republic to an end. He left the senate in place and created an efficient well trained civil sevice to enforce it laws. To make the tax system more fair he ordered a census(population count recored all who should pay taxes), set up a postal service and issued new coins to make trade easier. He put jobless to work building roads and temples and sent others to farm land. Lasted for 200 years.
rebuilt the Greek city of Byzantium and then renamed it after himself Constantinople during this time the Roman Empire was also know the Byzantine empire.
separated the empire into 2 parts keeping the western half for himself and ruling them and appointing another ruler to rule the eastern half, set out to restore order and get the empire out of economic decay, by doing so he fixed prices on foods and goods and forced sons to follow the occupation of their father and farmers were forced to stay on land
conquered parts of the Roman empire included the Goths, Vandals, Saxons and Franks. Mostly farmers and herders no laws.Carved Western Europe into small kingdoms.
200 year span that began with Augustus and ended with Marcus Aurelius. Means Roman Peace. This time brought peace, order, unity and prosperity to lands stretching from the Euphrates river in the east to Britain in the west. Roman legions maintained and protected roads and chased pirates from their seas.
worshiped God and followed the Jewish laws.
had a vision of Jesus speaking to him. Joined the Christians and spread Jesus's teachings to gentiles or no jews.
was based on the exchanged of land and serfs for loyalty and military to end of the feudal system
lords estate that included one or more villages and the surrounding lands
lord who was granted land in exchange for service and loyalty to a greater lord
code of conducts for knights
emperor of the romans, when crowned it deepened the split between western and eastern christian worlds, he brought in the missi dominici, encouraged education and tried to convert saxons and slavs to christianity
excommunication from an entire town, region or kingdom
association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to uphold standards of their trade and to protect their economic interests
Henry VIII and Henry IV conflict
Henry IV was crowned roman emperor and king of Germany, making it difficult for the pope to do things
claim of medieval popes that they had authority over all secular rulers
became pope, butted heads with many rulers, excommunicated anyone who got in his way or did something bad, extended papal supremacy, launched a brutal war and ended up killing thousands, changed the way church officials were chosen
Thomas Becket and Henry II
archbishop of Canterbury, opposed henry II on power to try clergy and was murdered by henry's knights
series of wars in which european christians battled muslims for the holy land
epidemic of the plague that swept through Europe
legal system based on court and custom rulings
harter approved by King John of England, limited royal power and established certain rights of english freemen, nobles had certain rights and monarch had to obey the law
had 3 encounters with 3 different enemies and lost with each, he was excommunicated by pope innocent and then to protect his crown he agreed to sign the magna carter
legislature of England and Great Britain
100 years war
series of conflict between England and France, England lost most of their territory in France
scholar who used scholasticism to reconcile faith and reason
Renaissance and ideal Renaissance man
Gutenberg/importance of printing press
invented the printing press, was able to print the first copy of the bible because of him more books were being made and more people were wanting education to be able to read and write books
an intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance that focused on education and the classics
English poet and playwright; He was expressing universal themes in everyday, realistic settings. His work explores renaissance ideals such as the complexity of the individual and the importance of the classics.
English humanist; called for social reform in the shape of a utopian society-people lived in peace and harmony
Wanted Bible translated into everyday language, serious critic of the catholic church but remained loyal
wrote a guide for rulers on how to gain and maintain power. He did NOT discuss leadership in terms of high ideals, His book the prince looked at the real rulers in the age of ruthless power politics
Leonardo da Vinci
he had an endless curiosity that fed a genius for invention. He made sketches of nature and of models in his study. Leonardo's paintings grip people with their realism. His many notebooks survive as a testament to his genius and creativity.
argued that there is no way you can earn your way into heaven by following the laws of the catholic church; wrote 95 Thesus-arguments against indulgences(lessening of time a soul would have to spend in purgatory); believed all Christians have access to God through faith and the Bible
Reformer who challenged catholic church, shared many of Luther's beliefs
Council of Trent
30 years, created new order: Jesuits
Marriage problem-Pope refused to annul marriage, confiscated monasteries
Roman Catholic order of men: task was advising kings and queens of Europe on how they could counterattack protestants; preached, taught
Peace of Augsburg
signed in 1555, if prince was catholic, everyone will be catholic
The new church of England was called
used Brahe's data to calculate the orbits of the planets revolving around this sun. His calculations supported Copernicus's heliocentric view. It showed that each planet did not move in a perfect circle, but in a oval-shaped orbit called ellipse
Heliocentric and Geocentric Theories
Heliocentric- sun is the center of the universe
Geocentric- earth was the center of the universe and everything else floated around it
Francis bacon and Rene Descartes
they were two giants of this revolution (englishman) They devoted themselves to understanding how the truth is determined. They both rejected aristotles scientific assumptions. Bacon wanted science to make life better for people by leading to practical technologies
observed that four moons of Jupiter move slowly around that planet. His discoveries caused and uproar. His observations contradicted ancient views about the world so the church condemned him because his ideas challenged the Christian teachings that heavens were fixed in position to earth and perfect. For the rest of his life he was kept under house arrest
Step-by-step process of discovery that evolved. It required scientists to collect and accurately measure data.
Why did divisions arise within Islam after the death of Muhammad? What were some of the factors that contributed to the unity of the empire as it grew, expanded, and overcame these divisions?
The Sunnis and Shiites had differences on who should succeed Muhammed;They had a science, math, literature
Why is the age of pericles considered a Golden Age in the history of Greece? Be sure to explain the characteristics of the golden age and give some examples
Athens is powerful, it had a huge, navy and empire. Building of temples on parthanon, the philosophers are active, theater was going on at this time
What was the Hellenistic Culture? where and how did it originate and spread? Why is it still noteworthy today?
It is a Blending of greek civilization and asian culture; It originated with alexander the great it spreads when he takes over the middle east; ?
What factors contributed to the wide diffusion of early christianity? what were some reasons people were drawn to this religion and how was it spread during the Pax Romana?
The roman empire was at peace and people could get from one place to another easily.Rome had a really good road system; It means roman peace, Women and slaves, people who didn't have much and people who were attracted to everlasting life.
What were some factors that caused the decline of the Roman Empire? Give an example of a political, military, social, and economical factor explaining how each other contributed to Rome's fall
barbarians, diocletian split empire in half; plagues, many people died of disease-western empire population shrank; economy had to pay the army, people who lived in towns were highly taxed; many people left city to go to the country; emperors got in war with each other (political factor)
How did feudalism during the Middle Ages make an Insecure life more secure?
breakdown of civil authority, governments were powerless; insecurities: viking invasion, pirates, muslim expansion, forest took over; people went where they could be protected (warlords)
Identify at least three ways in which medieval Europe was affected by improved agricultural practices. Why did improved farming techniques have these effects?
There were windmills, it grinds grain, the invention of a plow, device that opens up soil to put seed in it, and the three field system, you can grow 3 crops instead of 2 .
What major forces (plural) brought about an end to the Age of Chivalry? Explain how these forces diminished this era- be specific
A code of behavior for knights. Warfare evolved from a lord and his knights to a king who was paying mercenaries, the hundred years war, knights were not fighting for honor
What were major effects of Gutenberg's printing press? Describe how this one invention was responsible for tremendous social change- be specific
Education spread, people became more literal, more people could read the bible, more people learned how to read. People could get better jobs
What were Martin Luthers chief objections to the Roman Catholic Church? What did he propose to do about these? How did a new religion develop as a result, and what political repercussions did this have upon the Germanic areas of that time?
The corruption of the priests and the bishops, They wanted church people to live like christ, he gets rid of the sacraments, he gets rid of priests and bishops, it led to 150 years of wars in Europe between protestant and catholics.
Discuss some of the political and economical effects the Crusades had upon European society? Specifically, how did Popes and Kings both use these wars to gain power? describe at least two specific positive economic changes the Crusades brought to society as a whole.
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