Upgrade to remove ads
Unit 3 U.S. History Test: World War I
Terms in this set (68)
belief that the United States was destined to expand across the North American Continent.
Why did "new" Manifest Destiny start?
• New Manifest Destiny was promoted primarily by industrial interests.
• The goal of New Manifest Destiny was to gain new raw materials, new markets for surplus goods, and access to coaling stations and bases for navy and merchant ships.
the policy by which strong nations extend their political, military, and economic control over weaker countries.
When and why did the United States join in?
o Other countries were doing it, so they wanted to be a part of it too.
o Manifest Destiny- belief that the United States was destined to expand across the North American Continent.
o Monroe Doctrine- a declaration by President Monroe that the United States would oppose efforts by any outside power to control a nation in the Western Hemisphere. An American foreign policy opposing interference in the western hemisphere from outside powers.
• It kept Europeans out of the U.S.'s hemisphere.
What were the MAIN causes of World War I?
Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, and Nationalism
the glorification of the military.
o It caused an arms race to begin.
o Countries raced to increase the size of their army and their weapons.
o All countries wanted to be the best and have the have the largest, most powerful military.
o The glorification of the military made countries more willing to declare war because they wanted to prove to other countries that they were the most powerful and could beat all others.
unions of countries formed for mutual benefit.
o Some alliances formed in order to prepare for war.
o One alliance called the Triple Alliance formed, which consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
o Another alliance called the Triple Entente formed, which consisted of Great Britain, France, and Russia.
o These alliances made nations overconfident and reckless because they knew that if they did declare war, their allies would aid them and fight along with them.
the political, military, and economic domination of strong nations over weaker territories.
o This led to World War I because it caused competition for overseas colonies, especially between Germany and Great Britain.
o At this time, most European nations controlled colonies in Africa, Asia, and more. Control of these colonies was beneficial to the controller's economy, which is why countries continued to compete for colonies.
o The competition for colonies continued to intensify, and led to war.
the devotion to one's nation.
o Each country began to develop the belief that it is the greatest, and is better than all other countries.
o This extreme love for one's country caused people to become over confident, and believe that their country would be victorious over any other country if war were to occur.
o The intense devotion to their nation made people more willing to declare war.
Describe the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand. How did it lead to the eruption of WWI in Europe?
• The specific event that occurred that truly began the Great War was the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary.
• On June 28, 1914, the Archduke and his wife Sophie left to visit Sarajevo, the capital city of the Austro-Hungarian province of Bosnia.
• A group of Bosnians that were ethnic Serbs lived in Sarajevo, and believed that Bosnia belonged to Serbia, not to Austria-Hungary.
France, Russia, and Great Britain.
Germany and Austria-Hungary.
What were the three opinions that Americans held regarding getting involved with the war?
Isolationists, interventionists, internationalists
believed that the war was none of America's business and that the national should isolate itself from the hostilities.
felt that the war did affect American interests and that the United States should intervene in the conflict on the side of the Allies.
believed that the United States should play an active role in world affairs and work toward achieving a just peace but not enter the war. "middle ground"
What were the events that caused the U.S. to declare war on April 6, 1917?
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare (German U-Boats), Sinking of the Lusitania, Sussex Pledge, and the Zimmerman Note
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare (German U-Boats)
submarine warfare occurred after Britain blockaded Germany.
o Britain blockaded Germany by not allowing any goods to reach Germany.
o Germany responded to this by beginning to sink any Allied ships that were traveling to Britain, which was known as submarine warfare.
o This submarine warfare angered Americans, and led to the sinking of the Lusitania.
Sinking of the Lusitania
The Lusitania was a British passenger liner that the Germans sunk, which further angered the Americans.
o The Americans were mad because this was a passenger ship, and Americans thought passenger ships should not be sunk.
o 1,200 people died on this ship, and 128 of them were Americans.
o The Americans felt that an unarmed ship should not be sunk without being warned and provided with safety for its passengers.
o This almost caused the U.S. to go to war against Germany, but they stayed out of war because Germany promised not to sink any more passenger ships.
Sussex Pledge (why was it written and what happened afterward?)
Germany broke this promise by sinking the unarmed passenger ship Sussex.
o Americans were furious, but then Germany once again promised not to sink any unarmed ships by the Sussex Pledge, which the Germans eventually broke.
o This pledge was written for the Americans because they were so mad that the Germans kept sinking the ships, so the Germans promised to stop.
a telegram written by German Foreign Minister Arthur Zimmerman that was sent to Mexico.
o This note was sent due to the fact that Germany was suffering sever supply shortages due to the blockade, and they needed a solution.
o It proposed an alliance with Mexico, stating that if the United States declared war on Germany, Mexico should declare war on the United States.
What were the reasons Woodrow Wilson asked Congress to declare war?
• Woodrow Wilson asked Congress to declare war on Germany due to the unrestricted submarine warfare, the sinking of the Lusitania, the Sussex pledge, and the Zimmerman note.
• The Germans continued to threaten America and cause problems, and Wilson was not going to take it anymore.
• The Germans had pledged to stop sinking the ships, but kept breaking their promises.
What were some of the weapons used during World War I?
Gas warfare, tanks, and artillery guns
The Germans invented gas warfare, but the French and English used it too. There were three main types of gas warfare.
o One was called the Tearing Agent, which caused temporary blindness and inflamed the throat.
o Another was called Poisonous Gas, which was highly toxic and had very deadly effects.
o Lastly, the third was called the Blistering Agent, which was the most dangerous of all of the chemical weapons in the world.
o This gas acts on any exposed, moist skin, and produces large, burn-like blisters.
first manufactured during World War I in order to break the stalemate of Trench Warfare.
o They are armored cars that could move over barbed wire, withstand small arms, and destroy the opponent's nests of machine guns.
o The British were the first to use this new piece of technology, and had some success and a psychological effect on German soldiers.
o However, tanks were not critical during World War I.
large-caliber guns used in warfare on land, and were one of the most deadly land weapons.
o They were the new, upgraded version of cannons, and had a huge impact on the war.
o They were responsible for over 60% of the casualties on the Western Front
Selective Service Act
act passed by Congress authorizing a draft of young men for military service.
What was life like in the trenches?
• Many parasites lived in the trenches, and the worst were the rats.
• Rats stuffed themselves with human remains and the soldiers' food, and grew to massive sizes that were as big as domestic cats.
• The huge rats were a terrible problem because they produced as much as 900 offspring a year, so the trenches were soon crawling with millions of them.
What was the Battle for Argonne?
the biggest operation and victory of the American Expeditionary Force in World War I.
Why was the Battle for Argonne so important?
• The battle caused the final breakdown of German resistance and helped bring about the German request for an armistice, which was granted on November 11, 1918.• The battle caused the final breakdown of German resistance and helped bring about the German request for an armistice, which was granted on November 11, 1918.
War Industries Board
managed raw materials and told manufacturers what and how much to produce.
Committee on Public Information
educated the public about the causes and nature of the war and encouraged Americans to support it.
National War Labor Board
settled all labor disputes and set standards for wages, hours, and conditions.
made it illegal to interfere with the draft.
o Allowed postal authorities to ban treasonable or seditious newspapers, magazines, or printed materials from the mail. It also enacted severe penalties for anyone engaged in disloyal or treasonable activities.
made it illegal to say anything bad about the American government, Constitution, or armed forces.
Why were the Espionage and Sedition Acts needed?
• The Espionage and Sedition Acts were needed in order to prevent Americans from opposing the war and working against the goal of winning the war.
• Many Americans did not support the war and wanted it to end, but the Espionage and Sedition Acts made it illegal to oppose of interfere with the war (so people did not get in the way)
Why could the Espionage and Sedition Acts be seen as controversial?
• They could be seen as controversial because many citizens would think it was unfair to limit freedom of speech and not allow them to say what they feel about the war.
• The people that didn't like the war wanted to end it, but these acts didn't allow them to, which is why they might think the acts are unfair and want to get rid of them.
Describe opposition to the draft. What were the consequences of this resistance?
• Opposition: some people believed that the draft was an illegal intrusion of the federal government into their private lives.
• Consequences: they were treated badly by their local draft boards and humiliated in training camps.
How did the U.S. government pay for the war?
• The U.S. government paid for the war by encouraging American citizens to buy war bonds that were called "Liberty Bonds."
• The money made from the purchase of the Liberty Bonds was given to the war effort and therefore helped pay for the war.
• Also, because of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was forced to pay for the costs of the war, which helped the U.S.
What actions did the Food Administration (established by the Food and Fuel Control Act) take during the war? Why?
• The Food Administration set high prices for wheat and other food products to encourage farmers to increase production.
• Asked Americans to conserve food as a patriotic gesture.
• If Americans ate less, more food could be shipped to American and Allied soldiers fighting in the war.
• Herbert Hoover instituted wheatless Mondays and Wednesdays, meatless Tuesdays, and porkless Thursdays and Saturdays.
• Did this is order to conserve food so more could be sent to the soldiers fighting in the war.
Describe how the U.S. government and the public enforced loyalty.
• The U.S. government and the public enforced loyalty by the creation of the Committee on Public Information- educated the public about the causes and nature of the war and encouraged Americans to support it.
• They began to fear foreigners and required immigrants to take a literacy test.
• They began to erase German culture:
o German was not offered in schools.
o German Sheppards= police dogs.
o German measles= Liberty measles.
How did WWI change people's lives?
• WWI changed people's lives because 400,000 women were used for labor during the war.
o 11,000 served as nurses, 14,000 served abroad as civilians working for the government of private agencies.
• Factory owners recruited African and Mexican Americans, which led to the Great Migration.
o 500,000 African Americans moved North for factory work.
What were the four aims of U.S. propaganda?
1. Encourage people to buy liberty bonds in order to finance the war.
2. Encourage people to conserve food so more can be given to the army.
3. Recruit soldiers to join the army.
4. Recruit women to work at jobs that would help the war effort.
o World War I propaganda tried to convince American citizens to join the war effort.
What was Wilson's plan for World Peace? Be able to describe a few important points from his "Fourteen Points."What was Wilson's plan for World Peace? Be able to describe a few important points from his "Fourteen Points."
• President Woodrow Wilson's plan for World Peace was his Fourteen Points.
• He hoped that these points would form the basis of peace negotiations.
• The goal of the Fourteen Points was to ensure lasting world peace
o "Peace without victory"
• They worked to change the world by promoting openness, encouraging independence, and supporting freedom. Wilson called for open diplomacy, insisted on freedom of the seas, free trade, a move toward ending colonialism, and reduction of armaments.
• Self-determination- the right of people to choose their own form of government.
1. Make no secret diplomatic relations. A
2. Allow freedom of the seas in peace and war. M, I, N
3. Remove as many economic trade barriers between countries as possible. A, I, N
4. Reduce stockpiles of military armaments to lowest point needed for domestic safety. M
5. Adjust colonial claims giving more weight to the views of the colonized peoples. I, N
6. Evacuate and restore Russian territories seized during war. I, N
What organization was created by Wilson? Why did the U.S. refuse to join?
• The League of Nations was created by Wilson, which was a world organization established after World War I to promote peaceful cooperation between countries.
• The U.S. refused to join the League of Nations because the U.S. had a policy of being isolationist, and wanted to stay away from all world affairs and interactions with other countries and just care for their own country.
• Also, The League of Nations was part of the Treaty of Versailles, which the U.S. did not like.
Describe the Treaty of Versailles
• Treaty of Versailles- the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I, which demanded reparations from the Germans.
• The Treaty of Versailles was a treaty signed by the Allies and Germany that officially ended World War I.
• It was a very long document that was made up of 440 articles and divided into 15 parts.
What was the U.S.'s reaction to the Treaty of Versailles?
The U.S. thought this treaty was too harsh and too hard on Germany, so they refused to sign it.
Which country was blamed for WWI? What conditions were forced on them by the Treaty of Versailles?
• Germany was blamed for World War I.
• Germany was forced to make reparations, or payments for war damages.
• They wanted to weaken Germany so it would never threaten Europe again.
• France demanded the return of Alsace-Lorraine and several key German colonies.
• Germany lost territory to France, Belgium, Italy, and Poland.
o Rhineland- part of German territory lost to France, Belgium, and Luxembourg.
o Demilitarization of the entire area to provide a buffer.
a wave of widespread fear of suspected communists and radicals thought to be plotting revolution within the United States.
General A. Mitchell Palmer
the leading law-enforcement official who mounted a broad offensive against radicals in the United States.
a series of raids initiated by Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer against suspected radicals and communists.
Nicola Sacco and Bartolommeo Vanzetti- what were they accused of and what was the verdict?
• Nicola Sacco and Bartolommeo Vanzetti- Italian immigrants and known anarchists who were charged with shooting and killing two men during a holdup at a shoe factory in a town near Boston.
• They were found guilty in the trial and arrested and charged with the crime, even though there was little hard evidence against them.
• Some said that the convictions were based more on their ethnicity and political beliefs than on the facts of the crime.
• The men were put to death in the electric chair.
Describe the influenza epidemic, what were the causes and consequences?
• In 1918, a terrible influenza outbreak erupted in the United States.
o The influenza was originally a bird flu that mutated to spread to humans.
o The virus originated in the U.S. and then traveled around the world.
o The flu spread all over the world and killed millions of people.
What type of foreign policy did the United States try to return to after the war? Why?
• After World War I, The United States' foreign policy was very isolationist. They wanted to keep themselves out of other problems around the globe, and just tend to themselves. They wanted to stay away from any foreign relations, and just focus on taking care of themselves.
The outbreak affected the war because it killed 550,000 Americans, 50,000 of them being soldiers.
o This large decrease of soldiers negatively affected the war because the army was then not nearly as big.
o This meant that there were fewer soldiers available to fight in the war, which made the United States army much weaker, and less likely to have success.
• The first part of the treaty established the League of Nations.
• Other parts included the terms of military limitations, prisoners of war, finances, access to ports and waterways, and reparations.
• The treaty was mainly meant to punish Germany and make them take full responsibility for the damages of the war.
• The Germans did not like the treaty or want to sign it, but they realized they had to because they had no military power left to resist.
7. Restore and protect Belgium's sovereignty. I, N
8. Restore French territory and settle the debate over Alsace-Lorraine. I, N
9. Adjust Italy's boundaries according to the nationalities of populations living there. I,N
10. Allow the peoples of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire to choose their own governments. I, N
11. Redraw boundaries of Balkan states based on nationalities and historical allegiances. I, N
12. Separate the Ottoman Empire into independent countries according to nationality and guarantee all nations access to the Dardanelles. I, N
13. Restore and protect Poland as a sovereign state with access to the sea. I, N
14. Establish an association of nations to provide collective security and to ensure peace. M, A, I, N
o Push and Pull Factors:
o Push Factors:
• Jim Crow segregation laws
• Lynchings and other racial violence
• Low-paying jobs as sharecroppers or servants
• Ruined cotton crops due to boll weevil infestation
o Pull Factors:
• Economic prosperity in northern cities
• Job openings due to reduced immigration
• Aid from African Americans in the North.
o If the Germans won, Mexico would get back the states of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona, which they had lost after their defeat in the Mexican-American War.
o The telegram was intercepted by the British, and then given to the American authorities.
o The Americans were frustrated with this note because Germany continued to cause trouble with them and threaten their country.
o America no longer wanted peace after the publication of this note, and asked Congress for a declaration of war against Germany.
o Congress declared war on April 6, 1917.
• Began to repress Civil Liberties: (creation of these acts)
o Espionage Act- made it illegal to interfere with the draft.
o Sedition Act- made it illegal to say anything bad about the American government, Constitution, or armed forces.
• All of these actions taken by the U.S. government and public enforced loyalty because they required Americans to do whatever they say and stay true to their country.
• They did not allow Americans to oppose the war, which made the citizens very loyal to their country.
Due to this belief, this group of Serbs saw Francis Ferdinand as a tyrant. When the archduke's driver made a wrong turn, one of the Serbs named Gavrilo Princip shot the archduke and his wife with a pistol, and they both died.
• This led to the eruption of WWI in Europe because it gave Austria an excuse to attack Serbia. This made Russia mobilize to defend Serbia. This prompted the Germans to declare that because of Russia's actions, they must attack France through Belgium.
• A soldier's life in the trenches of World War I was not glamorous at all.
• The trenches were very unsanitary.
• The men could not bathe in the trenches, they had limited access to running water, and usually did not have time to worry about hygiene.
• The toilets in the trenches were mostly just large buckets in a side trench, and dysentery was a common disease.
• The land was covered with dead bodies, and gunfire was heard all around all the time.
• Many men were driven mad during this Great War due to the continuous gunfire and the fear of being attacked and shot when they least expect it.
• The weather conditions in the trenches were also terrible.
• Most trenches were muddy, cold, and very depressing.
• Many soldiers died or lost fingers and toes to frostbite during the winter.
• Also, trenches were often filled to the soldiers' waists by rain.
• This caused a terrible infection called "Trench Foot" in which soldiers' feet suffered from tissue death, and often needed to be amputated.
o They were raising more crops than they could consume and making more than they could use, so they needed to find more markets for their produce, new occupation for the capital, and new work for labor.
• New Manifest Destiny focused on expansion outside North America.
• New Manifest Destiny started because the U.S. was were raising more crops than they could consume and making more than they could use, so they needed to find more markets for their produce, new occupation for the capital, and new work for labor.
o However, after this pledge was written, the Germans broke it and sunk more unarmed passenger ships.
o The violation of the Sussex Pledge caused America to lean towards war a little more, but the Zimmerman Note was what really caused the U.S. to enter the war.
• Also, when the Germans sent the Zimmerman Note, America was frustrated with this because they just continued to violate their country and cause problems.
• America wanted to stay out of war, but the Germans kept threatening them and causing problems, so they decided war was the only solution.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
U.S. History Chapter 21
Vocabulary Unit 21
U.S. History Final Study Guide Chapter 25 (1973-19…
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
United States History Module 3 DBA
Chapter 19 Vocab
Chapter 19 Vocab
world war 1
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Los problemas alimentarios
La tecnología y las redes sociales
The Bill of Rights
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Final Theatre History
Management of Patients with Dysrhythmias…
False Section of Personal Finance
Anatomy of Phonation & Deglutition