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Medical Ethics - Intro to PA
Terms in this set (43)
What is a PA?
Nationally certified & state-licensed medical professional
A PA can practice & prescribe medication in ALL 50 states as well as _______?
A PA can practice & prescribe medication in ALL 50 states as well as the District of Columbia & all U.S. territories.
A PA can NOT practice & prescribe medication where?
NOT in Puerto Rico & the uniformed services
Who was the founder of the 1st PA program and which University was it at?
Dr. Eugene Stead --> Duke University
"Need 2 types of allied health personnel needed. One highly skilled and limited to specific area, the other more advanced with a broad background."
What year did the 1st PA program at Duke University start & what year did this 1st ever PA class graduate?
Started in 1965.
Graduated in 1967.
Name the 3 people in the first PA graduating class of 1967
What year was the AAPA formed?
What year was the National Board of Medical Examiners & The American Medical Association formed?
What year was the NCCPA established?
There are currently how many established PA Programs?
What % of them award a Master's degree vs Bachelor's degree?
-80% offer Master's
-20% offer Bachelor's
PA programs typically range from ___-___ months in duration?
How many months are typically dedicated to didactic vs clinical and toward prepping for the boards?
21-36 months (UB is a 28m program)
15m of didactic training
12m of clinical training
1m of board prep
There are approximately how many PA-C's in the USA?
In order to maintain your PA certification, one must:
-complete ___ # of hours every ___ years AND
-pass the PANRE every ___ years
-100hrs of CME every 2 years
-Pass the PANRE every 10 years
PA Annual Salary:
How much does a PA in the 90th percentile get paid as salary?
Which organization is in charge of CERTIFICATIONS? (Becoming certified, Licensing boards, Maintaining certification, Earning specialty certificates, etc)
National Commission of Certification of PAs (NCCPA)
Name 5 purposes of the National Commission of Certification of PAs (NCCPA) website/organization.
-Governing body of PA's in practice
-Policies (ex: code of conduct)
Name 6 purposes of the American Academy of Physician Assistants (AAPA) website/organization.
-Provides state practice profile
-CME learning central (to prep for PANCE/PANRE)
-PA practice guidelines (hospital/team)
"the national organization that advocates for all PAs and provides tools to improve PA practice and patient care"
What is the name of the AAPA State Chapter?
This organization is the "governing body of PAs in practice"
Which organization is the "National organization for PA programs"
PA Education Association (PAEA)
Name 4 purposes of the PA Education Association (PAEA) website/organization.
-National organization for PA programs
-PA faculty work shops
-Health education & policy
-Enforces PA competencies by PA education standards for PA programs
Which organization is the "Accrediting agency" for PA programs?
Accreditation of PA Programs (ARC-PA)
Name 4 purposes of the Accreditation of PA Programs (ARC-PA) website/organization.
-Protects the interest of the public as well as current & prospective students
-Defines standards for PA education
-Evaluates PA programs for compliance of standards
"Principles based on PERSONAL judgement of 'right' or 'wrong'" is called ____?
4 classes of Morals:
"Action is NOT obvious/seriously harmful, but is considered immoral" falls under the definition of what term?
-can prohibit a practice by law
"SHARED principles promoting fairness in social & business interactions" is called ___?
Ethics are practical
5 classes/topics of Bioethics = ?
1) Moral philosophy
2) Cognitive psychology
3) Communication skills
4) Clinical medicine
5) Health law
***What are the 4 common basic prima facie moral commitments ("4 principles plus scope")
1) Respect for Autonomy
PLUS the Scope of application
-This is a common, basic, culturally neutral moral framework to approaching ethical issues in healthcare
This is used as a method to collect, sort & order facts + opinions raised by an ethical case = ____? + name the 4 "boxes"
The Four Topics:
1) Medical Indications (MI)
2) Pt Preferences (PP)
4) Contextual Features
Define 1) Medical Indications + which TWO prima facie moral commitments fall under this box?
Diagnostic & therapeutic interventions (used to evaluate & Tx medical problem)
-Beneficence & Non-Maleficence
When compiling the 1) Medical Indications, you should include these 3 things = ?
1. Pertinent aspects of the Dx (ex: acute or chronic?)
2. Goals of proposed Tx + likelihood of success
3. Contingency plans in case Tx if NOT successful
Define 2) Patient Preferences + which ONE prima facie moral commitments fall under this box
Choices of the pt [about Tx OR decisions of those who are authorized to speak for pt when he/she is unable to]
-Respect for Autonomy
Define 3) Quality of Life + which THREE prima facie moral commitments fall under this box
Degree of satisfaction, pleasure & well-being OR the degree of distress & malfunction [experienced in life prior to and following Tx]
-Beneficence, Non-Maleficence and Respect for Autonomy
Define 4) Contextual Features + which ONE prima facie moral commitments fall under this box
Social, institutional, financial & legal settings that influence medical decisions
-Justice and Fairness
Clinical ethical reasoning starts with ____?
"Statement of ethical problem follows a clear & complete collection of facts about the case"
*What is the meaning of the theoretical double line in terms of the "4 Topics Method"
The theoretical double line separates the 2 upper boxes from the 2 lower boxes, where:
The 2 UPPER boxes (Medical Indications and Patient's Preferences) have MORE overall weight in medical decision making than the 2 lower boxes (QOL and Contextual Features)
3 STRENGTHS of the "4 Topics Method"
1) Simple (each box links abstract principles to specific/concrete details)
2) Organizes thoughts in regards to different aspects of a case
3) Provides a starting point to discuss conflicting areas (or even simple cases) to pts & their families
2 WEAKNESSES of the "4 Topics Method"
2) Hard to determine where to start in case to move forward in decision-making process
What is the "practical" approach to Ethical Reasoning?
(how does one tackle an ethical issue?)
Identification --> Management of the issue
Name 3 ways that the Medical Ethics Committee supports health care institutions
3) Develops & revises ethical and hospital policies
Who makes up the Medical Ethics Committee? (8)
-PA, APRN, RN
-Quality improvement manager
-At least 1 person w/ advanced training in ethics (philosophy, law, theology, anthropology, medicine)
**Who can request Medical Ethics?
ANYONE!! (including family members)
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