American History - I Unit 4 - The New Nation - 1783-1800
Terms in this set (42)
the system of beliefs and laws by which a country, state, or organization is governed; The American Constitution outlines the role of the different branches of government as well as state powers and how to make amendments to the Constitution.
Alliance between 5 separate tribes across New York state that during the 1600s-1700s provided inspiration for the confederation of the original 13 states and the Articles of Confederation
Articles of Confederation
1781, document that outlined the roles of the federal and state governments
alliance or union of political bodies
Land Ordinance of 1785
plan for mapping and selling the land between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
procedure for dividing western lands into territories which would later become states
1787, a revolt led by former Revolutionary War captain Daniel Shays to prevent judges in Massachusetts from foreclosing on the farms of farmers who could not pay taxes the state had levied
1787, 55 delegates from all states (except RI) met in Philadelphia to address the problems with the Articles of Confederation and create the US Constitution, presided over by George Washington
This plan of government called for equal representation and was supported by the smaller states
This proposed plan called for representation based on population as well as a bicameral legislature. The larger states supported this plan.
developed by Roger Sherman, proposed a 2-house legislature; Senate - 2 representatives per state chosen by state legislature; House of Representatives - # of representatives based on population elected by citizen voters
1787, called for three-fifths of a state's population to be counted in the total state population; settled the debate on how large slave populations in southern states would contribute to the representation of those states in Congress
a system in which the federal and state governments share power
group of electors (who represent citizens) that choose the President and Vice President reflects a fear of giving too much power to the masses
a change to the Constitution; amend = to change
Supporters of the Constitution; favored a strong federal government
Opponents to the Constitution; favored a smaller federal government due to fear of an over-powerful central government
The Federalist Papers
1787-1788, a series of 85 essays defending the Constitution, written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay
Bill of Rights
set of 10 amendments to the Constitution that protect the individual rights of citizens, ratified in 1791; satisfied the Anti-federalists enough to ratify the Constitution
powers given to the federal government
powers given to state governments
Judiciary Act of 1789
A law passed by the first Congress to establish the federal court system; established the # of justices (6), appeals courts, and district courts; emphasized that federal laws are supreme
A group of advisers to the president.
Hamilton's Economic Plan
Hamilton's plan to raise money to pay off national debts. 1. sell treasury bonds to wealthy investors 2. levy excise taxes on popular goods 3. impose tariffs on imports to encourage US industry 4. establish a national bank
Bank of the United States
AKA National Bank; Proposed by Hamilton; funded by wealthy investors and the federal government; would stabilize the economy and provide for a centralized banking system
A tax on imported goods
A tax on the manufacture, distribution, or sale of a product.
strict interpretation of Constitution
belief that the Constitution forbids anything that is not explicitly allowed
loose interpretation of Constitution
belief that the Constitution allows for anything, unless explicitly forbidden
what the Anti-federalists turned into; supported by Thomas Jefferson; wanted a weaker central government, rule by the people, and an economy based in agriculture; mostly in the south and west; favored a strict interpretation of the Constitution; opposed the national bank
a political system dominated by 2 political parties
1794 protest against the government's tax on whiskey by small frontier farmers.
began in 1789; Rebellion in which the French people overthrew their monarchy and made the country a republic; The French rebels believed the US would aid in the overthrow of the monarchy because they helped the US win their independence a few years earlier
Pickney's Treaty of 1795
Spain granted the Americans free navigation of the Mississippi River and the large disputed territory north of Florida.
Battle of Fallen Timbers
1794 battle in which US troops defeated the Miami Confederacy of Native Americans; Natives lose all hope of keeping land in the Ohio area
An act or instance that is used as an example in dealing with future similar instances
Jay's Treaty of 1795
agreement negotiated by John Jay with England; stated that British troops would be removed from US soil but British fur traders were allowed to stay; angered Democratic-Republicans
A 1798 incident in which French officials demanded a bribe from U.S. diplomats which insulted the US; led to anti-French/European sentiments in the US; started an unofficial naval war with France
Alien and Sedition Acts
1798 acts passed by Congress under Adams during the undeclared war with France that limited the freedoms of speech and press and restricted the liberty of non-US citizens and immigrants; led to growing discontent with Federalist party
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
Idea that a state government could nullify or ignore a federal law that they feel unfairly hurts their state or is unconstitutional