A direct or indirect reference to something which is presumably commonly known, such as an event, book, myth, place, or work of art. Allusions can be historical, literary, religious, topical, or mythical. There are many more possibilities, and a work may simultaneously use multiple layers of allusio udicrous and amusing event or series of events designed to provide enjoyment and produce smiles or laughter usually written in a light, familiar, bantering, or satirical style. Comedy is the opposite of tragedy. Dramatic comedy begins in difficulty and rapidly involves its characters in amusing situations and ends happily, but not all comedies are humorous and lighthearted. It differs from burlesque and farce in that comedy has a more closely knit plot, more sensible and intelligent dialogue, and more plausible characterization. Often comedy assures its desired effect by stressing some oddity or incongruity of character, speech, or action—perhaps by caricature or exaggeration. There are many different kinds of comedy with the most usual being:
1. the comedy of humors in which characters' actions are controlled by some whim or humor,
2. the comedy of manners which involves the conventions or manners of artificial and sophisticated society, and
3. the comedy of intrigue or situation which depends more on plot than characterization.
There are also topical, romantic, satirical, and verbal wit comedies.
he sensory details or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion, or represent abstractions. On a physical level, imagery uses terms related to the five senses: visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory, and olfactory. On a broader and deeper level, however, one image can represent more than one thing. For example, a rose may present visual imagery while also representing the color in a woman's cheeks and/or symbolizing some degree of perfection. Second person almost never is employed- I would say never, but I read a modern short story a year ago or so that used the second person pronoun "you." Think about it- how can a narrator know "you" and therefore address you?
Authors often use one of the following: first person, where the narrator is telling his or her own story and you will see the pronoun "I" or "we".
Third person limited, where the narration is limited to one character's perspective, but the narrator is outside the story. You will see the pronoun "he" or "she".
Third person omniscient is the most unrealistic point of view, since the narrator is outside the story and can potentially see into the minds, motivations, and thoughts of many characters in the story.
It's becoming more common for authors to mix the point of view, with one chapter being from first person and another from third person limited. Paul Zindel wrote The Pigman, where each chapter alternated from a boy and girl's point of view.
Faulkner in The Sound and the Fury tells the same story in four sections from four different points of view.
1. Interior Monologue -- 1st person, train of thought or stream of consciousness
2. Dramatic Monologue -- 1st person, narrator speaking to someone else; reader "overhears"
3. Letter Narration -- 1st person, narrator writing a letter
4. Diary Narration -- 1st person, narrator writing diary entries
5. Subjective Narration-- 1st person, narrator seems unreliable, tries to get us to share their side, or assume values or views we don't share.
6. Detached Autobiography -- 1st person, narrator is reliable, guides reader. Narrator is main character, often reflecting on a past "self."
7. Memoir or Observer Narration -- 1st person, narrator is observer rather than main participant; narrator can be confident, eye-witness or "chorus" (provides offstage or background information); Narrator can be reliable or unreliable.
8. Anonymous or Omniscient Narration, Single Character Point of View -- 3rd person narrator is generally reliable; narrator is omniscient and ubiquitous in terms of knowing all about ONE character in the story; story presented from one character's vantage point.
9. Anonymous or Omniscient Narration, Dual Character Point of View -- 3rd person, generally reliable narrator presents inner life of two characters; knows all there is to know about these two characters.
10. Anonymous or Omniscient Narration, Multiple Character Point of View -- 3rd person narrator presents inner life, thoughts, actions of several characters
11. Anonymous or Omniscient Narration, No Character Point of View -- 3rd person narrator, generally reliable, stays OUT of minds of characters; presents story in eyewitness or "chorus" account; narrator is not a confident, does not present characters' thoughts
a specified position or method of consideration and appraisal. It may also be an attitude, judgment, or opinion. In literature, physical point of view has to do with the position in time and space from which a writer approaches, views, and describes his or her material. Mental point of view involves an author's feeling and attitude toward his or her subject. Personal point of view concerns the relation through which a writer narrates or discusses a subject, whether first, second, or third person. If personal point of view is used and the writer assumes the point of view of a character, the author is writing in the first person. If the author takes the point of view of an observing character, the author is writing in the second person. If an impersonal point of view is taken, the author detaches himself completely and is an omniscient author, or third person. Sometimes authors employ several points of view in the same work. In general, a literary work in which the central character meets an unhappy or disastrous end. Unlike comedy, which often portrays a central character of weak nature, tragedy often involves the problems of a central character of dignified or heroic stature. Through a related series of events, this main character, the tragic hero or heroine, is brought to a final downfall. The causes of the character's downfall vary. In traditional dramas, the cause is often an error in judgement or a combination of inexplicable outside forces that overwhelm the character. In modern dramas, the causes range from moral or psychological weaknesses to the evils of society. The tragic hero or heroine, though defeated, usually gains a measure of wisdom and/or self-awareness. There may be more than one central character in a tragedy. An understatement is a literary device in which a writer or speaker attributes less importance or conveys less passion than the subject would seem to demand. Understatement is often used for comic effect. For example, Mark Twain states, "A soiled baby, with a neglected nose, cannot be conscientiously regarded as a thing of beauty." Understatement is also used to downplay the effect of facts, as when a totaled car is described as "having a few dents." A related term, litotes, conveys understatement through a negative construction. For example, rather than saying, "It was a hot summer," a writer using litotes might say, "Heat was not rare this summer."