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243 terms

Lesson 7 Word List

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abdominal ultrasound
the use of very high-frequency sound waves to provide visualization of the internal organs of the abdomen
abdominocentesis (paracentesis)
insertion of a needle or trocar into the peritoneal cavity to remove excess fluid, with the person in a sitting position
achalasia
decreased mobility of the lower two-thirds of the esophagus along with constriction of the lower esophageal sphincter
acute bronchitis
a type of bronchitis usually caused by viral infection that usually resolves without treatment
anal fistula
an abnormal passageway in the skin surface near the anus usually connecting with the rectum
anorexia
lack or loss of appetite
anoxemia
abnormally low oxygen content in arterial blood
anoxia
the near absence of oxygen
anthracosis
accumulation of carbon deposits in the lungs due to breathing smoke or coal dust; black lung disease; also called worker's pneumonconiosis
aphagia
a condition characterized by the loss of the ability to swallow as a result of organic or psychologic causes
aphthous stomatitis
small inflammatory noninfectious ulcerated lesions occurring on the lips, tongue, and inside the cheeks of the mouth, also called canker sores
apnea
temporary cessation of breathing
appendectomy
the surgical removal of an inflamed appendix
appendicitis
the inflammation of the vermiform appendix
asbestosis
a lung disease resulting from inhalation of asbestos particles
ascites
an abnormal intraperitoneal (within the peritoneal cavity) accumulation of fluid containing large amounts of protein and electrolytes
asthma
paroxysmal dyspnea accompanied by wheezing caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of their mucous membrane
atelectasis
Failure of full expansion of the lung at birth or a collapse thereafter of the lung
barium enema (BE)
infusion of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, into the rectum and held in the lower intestinal tract while x-rays are obtained of the lower GI tract
barium swallow (Upper GI - UGI)
oral administration of a radiopaque contrast medium, barium sulfate, which flows into the esophagus as the person swallows
borborygmus
an audible abdominal sound produced by hyperactive intestinal peristalsis
bradypnea
abnormally slow breathing
bronchiectasis
chronic dilation of a bronchus or bronchi, with secondary infection that usually involves the lower portion of the lung
bronchitis
inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bronchial tubes often preceded by the common cold
bronchogenic carcinoma
a malignant lung tumor that originates in the bronchi; lung cancer
Bronchoscopy
examination of the interior of the bronchi using a lighted, flexible tube known as a bronchoscope (or endoscope)
byssinosis
a lung disease resulting from inhalation of cotton, flax, and hemp; also known as brown lung disease
celiac disease
nutrient malabsorption due to damaged small bowel mucosa
Chest X-Ray
the use of high energy electromagnetic waves passing through the body onto a photographic film, to produce a picture of the internal structures of the body for diagnosis and therapy
cholecystectomy
the surgical removal of the gull bladder
cholecystitis
inflammation of the gallbladder
choledocholithiasis
the presence of gallstones in the common bile duct
cholelithiasis
Abnormal presence of gallstones in the gallbladder
chronic bronchitis
a type of bronchitis usually associated with cigarette smoking or pollution
COPD
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
COLD
chronic obstructive lung disease
cirrhosis
a disease of the liver that is chronic and degenerative causing injury to the hepatocytes
colonoscopy
the direct visualization of the lining of the large intestine using a fiberoptic colonoscope
colorectal cancer
the presence of a malignant neoplasm in the large intestine
colorectal polyps
a fleshy growth occurring on the lining of the colon or rectum
colostomy
the surgical creation of a new opening on the abdominal wall through which the feces will be expelled (an abdominal-wall anus) by bringing in incised colon out to the abdominal surface
constipation
difficulty in passing stools, or an incomplete or infrequent passage of hard stools
coryza
inflammation of the respiratory mucous membranes, known as the common cold, which is an upper respiratory tract infection
cough
a forceful and sometimes violent expiratory effort preceded by a preliminary inspiration. The glottis is partially closed, the accessory muscles of expiration are brought into action, and the air is noisily expelled
Crohn's disease
digestive tract inflammation of a chronic nature causing fever, cramping, diarrhea, weight loss, and anorexia
croup
a childhood disease characterized by a barking cough, suffocative and difficult breathing, stridor, and laryngeal spasm
defecation
the act of expelling feces from the rectum through the anus
deglutition
swallowing
dental caries
tooth decay caused by acid-forming micro-organisms
diarrhea
the frequent passage of loose, watery stools
dietitian
an allied health professional trained to plan nutrition programs for sick as well as healthy people
diphtheria
serious infectious disease affecting the nose, pharynx, or larynx, usually resulting in sore throat, dysphonia, and fever; caused by the bacterium corynebacterium diphtheriae, which forms a white coating over the affected airways as it multiplies
diverticular disease
an expression used to characterize both diverticulosis and diverticulitis
diverticulitis
inflamed outpouchings or herniations of the muscular layer of the intestine
diverticulosis
noninflamed outpouchings or herniations of the muscular layer of the intestine, typically the sigmoid colon
dysentery
a term used to describe a painful intestinal inflammation typically caused by ingesting water or food containing bacteria, protozoa, parasites, or chemical irritants
dyspepsia - indigestion
a vague feeling of epigastric discomfort felt after eating
dysphagia
difficult in swallowing, commonly associated with obstructive or motor disorders of the esophagus
dysphonia
difficulty in speaking; hoarseness
dyspnea
air hunger resulting in labored or difficult breathing, sometimes accompanied by pain
emaciation
excessive leanness caused by disease or lack of nutrition
emesis
the material expelled from the stomach during vomiting; vomitus
emphysema
a chronic pulmonary disease characterized by increase beyond the normal in the size of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchiole, either from dilation of the alveoli or from destruction of their walls
empyema
pus in a body cavity, especially in the pleural cavity (pyothorax); usually the result of a primary infection in the lungs
emulsify
to disperse a liquid into another liquid, making a colloidal suspension
endoscopic cholecystectomy
the removal of the gallbladder using a minimally invasive endoscope
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
a procedure that examines the size of and the filling of the pancreatic and biliary ducts through direct radiographic visualization with a fiberoptic endoscope
extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL)
An alternative treatment for gallstones by using ultrasound to align the computerized lithotripter and source of shock waves ith the stones
epistaxis
hemorrhage from the nose; nosebleed
eructation
the act of bringing up the air from the stomach with a characteristic sound through the mouth, belching
esophageal varices
swollen, twisted veins located in the distal end of the esophagus
esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)
the process of direct visualization of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum using a lighted fiberoptic endoscope
expectoration
the act of spitting out saliva or coughing up materials from the air passageways leading to the lungs
flatus, flatulence
air or gas in the intestine that is passed through the rectum
fluoroscopy
a radiological technique used to examine the function of an organ or a body part using a fluoroscope
gastric analysis
study of the stomach contents to determine the acid content and to detect the presence of blood, bacteria, bile, and abnormal cells
gastric lavage
the irrigation, or washing out, of the stomach with sterile water or a saline solution
gastroenterologist
a medical doctor who specializes in the study of the diseases and disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract including the stomach, intestines, gall bladder, and bile duct
gastroesophageal reflux (disease) - GERD
a backflow of contents of the stomach into the esophagus that is often the result of incompetence of the lower esophageal sphincter
gavage
a procedure in which liquid or semiliquid food is introduced into the stomach through a tube
hematemesis
vomiting blood
hemoptysis
expectoration of blood arising from the oral cavity, larynx, trachea, bronchi, or lungs
hemorrhoidectomy
the surgical removal of hemorrhoids
hemorrhoids
a permanently distended vein in the distal rectum or anus during pregnancy
hepatitis
acute or chronic inflammation of the liver due to a viral or bacterial infection, drugs, alcohol, toxins, or parasites
hernia
an irrectular protrusion of tissue, organ or a portion of an organ through an abnormal break in the surrounding cavity's muscular wall
herniorrhaphy
a term to describe the surgical repair of a hernia by closing the defect using sutures, mesh, or wire
herpetic stomatitis
inflammatory infectious lesions in or on the oral cavity in or on the oral cavity occurring as a primary or secondary viral infection caused by herpes simplex
hyaline membrane disease
also known as respiratory distress syndrome of the premature infant (RDS); severe impairment of the function of respiration in the premature newborn. Rarely present in a newborn of greater than 37 weeks' gestation or in one weighting at least 5 pounds
hypercapnia
increased amount of carbon dioxide in the blood
hypoxemia
insufficient oxygenation of the blood
hypoxia
deficiency of oxygen
icterus
a yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclera of the eyes, caused by greater than normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood; also called jaundice
ileus
a term used to describe an obstruction of the intestine
influenza
a highly contagious viral infection of the respiratory tract transmitted by airborne droplet infection; also known as the flu
intestinal obstruction
complete or partial alteration in the forward flow of the contents in the small or large intestines
intussusception
telescoping of a portion of the proximal intestine into the distal intestine usually in the ileocecal region causing an obstruction
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
spastic colon, increased motility of the small or large intestinal wall resulting in abdominal pain, flatulence, nausea, anorexia, and the trapping of gas throughout the intestines
jaundice
a yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclera of the eyes, caused by greater than normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood
Kussmaul respirations
very deep, gasping type of respiration associated with severe diabetic acidosis
laryngitis
inflammation of the larynx, usually resulting in dysphonia (hoarseness), cough, and difficulty swallowing
Laryngoscopy
examination of the interior of the larynx using a lighted, flexible tub known as a laryngoscope
lavage
the process of irrigating or washing out an organ, usually the bladder, bowel, paranasal sinuses, or stomach for therapeutic purposes
liver biopsy
a piece of liver tissue is obtained for examination by inserting a specially designed needle into the liver through the abdominal wall
lobectomy
the surgical removal of a lobe of any organ (e.g. lung, liver, brain)
Lung Scan
the visual imaging of the distribution of ventilation or blood flow in the lungs by scanning the lungs after the patient has been injected with or has inhaled radioactive material
mastication
chewing, tearing or grinding food with the teeth while it becomes mixed with saliva
melena
abnormal, black, tarry stool containing digested blood
nasogastric intubation (NG tube)
nasogastric tube placement through the nose into the stomach for the purpose of relieving gastric distension by removing gastric secretions, gas, or food
nausea
unpleasant sensation usually preceding vomiting
nonproductive (unproductive) cough
a cough that is not effective at bringing up sputum
nutritionist
an allied health professional who studies and applies the principles and science of nutrition
open cholecystectomy
the removal of the gallbladder through an incision into the ventral cavity
oral leukoplakia
a precancerous lesion occurring anywhere in the mouth
orthopnea
an abnormal condition in which a person sits up straight or stands up to breathe comfortably
pancreatitis
an acute or chronic destructive inflammatory condition of the pancreas
percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG)
a surgical procedure to place a tube into the stomach for direct feeding
peptic ulcers
a break in the continuity of the mucous membrane lining of the gastrointestinal tract as a result of hyperacidity or the bacterium Helicobacter pylori
percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) or (PTHC)
an examination of the bile duct structure using a needle to pass directly into an intrahepatic bile duct to inject a contrast medium
periodontal disease
a term used to describe a group of inflammatory gum disorders, which may lead to degeneration of teeth, gums, and sometimes surrounding bones
peristalsis
the coordinated rhythmic, serial contraction of smooth muscle that forces food through the digestive tract, bile through the bile duct, and urine through the ureters
peritonitis
inflammation of the peritoneum (the membrane lining the abdominal cavity)
pertussis
an acute upper respiratory infectious disease, caused by the bacterium Bordetella Pertussis
pharyngitis
inflammation of the pharynx, usually resulting in sore throat
phlegm
Thick, sticky, stringy mucus secreted by the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, as during a cold or other respiratory infection
pleural effusion
accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, resulting in compression of the underlying portion of the lung, with resultant dyspnea
pleural rub
friction rub caused by inflammation of the pleural space
pleuritis (pleurisy)
inflammation of both the visceral and parietal pleura
pneumonectomy
surgical removal of a lung
pneumonia
inflammation of the lungs caused primarily by bacteria, viruses, and chemical irritants
pneumothorax
a collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity. The air enters as the result of a perforation through the chest wall or the pleura covering the lung
productive cough
a cough that is effective at bringing up sputum
pruritus ani
a common chronic condition of itching of the skin around the anus
pulmonary edema
swelling of the lungs caused by an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the lungs, either in the alveoli or the interstitial spaces
pulmonary embolism
the obstruction of or or more pulmonary arteries by a thrombus (clot) that dislodges from another location, and is carried through the venous system to the vessels of the lung
Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT)
a variety of tests to assess respiratory function
pulmonary heart disease (cor pulmonale)
hypertrophy of the right ventricle of the heart (with or without failure) resulting from disorders of the lungs, pulmonary vessels, or chest wall; heart failure resulting from pulmonary disease
rales
an abnormal sound heard on auscultation of the chest, produced by passage of air through bronchi that contain secretion or exudate or that are constricted by spasm or a thickening of their walls
regurgitation
the backward flow from the normal direction, as the return of swallowed food into the mouth.
rhinitis
inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose, usually resulting gin obstruction of the nasal passages, rhinorrhea, sneezing, and facial pressure or pain
rhinorrhea
thin watery discharge from the nose
rhonchi
rales or rattlings in the throat, especially when it resembles snoring
saliva
the clear, viscous fluid secreted by the salivary and mucous glands in the mouth
silicosis
a lung disease resulting from inhalation of silica (quartz) dust, characterized by formation of small nodules
sinusitis
inflammation of the sinus, especially a paranasal sinus
sneeze
to expel air forcibly through the nose and mouth by spasmodic contraction of the muscles of expiration due to irritation of nasal mucosa
sputum
material expectorated from the mouth
Sputum specimen
a specimen of material expectorated from the mouth
steatorrhea
greater than normal amounts of fat in the feces
stool analysis for occult blood
the analysis of a stool sample to determine the presence of blood not visible to the naked eye
stool culture
collection of a stool specimen placed on one or more culture mediums and allowed to grow colonies of microorganisms to identify specific pathogen(s)
stool guaiac
a test on a stool specimen using guaiac as a reagent, which identifies the presence of blood in the stool
stridor
harsh sound during respiration; high pitched and resembling the blowing of wind, due to obstruction of air passages
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
the completely unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently well, or virtually well, infant. It is also known as crib death and is the most common cause of death between the second week and first year of life
tachypnea
abnormal rapidity of breathing
Thoracentesis
the use of a needle to collect pleural fluid for laboratory analysis, or to remove excess pleural fluid or air from the pleural space
thrush
a fungal infection in the mouth and throat producing sore, creamy white, slightly raised curd-like patches on the tongue and other oral mucosal surfaces; caused by Candida albicans
tonsillectomy
Removal of the tonsils
tonsillitis
inflammation of the palatine tonsils located in the area of the oropharynx
tuberculin skin test (TST)
a test used to determine past or present tuberculosis infection present in the body
tuberculosis (TB; TB
infectious disease, caused by a tubercle baccillus, chronic in nature, characterized by inflammatory infiltrations, primarily affecting the lungs causing large areas of cavitations and caseous (cheese-like) necrosis
ulcerative colitis
a chronic inflammatory condition resulting in a break in the continuity of the mucous membrane lining of the colon in the form of ulcers; characterized by large watery diarrheal stools containing mucus, pus or blood
volvulus
a rotation of loops of bowel causing a twisting on itself that results in an intestinal obstruction
vomit
to expel the content of the stomach through the esophagus and out of the mouth
vomitus
the material expelled from the stomach during vomiting (emmesis)
wheeze
a whistling sound or sighing sound resulting from narrowing of the lumen of a respiratory passageway
alveol/o
alveolus
bronch/o
bronchus
bronchiol/o
bronchus
epiglott/o
epiglottis
laryng/o
larynx
nas/o
nose
orth/o
straight
pector/o
chest
pharyng/o
pharynx
phren/o
mind; also refers to the diaphragm
pleur/o
pleura
pne/o
breathing
pneum/o
lungs; air
pneumon/o
lungs; air
pulmon/o
lungs
rhin/o
nose
-scope
an instrument used to view
sinus/o
sinus
thor/a
chest
thorac/o
chest
trache/o
trachea
amyl/o
starch
append/o
appendix
appendic/o
appendix
-ase
enzyme
bil/i
bile
bucc/o
cheek
cec/o
cecum
celi/o
pertaining to the abdomen
-centesis
surgical puncture
cheil/o
lips
chol/e
bile
cholecyst/o
gallbladder
cirrh/o
yellow, tawny
col/o
colon
colon/o
colon
dent/o
tooth
duoden/o
duodenum
-ectasia
stretching or dilatation
-ectomy
surgical removal
-emesis
to vomit
enter/o
intestine
esophag/o
esophagus
gastr/o
stomach
gingiv/o
gums
gloss/o
tongue
gluc/o
sugar, sweet
glyc/o
sugar, sweet
hepat/o
liver
-iasis
presence of an abnormal condition
ile/o
ileum
jejun/o
jejunum
lapar/o
abdominal wall
lingu/o
tongue
lip/o
fat
lith/o
stone; calculus
-lysis
destruction or detachment
mandibul/o
mandible
odont/o
teeth
or/o
mouth
pancreat/o
pancreas
-pepsia
state of digestion
-phagia
to eat
pharyng/o
pharynx
peritone/o
peritoneum
-plasty
surgical repair
proct/o
rectum
rect/o
rectum
-rrhagia
excessive flow or discharge
-rrhaphy
suturing
sial/o
salivary gland; saliva
sigmoid/o
sigmoid colon
-spasm
twitching; involuntary contraction
steat/o
fat
stomat/o
mouth
-tresia
perforation
-tripsy
intentional crushing