Scheduled maintenance: Saturday, March 6 from 3–4 PM PST
Upgrade to remove ads
APES chapter 3 + 5
Terms in this set (78)
Deforestation of Haiti
Trees are being cut down and used because they cannot afford propane and oil. This leads to deforestation which leads to soil erosion and in turn, mudslides. The US Agency for International Development is planting mango trees and trying to introduce new forms of fuel such as compacted old paper.
non-living. determine which organisms can live in an ecosystem.
What makes defining ecosystems hard?
It is hard to tell where abiotic and biotic factors en. So scientist often subject ecosystem boundaries. National parks boundaries are based on administrative criteria whereas other ecosystems may be based off of topographic features.
Which ecosystems are usually easier to define?
Ecosystems in aquatic areas or caves.
What is photosynthesis?
Solar energy + 6H2O+ 6CO2 -> C6H12O2 + 6O2
Which type of organisms undergo photosynthesis?
When does cellular respiration occur?
When consumers eat the tissue of producers and need to change the chemical energy into usable energy. Fuels metabolism and growth.
What is Cellular Respiration?
C6H12O2 + 6O2 -> energy +6H2O +6CO2
Where is excess oxygen stored?
It is released into the air.
Where is excess carbon dioxide stored?
Stored in the tissues of the consumer.
The trophic levels.
producers-primary consumer-secondary consumer-tertiary consumer
How much energy is passed from one trophic level to the next?
10% is passed on.
An organism that feeds on the dead bodies of other organisms.
Organisms such as dung beetles that break down dead tissues + waste
Fungi or bacteria that recycle nutrients from dead tissues and wastes back into an ecosystem.
Gross Primary Productivity
The total amount of solar energy that producers in an ecosystem capture via photosynthesis over a given amount of time.
Net Primary Productivity
The energy captured by producers in an ecosystem minus the energy producers respire. (NPP= GPP- respiration)
What is a common approach to measuring GPP?
1. measuring CO2 in the dark (no photo)
2. measuring CO2 in the light
3. Adding sums together to get total during photosynthesis
The total mass of all living matter in a specific area.
What happens to the solar energy not absorbed through photosynthesis?
1% is captured. The rest of it passes through the producer, allowing the heat to return to the atmosphere.
Where is NPP highest?
Swamps, marshes and tropical rain forests. This occurs because they are areas with more sunlight, water, nutrients, and warmer temperatures present.
Why do areas with low NPPs have a larger range of top predators?
They need to overlap with a greater area so they can get their daily calories.
The movements of matter within and between ecosystems involving biological, geological and chemical processes.
The components that contain the matter, including air, water, and organisms
The processes that move matter between pools
What are the major elements that compose organisms?
Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, hydrogen
Functions of Water?
Allows essential molecules to move within + between cells, draws nutrients into the leaves of tress, dissolves + removes toxic materials. Most importantly it dissolves + transports chemical elements necessary for living.
Sun heats bodies of water--> water enters atmosphere.
Plants release water from their leaves into the atmosphere--> water enters atmosphere
Water cools to form clouds --> water collects in the atmosphere
Water releases from clouds--> water usable in ecosystems again.
The combined amount of evaporation and transpiration.
Water that moves across the land surface and into streams and rivers.
What percentage of an organism is carbon?
What does carbon create in the body?
A long chain of organic molecules that form the membrane + walls of cells, constitute the backbone of proteins, and store energy for later use.
Fast part of the carbon cycle
Involves processes with living things.
Slow part of carbon cycle
Involve carbon that is upheld in rocks, in soils, or as petroleum hydrocarbons. May be stored in these forms for millions of years.
Steps in the Carbon Cycle
1. Photosynthesis- autotrophs convert CO2 into biomass
2. Respiration- organisms return CO2 to the atmosphere
3. Exchange- Carbon is exchanged between ocean and atmosphere (evap. + precipitation)
4. Sedimentation + Burial- Calcium ions mix with CO2 in water to make Calium Carbonate (CaCO3)- a compound that can precipitate out of the water as limestone or dolomite rock
5. Extraction- Humans extract fossil fuels made by the organic matter
6. Combustion- Humans burn the fuels and CO2 is released into soil or as ash
What has increased CO2 in the atmosphere?
Deforestation and the burning of fossil fuels.
The six macronutrients
nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur
Functions of nitrogen?
Used to form Amino acids and nucleic acids which means it creates proteins, DNA and RNA
How much of our mass is nitrogen?
3% of our body mass is nitrogen
How much of the atmosphere is nitrogen?
Steps of the Nitrogen Cycle
1. Nitrogen fixation- N-fixing bacteria take N2 from the atmosphere and convert it into ammonia (NH3) by adding hydrogen bonds (becomes NH4 when it gets into soil). The N2 can also become nitrate (NO3) through abiotic factors such as lightning and combustion.
2. Assimilation- Producers consume the nitrogen in ammonium (NH4) form and nitrate form (NO3), consumers then eat producers to assimilate nitrogen
3. Ammonification- Decomposers in soil and water break down biological nitrogen into ammonium (NH4)
4. Nitrification- Nitrifying bacteria convert ammonium into first nitrite (NO2) and then Nitrate (NO3)
5. Denitrification- Denitrifying bacteria convert NO3 into nitrous oxide (N2O) and then eventually N2
Two macronturients that limit plant growth?
Nitrogen and phosphorous.
What is different about phosphorus from the other cycles?
It has no gaseous component.
Is phosphorus soluble in water?
Where is phosphorus found on land?
Why is phosphorus hard to extract?
Because phosphorus which has a negative charge tightly binds with positive nutrients in the soil.
Added to aquatic ecosystems by runoff of animal wastes, fertilizer, sewage discharge- leads to agal blooms
Steps of Phosphorus Cycle
1. Weathering- Rocks weather due to weather and are now in a usable form (some returns to ocean)
2. Fertilizer- phosphorous is used and fertilizer and ends up in pools, absorbed into soil or in streams. Animals eat food that contains P
3. Excretion by animals- animals excrete waste and decompose releases phosphates into land or water
4. Dissolved Phosphates- phosphates that are absorbed into the ocean create sedimentary phosphate rocks
5. Geologic uplift- geological forces uplift the rocks into mountain ranges
Calcium, magnesium, and potassium in organisms
Regulate cellular processes and transmit signals between cells.
What phase do calcium, magnesium and phosphorus not have?
A gaseous phase.
What does sulfur do?
Plays in important use in allowing organisms to use oxygen.
Soil in the water shed cannot pecoilate due to bedrock so water has to leave either by evaporation or runoff.
How is excess sulfur released?
Burning of fossil fuels and mining of metals
a measure of how much a disturbance can affect flows of energy and matter in an ecosystem.
The rate at which an ecosystem returns to its original state after a disturbance.
intermediate disturbance hypothesis
The hypothesis that ecosystems experiencing intermediate levels of disturbance are more diverse than those with high or low disturbance levels
the number of different species in a community
goods that humans can use directly
an ecosystem will remain
systems provide a service that would otherwise be very expensive for humans to recreate..
the spiritual and recreational benefits that ecosystems provide
the service provided by natural systems that helps regulate environmental conditions
the relative proportion of different species in a given area
evolution below the species level
Evolution that gives rise to new species, genera, families, classes, or phyla
A change in allele frequency following a dramatic reduction in the size of a population
change in allele frequencies as a result of the migration of a small subgroup of a population
A change in the allele frequency of a population as a result of chance events rather than natural selection.
The formation of new species in populations that are geographically isolated from one another.
The formation of new species in populations that live in the same geographic area
The suite of abiotic conditions under which a species can survive, grow, and reproduce
the range of abiotic and biotic conditions under which a species actually lives
a species that can live under a wide range of abiotic or biotic conditions
a species that is specialized to live in a specific habitat or to feed on a small group of species
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
APES terrestrial and aquatic ecology unit 3
Grade 9 Science- Ecosystems
Biosphere, Part 1: Ecology
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Chapter 15 (Acids and Bases) Chemistry C1
Psych Prologue-Chapter 4 exam review
Chapter 13 Chem