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Adolescent Psych Final

Adolescence 14th Edition Chapter 2, 4, 6, 9, 10, 13
STUDY
PLAY
compulsive behaviors
behaviors that you repeat even though they don't bring you pleasure; usually serve to reduce anxiety
the anxiety cycle
something triggers thoughts (obsessions) --> the thoughts cause fear and anxiety (physical and psychological responses) --> the person does something to reduce the anxiety (compulsion) --> the person has temporary feelings of escape which reinforces the behavior (the next time s/he has the obsession, they will do the compulsion again)
positive core beliefs
Patrick Carnes views people who were brought up in families that treated them as valued members as having
negative core beliefs
Patrick Carnes views people who were brought up in families that didn't treat them as valued members as having
meaning-centered
personality type if you have positive core beliefs; see life as a lesson and try to learn from experiences, values themselves and others
pleasure-centered
personality type if you have negative core beliefs that cause you to try to avoid pain and seek pleasure instead of healthy relationships and more effective coping (prone to addictions)
power-centered
personality type if you have negative core beliefs that cause you to get more and more power (prone to compulsive behaviors)
psychological addiction
after the physical detoxification, the "addict" no longer "needs" to use but still have cravings and may get triggers to use because there is still a ____________________
cognitive-behavior therapy
the best known treatment for compulsive behaviors
systematic desensitization
the process of slowly confronting your fears with support so that you gradually learn not to fear
exposure and response prevention
the clinical procedure of having the client first imagine they are being triggered and later actually facing a trigger while NOT doing the compulsive behavior
trigger
anything that causes the person to want to start using or acting out again
learning
process of acquiring information that produces a change in behavior; ex: learning ABC's allows you to read and write
classical conditioning
learning associations between a stimulus and a response; ex: red light means stop
social learning
learning based on watching others
operant conditioning
learning based on what follows a behavior (consequences can be good or bad); ex: studying increases grades
Ivan Pavlov
first discovered classical conditioning
Albert Bandura
first discovered social learning effects
B F Skinner
first discovered operant conditioning
reinforcements
consequences that increase a behavior
punishments
consequences that decrease a behavior
positive reinforcement
adding something to increase behavior; ex: taking a drug gets you high
negative reinforcement
removing something to increase behavior; ex: taking a drug gets rid of withdrawal symptoms
fixed ratio
schedule of reinforcement where the reward is received after a set number of behaviors; ex: video games use this type of reinforcements - you have to do specific actions to get to the next level
fixed interval
schedule of reinforcement where the reward is received after a set amount of time; ex: snorting or injecting a drug reduces the amount of time you have to wait so that you get immediate rewards
variable ratio
schedule of reinforcement where the reward is received after an average number of behaviors; ex: gambling slot machines - you don't know how many pulls on the lever you have to do before you'll get your reward
variable internal
schedule of reinforcement where the reward is received after an average amount of time; ex: sex addicts may go out to a variety of places and spend various amounts of time before finding a partner
neuron
the specialized brain cell that communicates via the action potential releasing chemicals called neurotransmitters
dendrites
the receiving part of the neuron that accepts only particular neurotransmitters via the receptor sites
receptor sites
the part of the dendrite that is lock-and-key specific and will only accept neurotransmitters that fit exactly
axon terminals
the sending part of the neuron that releases neurotransmitters into the synaptic gap
synaptic gap
the space between two neurons where neurotransmitters and monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes float
monoamine oxidase
an enzyme that metabolizes neurotransmitters in the synaptic gap (helps regulate brain chemistry)
pre-synaptic
the neurons that are sending neurotransmitters
post-synaptic
the neurons that are receiving neurotransmitters
excitatory
the effect that causes a post-synaptic neuron to fire it's own action potential
inhibitory
the effect that causes a post-synaptic neuron not to fire it's own action potential
reuptake
when a pre-synaptic neuron reaccepts neurotransmitters back into the axon terminals
acetylcholine
the neurotransmitter that is associated with memory functioning and nicotine addiction
endorphins
the neurotransmitters that are associated with pain perception and opiate addiction
dopamine
the neurotransmitter that is associated with reward/pleasure sensation and is all forms of addiction (especially cocaine)
serotonin & norepinephrine
the neurotransmitters associated with emotions and depression as well as LSD addiction
GABA & glutamate
the neurotransmitters associated with brain activity and alcoholism
down regulation
the process that occurs when dopamine receptor sites shut down because there is an excessive amount of dopamine in the brain (due to drug use)
comorbidity
when two or more conditions are occurring at the same time; for example, addiction and depression
50%
the percentage of adults who commit suicide linked to drug use and dependence
70%
the percentage of adolescents who commit suicide linked to drug use and dependence
prefrontal cortex
this is the area of the brain that is not fully developed during adolescence; it helps with decision-making and impulse control (explains some of the reason for the higher rates of drug related suicides)
amygdala
the part of the brain that deals with emotions and is over-active during adolescence (another reason for the higher rates of drug related suicides)
substantia nigra
the part of the brain (midbrain specifically) that produces a lot of dopamine; is highly reactive during adolescence - making them more susceptible to drug addiction
chasing the ghost
term used to describe the effort of trying to experience the original high (due to the effects of tolerance, users have to keep increasing their dosage to get the same effect)
addictive logic
this object or act can bring me happiness
addictive logic rationale
objects don't lie, let you down, judge, hurt you, and they can be trusted to be consistent and always available as well as get you high
intensity
a powerful experience of strong emotions making you feel intoxicated
intimacy
a powerful experience of strong emotions that build up gradually between you and another person
4 relationship groups
friends/family, spiritual beliefs, self, community
friends/family
this relationship group teaches you how to live and love, should give you a sense of belonging and importance, as well as "have your back" in times of hardship
spiritual beliefs
this relationship group helps teach you about a higher power, helps you realize that some things are beyond your control and how to have hope and trust that "this too shall pass" during times of hardship
self
this relationship group empowers you to believe in yourself and your ability to cope with life, to trust in yourself as someone who is worthy and capable of growth; "to thine own self be true"
community
this relationship group teaches you to think of others an give back/contribute, it also teaches you that there is strength in numbers and that "you are not alone"
slippery slope
the gradual process involved in forming an addictive personality and/or the addictive cycle; once in a while becomes once a week becomes once a day, etc.
addictive cycle
faulty thinking (addictive logic) leads to behavioral choices (acting out) which alters your mood and reinforces you to continue (slippery slope) which leads to dependence
Stages of Addiction
1: Internal Changes, 2: Lifestyle Changes, 3: Life Breakdown
Internal Changes
the first stage of the addiction cycle that includes the development of addictive logic, cravings, and starts you on the slippery slope
Lifestyle Changes
the second stage of the addiction cycle that includes regular acting out (sometimes even ritualistic behaviors), a tolerance build up, and neglecting others - your time is spent thinking about or trying to get/use your drug of choice
Life Breakdown
the third stage of the addiction cycle that includes the destruction of relationships and other roles (loss of job), full chemical dependence and withdrawal symptoms, a loss of control (trying to quit doesn't work), illness, and depression (even suicidal thoughts)
who's susceptible
people raised with affection, people raised with an addict, people with low self-esteem, people with poor relationship skills, people who find it hard to trust others, people who've been neglected or abused, etc.
the bottom
the lowest point in a person's addictive cycle; some researches think addicts have to come to their own lowest point and others disagree...
addiction
for the purposes of this class, this is a process of becoming dependent upon an object or act to alter one's mood; includes psychological and physiological symptoms of illness, a disruption in life functioning, and uncontrollable compulsive behavior
drug use
trying a drug without overdoing it
drug abuse
over using a drug; overdosing or frequent and repeated usage beyond the normal use
compulsive behavior
uncontrollably acting out a planned ritual to reduce anxiety; usually associated with an obsession (persistent thoughts)
willpower
the ability to resist temptation and delay immediate gratification for long-term goals
1492
the "new world" inhabitants (Native Americans) used tobacco; Columbus used hemp for a variety of purposes; alcohol was widely used for pain relief (and recreationally)
George Washington
This President, along with Thomas Jefferson, urged early American farmers to grow cannabis and called it "a necessity"
1830
alcoholism was seen as a societal problem and inebriate asylums are starting to be built
Binghamton
the first Alcoholic Asylum opened in 1864
1876
the U.S. celebrates it's 100th independence day and smoking parlors are all the rage
cocaine
in 1880 Sigmund Freud says this is the miracle drug
1906
the Food & Drug Act required drugs to be labeled on products
Harrison Act
in 1914 this Act put cocaine under federal control
1920
Prohibition of Alcohol
1933
Prohibition of Alcohol ends
Alcoholics Anonymous
in 1935 this organization was formed; rather than trying to control alcohol, society turned to treating alcoholism
1960's
insurance companies start to pay for the treatment of various addictions
1970's
Nixon declared the "war on drugs"
28
in 1988 insurance companies decided to limit the treatment to _______ days
just say no
in 1989 the US launched this anti-drug media campaign
2009
Obama says the war on drugs failed and promotes finding better treatment options
2012
more US states are making marijuana legal for recreational purposes
78%
this percentage of adolescents report having school work stress
64%
this percentage of adolescents report having relationship stress
45%
this percentage of adolescents report having stress-related illness
Richar Lazarus
the psychologist who developed the Appraisal Model of stress
Appraisal Model
model of stress that says when faced with a stressor, we first ask ourselves a primary appraisal questions (Is this a threat?) and if we perceive that it is, we ask a secondary appraisal question (Can I cope?); our perception determines our level of stress
Diathesis-stress Model
Model of stress response as the result of an interaction between preexisting genetics (trigger-happy sympathetic n.s.) and exposure to a stressor without coping skills
toxic stress
a level of stress so high that it causes you to develop stress related illness
prolonged stress
this type of stress lasts a long time and causes your immune system to weaken; which causes you to develop stress related illness
acute stress
this type of stress lasts a short time and causes you to go into the fight or flight response; then you settle down after the threat is over
externalizing
the coping style that puts the blame on others
problem behavior syndrome
an externalizing coping style with a pattern of being
oppositional and unconventional
...
social control theory
an externalizing coping style with a lack of attachment to others and regard for rules
hostile attributional bias
an externalizing coping style where there is a tendency to interpret interactions as being deliberately hostile or threatening to you
Hans Selye
developed the General Adaptation Syndrome as well as addressed individual coping styles
General Adaptation Syndrome
Hans Selye's model of stress (3 stages): 1. Alarm
2. Resistance 3. Exhaustion
...
internalizing
the coping style that puts the blame all on oneself
negative emotionality
an internalizing coping style where one has a pessimistic outlook and lost of subjective distress
anhedonic
an internalizing coping style where one has difficulty experiencing positive emotions
learned helplessness
an internalizing coping style where one has become passive to abuse after escape was unattainable
anorexia
the eating disorder where food intake is severely restricted to the point where the person is essentially starving
bulimia
the eating disorder where the person goes through excessive dieting but then eats excessively and usually intentionally throws up
binge eating
eating an excessive amount of food in a small amount of time; often in secret
body dysmorphia
an aspect of some eating disorder patients where they have a distorted perception of their own appearance
11-15
the age range where most eating disorders start
90%
____ of eating disorders are in female patients
depression
experiening five or more of the following symptoms in the same 2-week period of time: sad mood for most of the day. loss of interest or pleasure in activities, significant appetite and weight changes, insomnia or hypersomnia, sluggishness or slowness throughout the day, fatigue or loss of energy, feelings of low self-worth, problems with focus and concentration, and recurrent suicidal ideations
third
suicide is the _____ leading cause of death amoung adolescents
25%
the percentage of people who struggle with depression
comorbidity
people with one disorder (such as depression) are often also dealing with another disorder (such as anxiety, addiction, adhd, eating disorder, etc.) -- this trend is known as _________
dysthymia
when you have symptoms of depression for two or more years
bipolar
these type of disorders include both depression and mania (decreased need for sleep, more talkative than usual, racing
thoughts, distractibility, excessive involvement in pleasurable activities, and excessively active)
...
suicide contagion
media exposure to the suicide of one person leads to the attempted or successful suicide of another
werther effect
suicide contagion was first documented in 1774 after the release of a popular book; it was called ______________ (named after the main character in the book)
Marilyn Monroe
In 1962, this famous person's suicide caused over 200 copycap suidices the month following the media coverage of her death...
self-immolation
In 2010, Mohamed Bouazizi set himself on fire in protest; this is called __________________. Since then, almost 100 other people have also set themselves on fire in protest.
depression inventory
this is the standard way of assessing depression
yes
Is there a blood test to assess depression?
18-24
the age range with the highest technology addiction
yes
Is technology addiction considered a "real" disorder among the general public and a large portion of professionals?
media
anything used to communicate information
type of media
tv programs, commercials, facebook, e-mail, phones, books, music, music videos, movies, posters, billboards, magazines, twitter, etc.
6 hours
the average amount of time per day adolescents spend under non-school related media influences
100
the average number of texts adolescents send each day
positive correlation
as TV programs increased, so did cases of ADHD, violence, sex & STD's, weight, obesity, etc. this is known as a _________________
no
do positive correlations show a cause and effect relationships
70
the percentage of TV shows that have sexual content
60
the percentage of TV shows that have violence
78
the percentage of teenage suicides linked to bullying
suicide
cyber bullying is increasing and has been linked with increased __________
desensitization
a diminished emotional response to negative stimuli after repeated exposure
G. Stanley Hall
American Psychologist who coined the term "adolescence", pioneered the scientific study of adolescents, and developed the Storm-and-Stres view promoting nature as having more influence than nurture
Charles Darwin
Wrote the book: On The Origin of Species, which outlined evolution and sparked the "nature vs nurture" debate; he promoted nature over nurture
Sigmund Freud
a famous Organismic Theorist and Psychoanalyst who created the Psychosexual Stages of Development which promoted biology as the primary influence on development but included some environmental influences
Erik Erikson
an Organismic Theorist who created the Psychosocial Stages of Development which promoted biology as the primary influence on development but included some environmental influences
Kurt Lewin
a Sociological Theorist who believed nurture or environment has more to do with development than nature (but looked at both); talked about "group dynamics"
corpus callosum
thick bundle of neurons that connect the left and right hemispheres of the brain; thickens further in adolescence which improves their ability to process information
amygdala
part of the limbic system that is involved with processing emotions; matures before other regions of the brain that help control it
prefrontal cortex
part of the frontal lobe that is involved with reasoning, decision-making, and self control; the last part of the brain to develop
plasticity
the brain changes in response to experiences; the more you learn, the more you can learn
puberty
a phase of development accompanied by changes in the endocrine system, weight, body fat, and leptin; a period of rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes that take place primarily in early adolescence; 9 to 16 yrs
endocrine system
a system of glands within the body that release hormones
hormones
chemicals secreted by the endocrine system that effect bodily functions
hypothalamus
a brain structure that regulates the pituitary gland (master gland) which in turn stimulates the other glands to secrete hormones
pituitary gland
known as the master gland because it regulates the glands of the endocrine system as well as secreting growth hormones
gonads
glands that release hormones involved in sexual maturation and puberty
androgens
main class of hormones for male puberty
estrogens
main class of hormones for female puberty
gonadarche
visible onset of puberty involving sexual characteristics (pubic hair, breast and genital development)
menarche
the first menstrual period
spermarche
the first ejaculation
11
the peak age of pubertal changes for girls
13
the peak age of pubertal changes for boys
precocious puberty
the very early onset and rapid proression of puberty; occurs 10x more in girls; treatment to suppress it helps the child reach full height and promotes age-appropriate behavior
risk factors of precocious puberty
increases the likelihood of risk-taking behavior, smoking, drinking, being depressed, having an eating disorder, engaging in delinquency, struggling for early independence, earlier dating and sexual experiences, older friends, dropping-out of high school, cohabitating and marrying earlier, and overall non-age appropriate behaviors
ways to prevent precocious puberty
regular exercise, healthy diet with foods low in fat, regular sleep, appropriate role models, positive adult relationships, structure and restrictions with television and social media exposure, community service, diverse support network (parents, siblings, teachers, friends, sports teams, extracurricular activities/clubs, big brother/sister program, extended family relationships, etc.), academic success
cause of precocious puberty
higher weight, higher percentage of body fat, birth weight and weight gain during infancy, sociocultural and environmental factors (see factors that influence hormones)
21-24yrs
the age span when the prefrontal cortex becomes fully developed and the brain becomes able to engage in higher order thinking, reasoning skills enhance, decision making improves, risk-taking behaviors decrease, self-control increases, and overall maturity is seen
factors that increase healthy eating
availability of fruits and vegetables in the home, consumption of fruits and vegetables by parents, and eating regular healthy family meals during early adolescence
60 min. per day
the amount of time adolescent's should exercise
factors that increase exercising
when the adolescent perceived it was important for their body image, when their parents modeled it, and when their friends were more physically active
benefits of exercise and sleep
keeps weight in appropriate range, lowers risk of heart disease and diabetes as well as substance use (alcohol, nicotine, and marijuana), reduces stress and depression, increases brain functioning, academic achievement, self-image, self-esteem, confidence, relationships, attention, memory, and creativity
Adolescence
a transition period between childhood and adulthood which involves physiological and psychological changes (age range is pre-teen to early 20's)
1890 - 1920
The "age of adolescence"; the period of time where lawmakers were enacting a great deal of legislation about adolecents (work, school, etc.).
Age of Adolescence
1890-1920; the period of time where lawmakers were enacting a great deal of legislation about adolecents (work, school, etc.).
early adolescence
the part of adolescence marked by physical changes such as growth spurt, changes in the brain, and the onset of puberty; same-sex friendships are more important at this time; roughly middle school or junior high years 11-13yrs
middle adolescence
the part of adolescence marked by continued sexual maturity, hormonal changes, further brain development, and sleeping pattern changes; interest in opposite sex emerges; roughly the first few years of high school 14-16yrs
late adolescence
the part of adolescence marked by full sexual maturity, brain almost fully developed, and the seeking out of romantic relationships; late high school and early college 17-20yrs
emerging adult
the part of development marked by full brain maturity, experimentation and exploration with career, identity, traveling, and lifestyles (single, cohabitatin, or married); mid to late college years 21-24yrs
continuity
development that involves gradual, cumulative change
discontinuity
development that has distinct stages
nature vs. nurture issue
view that focuses on whether biological/physiological factors or environmental factors are the key determinants of development
storm-and-stress view
the view that adolescence is a explained by genetic factors (nature) regardless of environmental factors (nurture)
organismic view
the view that adolescence is explained primary with biology (nature) with some/limited environmental influences (nurture)
learning theory view
the view that adolescence is explained by both nature and nurture influences
sociological view
the view that adolescence is explained primarily through environmental influences (nurture) with some/limited biological (nature) influences
sociocultural view
the view that adolescence is explained by environmental factors regardless of genetics (nature)
inventionist view
the view that adolescence is a sociohistorical creation; due to legislations based on the economy.
multidisciplinary view
the view that adolescence is explained by a combination of all influences
Jean-Jacques Rouseau
18th century French philogopher who pointed out that reasoning, awareness of others, and physical changes happen between childhood and adulthood
G. Stanley Hall
American Psychologist who coined the term "adolescence", pioneered the scientific study of adolescents, and developed the Storm-and-Stres view promoting nature as having more influence than nurture
Charles Darwin
Wrote the book: On The Origin of Species, which outlined evolution and sparked the "nature vs nurture" debate; he promoted nature over nurture
Sigmund Freud
a famous Organismic Theorist and Psychoanalyst who created the Psychosexual Stages of Development which promoted biology as the primary influence on development but included some environmental influences
Erik Erikson
an Organismic Theorist who created the Psychosocial Stages of Development which promoted biology as the primary influence on development but included some environmental influences
Ivan Pavlov
a Learning Theorist who discovered Classical Conditioning and felt that development is both nature and nuture
B F Skinner
a Learning Theorist who discovered Operant Conditioning and felt that development is both nature and nurture
Kurt Lewin
a Sociological Theorist who believed nurture or environment has more to do with development than nature (but looked at both); talked about "group dynamics"
Karl Mannheim
follower of Kurt Lewin who took over his work after his death
Ruth Benedict
an Anthropological/Sociocultural Theorist who believed nurture and environment create who you are; conducted multi-cultural studies showing physiological changes due to environmental factors
Margaret Mead
the anthropologist that studied adolescents using the naturalistic observation method; concluded that the basic nature of adolescent is sociocultural (not biological)
experimentation
trying various things out to see the effect
enduring problem
when experimentation turns into a pattern of behavior that goes into adulthood
stress
a negative reaction to what's going on
78%
this percentage of adolescents report having school work stress
64%
this percentage of adolescents report having relationship stress
45%
this percentage of adolescents report having stress-related illness
Richar Lazarus
the psychologist who developed the Appraisal Model of stress
Appraisal Model
model of stress that says when faced with a stressor, we first ask ourselves a primary appraisal questions (Is this a threat?) and if we perceive that it is, we ask a secondary appraisal question (Can I cope?); our perception determines our level of stress
Diathesis-stress Model
Model of stress response as the result of an interaction between preexisting genetics (trigger-happy sympathetic n.s.) and exposure to a stressor without coping skills
toxic stress
a level of stress so high that it causes you to develop stress related illness
prolonged stress
this type of stress lasts a long time and causes your immune system to weaken; which causes you to develop stress related illness
acute stress
this type of stress lasts a short time and causes you to go into the fight or flight response; then you settle down after the threat is over
externalizing
the coping style that puts the blame on others
problem behavior syndrome
an externalizing coping style with a pattern of being
oppositional and unconventional
...
social control theory
an externalizing coping style with a lack of attachment to others and regard for rules
hostile attributional bias
an externalizing coping style where there is a tendency to interpret interactions as being deliberately hostile or threatening to you
Hans Selye
developed the General Adaptation Syndrome as well as addressed individual coping styles
General Adaptation Syndrome
Hans Selye's model of stress (3 stages): 1. Alarm
2. Resistance 3. Exhaustion
...
internalizing
the coping style that puts the blame all on oneself
negative emotionality
an internalizing coping style where one has a pessimistic outlook and lost of subjective distress
anhedonic
an internalizing coping style where one has difficulty experiencing positive emotions
learned helplessness
an internalizing coping style where one has become passive to abuse after escape was unattainable
depression
experiening five or more of the following symptoms in the same 2-week period of time: sad mood for most of the day. loss of interest or pleasure in activities, significant appetite and weight changes, insomnia or hypersomnia, sluggishness or slowness throughout the day, fatigue or loss of energy, feelings of low self-worth, problems with focus and concentration, and recurrent suicidal ideations
third
suicide is the _____ leading cause of death amoung adolescents
25%
the percentage of people who struggle with depression
comorbidity
people with one disorder (such as depression) are often also dealing with another disorder (such as anxiety, addiction, adhd, eating disorder, etc.) -- this trend is known as _________
dysthymia
when you have symptoms of depression for two or more years
bipolar
these type of disorders include both depression and mania (decreased need for sleep, more talkative than usual, racing
thoughts, distractibility, excessive involvement in pleasurable activities, and excessively active)
...
genetic factors
these factors contribute to the development of adolscent disorders: Hereditary susceptibility, Overactive Amygdala, Overactive Hormones, Underdeveloped Pre-Frontal Cortex, Dysregulation of Neurotransmitters
environmental factors
these factors contribute to the development of adolescent disorders: Disrupted home, Academic Struggles, Sleep deprivation, Stress (perceived pressure), Lack of coping skills, Peer problems (bullying), Media exposure of risk-taking & death
social learning
adolescents are more susceptible to be influnce by watching others - a type of learning known as ______________
suicide contagion
media exposure to the suicide of one person leads to the attempted or successful suicide of another
werther effect
suicide contagion was first documented in 1774 after the release of a popular book; it was called ______________ (named after the main character in the book)
Marilyn Monroe
In 1962, this famous person's suicide caused over 200 copycap suidices the month following the media coverage of her death...
self-immolation
In 2010, Mohamed Bouazizi set himself on fire in protest; this is called __________________. Since then, almost 100 other people have also set themselves on fire in protest.
depression inventory
this is the standard way of assessing depression
yes
Is there a blood test to assess depression?
adolescence
the transition between childhood and adulthood
puberty
a flood of biological events leading to an adult-sized body and sexual maturity
growth spurt
the first outward sign of puberty is the rapid gain in height and weight
primary sexual characteristics
rapid body growth changes in the reproductive organs (ovaries, uterus vagina and penis, scrotum and testes)
secondary sexual characteristics
changes that are visible on the outside of the body and show signs of sexual maturity (development of breasts and underarm/pubic hair)
menarche
first menstruation
spermarche
first ejaculation
body image
conception of and attitude toward your own physical appearance
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder in which young people stare themselves because of a compulsive fear of getting fat
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder in which young people engage in strict dieting and excessive exercise accompanied by binge eating and followed by deliberate vomiting and purging using laxatives
What are the 5 major physical changes of puberty?
Growth spurt, primary sex characteristics, secondary sex characteristics, body composition, respiratory/circulatory changes
At what age do girls begin initial breast development? (avg.)
11 years old
At what age (on average) do girls in the U.S. reach menarche?
13
While girls hit their adolescent growth spurt at ~12.25 years, boys hit it at
~13.5 years
At what age do boys reach spermarche on average?
13
At what age do boys have their first nocturnal emission?
14
At what age do "whiskers" begin to appear on an adolescent boy's face?
16
A boys adult voice is reached at age
15
Do healthier or unhealthier adolescents reach puberty earlier?
healthier
Girls growing up in homes without their biological father reach puberty earlier or later than their peers? Why?
Earlier; puberty allows girls to adapt to their environment
Why is puberty delayed if quality of home life is good?
There is no reason to cut childhood short in a supportive environment.
Why do physically active girls experience puberty later than inactive girls?
Estrogen is stored in fat cells, so the less fat cells, the less estrogen....?
What 6 factors contribute to the timing of puberty?
genes, health, physical activity, presence of biological dad, attachment to parents, secular trends
Why is the age of menarche decreasing?
artificially added hormones, obesity, nutrition and healthcare
formal operational stage
at around age 11, people enter this stage in which they develop the capacity for abstract, systematic, scientific thinking
hypothetico-deductive reasoning
adolescents make a prediction about what variables might affect an outcome and deduce testable inferences then systematically isolate variables to see what works
propositional thought
adolescent's ability to evaluate the logic of propositions without referring to real-world circumstances
logical necessity
the accuracy of conclusions drawn from premises rests on the rules of logic, not on real world confirmation
imaginary audience
a cognitive distortion in which adolescents believe that they are the focus of everyone else's attention and concern
personal fable
a cognitive distortion in which adolescents are certain that others are observing and thinking about them, causing teens to develop an inflated opinion of their own importance, the feeling they are special and unique
the fantasy period
in early/middle childhood, children gain insight into career options by fantasizing about them
the tentative period
between ages 11-16 adolescents consider their interests and then their abilities and values as it relates to their career options
the realistic period
late teens and early 20s, young people narrow their options in regards to vocation by first exploring and second through a process of crystallization
When girls are early maturers, what are some of the psychological and physical impacts?
Depression, anxiety, eating disorders, lower school achievement, drug and alcohol abuse, unplanned pregnancy, suicide, greater risk of breast cancer
What happened when a researcher asked early bloomers what it felt like?
Early bloomers reported experiencing a lot of unwelcome sexual attention but went largely unreported
While early maturing boys are rated as more good-natured, poised and athletic, they are more likely to...
engage in delinquent behavior and at a greater risk for abusing alcohol and cigarettes
Late maturing boys are at risk for
being bullied
By 18 years old what percentage of adolescents report having had intercourse?
70-90%
What gender is younger regarding the first intercourse?
Boys
The average age for first sex is...
15-17
What did researchers find by following virginity pledgers and non-virginity pledgers?
While pledgers were less likely to have sex, it wasn't that large of a number relative to the sample. What was interesting is that kids who make the pledge are more predisposed to have sex in the first place than not having sex, and were less likely to use protection compared to the non-pledgers
What are the rates of condom use?
Half of kids having sex are not using condoms every time they have sex
Abstinence only programs teach that
sex should be delayed until marriage, and that all other birth control methods aren't effective
Comprehensive sex-education teaches
ABSTINENCE, but include information about birth control to prevent pregnancy/STDs.
Why do CSE programs teach girls to use condoms?
Boys are more risky so girls should know how to use them
How is CSE effective?
Reduce the risk for teen pregnancy without increasing the chances for sexual activity
Are parents more likely to talk to girls or boys if they talk to kids about sex?
girls
At what age do parents of gay/lesbian kids have a feeling that their child was homosexual?
Boys: 6, Girls: 10/12
How do parents recognize gay/lesbian qualities
gender non-conformity, but nobody really thinks twice about tomboys which is why parents notice later in girls
What are the 4 steps to the coming out process?
first recognition (8-10), test and exploration (10-13), identity and acceptance (13-17), identity integration (17-19)
What type of parents facilitate an easier coming out process?
Authoritative
Hypothetico-deductive reasoning improves as what improves?
processing capacity
What stage of Piaget's sensorimotor stage corresponds with adolescence?
formal operational
argumentation
the process of debating a claim with someone else: you must support your position with evidence and understanding AND refute your opponent's claims and evidence
Dual process theories
decision making involves two modes of thinking: analytical and intuitive
heuristics
shortcuts or intuitive guesses that you can apply quickly when making decisions
What factors influence risk-taking?
sensations seeking, evolution, adolescent egocentrism, peer pressure, gender, limbic system development
identity
the major personality achievement of adolescence and involves defining who you are, what you value, and the directions you choose to pursue
identity versus role confusion
the psychological conflict of adolescence
identity achievement
commitment to values, beliefs and goals following a period of exploration/crisis
identity moratorium
exploration without having reached commitment
identity foreclosure
commitment without exploration
identity diffusion
apathy characterized by a lack of exploration and commitment
ethnic identity
a sense of ethnic group membership and attitudes/feelings associated with that membership
acculturative stress
psychological distress resulting from conflict between a minority and host culture
bicultural identity
exploring and adopting values from both the adolescent's subculture and the dominant culture
preconventional level of morality
morality is externally controlled; children accept the rules of authority figures and judge actions by consequences, behaviors that end in punishment are bad
conventional level of morality
individuals regard conformity to social rules as important in order to maintain social order and fairness
postconventional level of morality
define morality in terms of abstract principles and values that apply to all situations and societies
moral self-relevance
the degree to which morality is central to self concept
gender intensification
in early adolescence, teens strive toward a more traditional gender identity; increased gender stereotyping of attitudes and behavior
autonomy
sense of oneself as separate and self-governing
cliques
groups of 5-8 friends who resemble each other in family background, attitudes, and values
crowd
a larger and more loosely organized group that is based on reputation and stereotypes
Identity development is based on two things
content and evaluation
content (identity)
what one thinks about, values and believes in and the traits or characteristics by which one is recognized by others
evaluation (identity)
the significance you place on various aspects of the identity content
Critereon for Anorexia Nervosa
1. Intense fear of wt gain
2. Underweight, refusal to gain
...
3. Distrubance in body wt image
...
4. Amenorrhea
...
% of adolescent and adult females with anorexia nervosa.
0.2-1
% of anorexia nervosa sufferers that are female.
90
% of females in aethetic sports with eating disorders.
42
% of males in aesthetic sports with eating disorders.
22
Diagnostic criteria for bulemia nervosa
1. Recurrent episodes of binge eating LOC
2. Recurrent compensatory behavior
...
3. 2x/wk for 3 mo
...
Sociocultural factors
Thinness equals: success, beauty, power
Biological factors
Abnormal, neurochemistry, controlling sense of hunger
Psychological factors
Dysfunctional family, abuse, low self-esteem, lack of identity, perfectionism, compulsiveness, distorted body image, and depression.
Sports related factors
Pressure to perform, low body fat optimizes performance, emphasis on lean appearance, weight class, self-expectations, exercise routines.
Causes of ED's
Heritable (not genetic), however gentetics make EDs more rewarding. Weight change, stress, familial instability, physical illness, social pressure.
Symoptoms of Anorexia Nervosa (AN)
Irritability, depression, fatigue, weakness, headache, dizziness, chest pain, emaciation, hypothermia, hyperactivity, bradycardia, HoTN.
Visible signs of AN
Pressure sores, dry skin, hair loss in scalp, yellow skin, lanugo hair.
Tx for AN
High drop-out rate, recovery of 3-7 yrs, 80% recovery/significant progress.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
"Talking" to solve problems regarding dysfunctional emotions, behaviors, and cognition. Goal oriented, systemic procedure.
Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT)
Combined CBT with concepts of distress tolerance and mindful awareness, validation of feelings.
Features of Treatment
Individualized, multidimensional, medications.
Members of an ED treatment team
MD, Psychiatrist, RD, RN, social worker
Impatient care is used at this point.
For stabilization if life is at risk.
Nutrition guidance for EDs
Calories first, balance later. Encourage food choices that are good for a lifetime.
Should you weigh a recovering ED sufferer?
?
Nutrition goals for treatment
1. provide strength for Tx
2. Increased e intake
...
3. specific meal plans
...
4. reintroduce 'forbidden' foods
...
Nutrition goals for treatment
1. Ca for bone mineralization
2. multi-vitamin
...
3. avoidance reduced e strategies
...
4. forced feeding only at life risk
...
Bulimia Nervosa Signs
Eating in secret, vomiting, binging/purging, abuse of alcohol or drugs, weight fluctuations, fear of wt gain, distorted body image.
Visible S/S of BN
Swollen salivary glands, teeth changes, depression, guilt, fear, no severe wt loss, abdominal bloating, facial petachiae, headache.
Consequences of BN
Onset 17-25 yo. Electrolyte imbalance, irregular heartbeat, heart failure, kidney damage.
% Mortality rate for BN
5
% Mortality rate for AN
10-15
Treatment of BN
Stabilization of bing/purge behavior, nutritional rehabilitation, psychotherapy, develop plan for "high risk" situations, Prozac.
Nutrition goals of treatment of BN
1. Meal planning to establish regular eating
2. Adequate energy intake
...
3. Avoidance dieting behavior
...
4. Stimulus control strategies
...
Characteristics of Female Athlete Triad
1. Disordered Eating
2. Amenorrhea
...
3. Oseoporosis
...
Disordered Eating part of Female Athlete Triad
One or more harmful eating behaviors in an attempt to lose weight resulting in energy deficit.
Amenorrhea part of Female Athlete Triad
Insufficient energy availability which leads to a decrease in estrogen production, eventually results in menstrual irregularities and amenorrhea.
Osetoporosis/Osteoperie part of Female Athlete Triad
Lack of estrogen decreases calcium absorption and retention, as well as dietary deficiency leads to bone loss and fractures.
Some features of Anorexia Athletica
Decreased wt in absense of illness or affective disorder explaining the weight reduction. View of self worth by athletic ability. Possesses many features of ED.
Effect of low body weight or fat
Delayed menarche and amenorrhea
Effect of Extensive training before menarche
Delayed menarche
Effect of Increased phsychological stress
Increased endogenous opiods = depressed GnRH production.
Effect of low energy availability
Abnormal luteal phase.
Physical effects of EDs in athletes
Decreased FFM, Dehydration, Glycogen depletion, Hormonal disturbances, GI problems, Poor sleep, Decreased concentration, Poor ex performance, Increased risk injury.
Erickson's: Theory
Identity vs Role confusion
Adolescent: Age range
12 to 19 yrs
Adolescent: Growth spurts
Begin earlier with girls (possibly as 10); finish around 15
Boys catch up around 14; finish around 17
...
Adolescent:Cogitive
Adult-like thinking begins around 15/ Problem-solve & use abstract thinking
Adolescent:Physical changes
Secondary sex characteristics develop
Adolescent: Family dynamics
Family conflicts develop
stage 1 Oral or Oral sensory
0 - 18 mon.
basic trust v mistrust -consistency, predictability and reliability important - calm patience from care giver - must receive some amount of mistrust in order to develop a good sense of trust
...
corresponds to Freud Oral stage
...
anal = muscular anal stage 2
18 mon - 3 yrs
autonomy vs shame and doubt
...
me, mine no important claim a sense of autonomy
...
doing for self can result in shame - discretionary shame necessary to get a sense of limitations disgrace = can lead to further dependence rather autonomy
...
freud = anal stage
...
oedipal stage or locomotor genital stage 3
3 - 6 yrs
initiative vs guilt resolution of the oedipus conflict is important
...
guilt arises out of the sense that one shouldnt feel this way
...
SUPER EGO
...
internalization of expectations of family/environment
...
freud = phallic stage
...
latency stage 4
6 - 12 yrs
industry v inferiority
...
sublimation of sexual urges into learning
...
need to balance btween industry and over estimation of one's skills and abilities
...
competency means exercise of intelligence unimpaired by feelings of inferiority
...
freud = latency stage
...
puberty/genital stage = adolescence
12 -18 yrs
identity v role confusion
...
surge of sexual energy
...
adolescent is once again troubled by oedipus fantasies
...
adult child relationship - adult expectations vs treating them like children - conflict - role confusion
...
peer association needed
...
search for self/identity
...
clarity of identity needed to move on
...
young adulthood
18 - 20 yrs
intimacy v isolation
...
ability to love another and be in relationship important
...
cultural expectations of marriage
...
intimacy only possible once identity established
...
adutlhood
20 -55 yrs
generativity v stagnation
...
have kids, make money
...
if not engaged will become stagnant
...
old age
55-60 yrs +
ego integrity v despair
...
time of decline
...
task maintain sense of who they are despite loss of abilities
...
time of reflection/review despair if regrets ego integrity if not regrets
...
wisdom = acceptance adn perspective
...
stage 9
done by wife Joan - 80 - 90 yrs
issues of independence; self-esteem and competence weakened
...
mistrust own ability - hope gives way to despair issues of initiative and guilt - sense of purpose wanes
...
Erikson epigenesis
nature v nuture - concerned with how personality impacted after and not before birth personality unfolds in predetemined stages environ and culture influence how we progress - erikson believed in malleable ego - fluid theory of identity - can change over lifetime
Epigenetic Principle
all people genetically coded to follow developmental stages. Only thing is that each person reacts to stages differently
Crisis
a decision
Maldevelopment
not finding a balance
maladaptation
too much of a good characteristic
malignancy
too much of a bad characteristic
Trust versus mistrust
oral sensory stage
Autonomy versus Doubt
anal stage. Holding and letting go
Initiative versus guilt
phallic stage. Oedipul complex
Industriousness versus Inferiority
when our tools work we feel great, when they dont, we regress to previous stages
Identity cohesion versus role confusion
must meet and resolve our ego identity
Identity achievement
Struggle, then reached achievement
Moraturium
everything is happening. in an identity crisis. Needs/angry at authority
Foreclosure
making the decision before the crisis. Doing what people tell you to do
Diffusion
no crisis or occupational committment
Alienated Achievement
have achieved or have a goal, anarchy, go against society
Intimacy versus isolation
feelings of caring and commitment, begin to function as responsible adults
Generativity versus stagnation
teaching, guiding the next generation
Ego Integrity versus Despair
major endeavors at or near completion. Look back with either satisfaction or regret and frustration
Play Construction
Boys: exterior action based, height cars. Girls:static, peaceful scenes, low enclosed structures
crisis
a stage in identity development in which an individual is choosing between meaningful alternatives
identity diffusion
the state adolescents are in when they have not yet experienced an identity crisis or made any commitments (crisis and commitment are absent) (don't know what to do with life and, frankly, don't care)
identity foreclosure
the state adolescents are in when they have made a commitment but not experienced an identity crisis (crisis absent, but commitment present) (didn't explore careers on their own; e.g. going into the family business)
identity moratorium
the state of adolescents who are in the midst of an identity crisis but who have not made a clear commitment to an identity (crisis present, but commitment absent)
identity achievement
an adolescent who has undergone an identity crisis and made a commitment (crisis and commitment both present)
What are the two factors that account for one's status?
crisis and commitment
commitment
showing a personal investment in what you are going to do
Self Awareness
• The state of paying attention to oneself
• A state of attention wherein the object and subject of attention are the same
...
Private Self-Awareness
Attending to internal aspects of the self. Internal self-content (feelings and thoughts)
Public Self-Awareness
Attending to external aspects of the self. External self-content (appearance & behavior).
Self-Awareness Theory
(Duval & Wicklund, 1972) Self-awareness produces negative affect.
Cybernetic Theory of Self-Awareness
When people evaluate themselves negatively, they first consider if they can reduce the discrepancy.
How to Reduce Discrepancy
1. Increase performance (real self)
2. Decrease the standard (ideal self)
...
Exacerbated Self-Awareness
An increase in self-awareness under negative affect. Usually people who are not depressed decrease and avoid self-awareness.
Social Comparison Theory
The idea that we learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to other people
Evaluation & Affect
- Negative affect tends to increase negative evaluation
Self-enhancement
Focusing on positive feedback from others, exaggerating one's strengths, and seeing oneself as above average.
Self-improvement
Increasing one's qualities by one's own efforts
Self-evaluation maintenance model
a model that maintains that we are motivated to view ourselves in a favorable light and that we do so through two processes: reflection and social comparison
Comparison Effect
If someone outperforms us on a behavior relevant to our self-definition, the better his performance the closer our relationship, the greater the the threat to our self-evaluation. Makes us feel envious & frustrated.
Reflection Effect
If someone outperforms us on a behavior that is irrelevant to our self-definition, the better his performance the closer our relationship, the more we can gain in self-evaluation. Makes us feel prideful.
Self-Disclosure
The sharing of personal information and feelings
Benefits of Self Disclosure
1. Expression
2. Self-Clarification
...
3. Social Validation
...
4. Social Control
...
5. Relationship-Development
...
Risks of Self Disclosure
1. Rejection
2. Indifference
...
3. Betrayal
...
4. Loss of Control
...
Reciprocity Effect
Disclosure produces disclosure in return
Social Penetration Theory
a theory that proposes relationships develop through increases in self-disclosure
Gender Differences (Self-Disclosure)
Women tend to reveal more than men.
Spotlight Effect
The belief that others are paying more attention to our appearance and behavior than they really are.
Illusion of Transparency
The illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by others.
Self-concept
What we know and believe about ourselves.
Self-schema
Beliefs about self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information.
Possible Selves
Images of what we dream of or dread becoming in the future.
Social Comparison
Evaluating one's abilities and opininos by comparing oneself with others.
Individualism
The concept of giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications.
Independent Self
Construing one's identity as autonomous self.
Collectivism
Giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly.
Interdependent Self
Construing one's identity in relation to others.
Planning Fallacy
The tendency to underestimate how long it will take to complete a task.
Impact Bias
Overestimating the enduring impact of emotion-causing events.
Immune Neglect
The human tendency to underestimate the speed and the strength of the "psychological immune system," which enables emotional recovery and resilience after bad things happen.
Dual Attitude System
Differing implicit (automatic) and explicit (consciously controlled) attitudes toward the same object. Verbalized explicit attitudes may change with education and persuasion; implicit attiudes change slowly, with practice that forms new habit.
Self-esteem
A person's overall self-evaluation or sense of self-worth.
Terror Management Theory
Proposes that people exhibit self-protective emotional and cognitive responses (including adhering more strongly to their cultural worldviews and prejudices) when confronted with reminders of their mortality.
Self-efficacy
A sense that one is competent and effective, distinguished from self-esteem, which is one's sense of self-worth.
Locus of Control
The extent to which people perceive outcomes as internally controllable by their own efforts or as externally controlled by chance or outside forces.
Learned Helplessness
The sense of hopelessness and resignation learned when a human or animal perceives no control over repeated events.
Self-serving Bias
The tendency to perceive onself favorably.
Self-serving Attributions
A form of self-serving bias; the tendency to attribute positive outcomes to oneself and negative outcomes to other factors.
Defensive Pessimism
The adaptive value of anticipating problems and harnessing one's anxiety to motivate effective action.
False Consensus Effect
The tendency to overestimate the commonality of one's opinions and one's undesirable or unsuccessful behaviors.
False Uniqueness Effect
The tendency to underestimate he commonality of one's abilities and one's desirable or successful behaviors.
Group-serving Bias
Explaining away outgroup members' positive behaviors; also attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions (while excusing such behavior by one's own group).
Self-handicapping
Protecting one's self-image with behaviors that create a handy excuse for later failure.
Self-presentation
the act of expressing oneself and behaving in ways designed to create a favorable impression or an impression that corresponds to one's ideals.
Self-monitoring
Being attuned to the way one presents oneself in social situations and adjusting one's performance to create the desired impression.
Spotlight Effect
The belief that others are paying more attention to our appearance and behavior than they really are.
Illusion of Transparency
The illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by others.
Self-concept
What we know and believe about ourselves.
Self-schema
Beliefs about self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information.
Possible Selves
Images of what we dream of or dread becoming in the future.
Social Comparison
Evaluating one's abilities and opininos by comparing oneself with others.
Individualism
The concept of giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications.
Independent Self
Construing one's identity as autonomous self.
Collectivism
Giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly.
Interdependent Self
Construing one's identity in relation to others.
Planning Fallacy
The tendency to underestimate how long it will take to complete a task.
Impact Bias
Overestimating the enduring impact of emotion-causing events.
Immune Neglect
The human tendency to underestimate the speed and the strength of the "psychological immune system," which enables emotional recovery and resilience after bad things happen.
Dual Attitude System
Differing implicit (automatic) and explicit (consciously controlled) attitudes toward the same object. Verbalized explicit attitudes may change with education and persuasion; implicit attiudes change slowly, with practice that forms new habit.
Self-esteem
A person's overall self-evaluation or sense of self-worth.
Terror Management Theory
Proposes that people exhibit self-protective emotional and cognitive responses (including adhering more strongly to their cultural worldviews and prejudices) when confronted with reminders of their mortality.
Self-efficacy
A sense that one is competent and effective, distinguished from self-esteem, which is one's sense of self-worth.
Locus of Control
The extent to which people perceive outcomes as internally controllable by their own efforts or as externally controlled by chance or outside forces.
Learned Helplessness
The sense of hopelessness and resignation learned when a human or animal perceives no control over repeated events.
Self-serving Bias
The tendency to perceive onself favorably.
Self-serving Attributions
A form of self-serving bias; the tendency to attribute positive outcomes to oneself and negative outcomes to other factors.
Defensive Pessimism
The adaptive value of anticipating problems and harnessing one's anxiety to motivate effective action.
False Consensus Effect
The tendency to overestimate the commonality of one's opinions and one's undesirable or unsuccessful behaviors.
False Uniqueness Effect
The tendency to underestimate he commonality of one's abilities and one's desirable or successful behaviors.
Group-serving Bias
Explaining away outgroup members' positive behaviors; also attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions (while excusing such behavior by one's own group).
Self-handicapping
Protecting one's self-image with behaviors that create a handy excuse for later failure.
Self-presentation
the act of expressing oneself and behaving in ways designed to create a favorable impression or an impression that corresponds to one's ideals.
Self-monitoring
Being attuned to the way one presents oneself in social situations and adjusting one's performance to create the desired impression.
emerging adulthood
The period of life between the ages of 18 and 25. Emerging adulthood is now widely thought of as a separate developmental stage.
senescence
The process of aging, whereby the body becomes less strong and efficient.
homeostasis
The adjustment of all the body's systems to keep physiological functions in a state of equilibrium. As the body ages, it takes longer for these homeostatic adjustments to occur, so it becomes harder for older bodies to adapt to stress.
organ reserve
The capacity of organs to allow the body to cope with stress, via extra, unused functioning ability.
diathesis-stress model
The view that psychological disorders, such as schizophrenia, are produced by the interaction of a genetic vulnerability (the diathesis) and stressful environmental factors and life events.
hikikomori
A Japanese word literally meaning "pull away," it is the name of an anxiety disorder common among young adults in Japan. Sufferers isolate themselves from the outside world by staying inside their homes for months or even years at a time.
set point
A particular body weight that an individual's homeostatic processes strive to maintain.
body mass index (BMI)
The ratio of a person's weight in kilograms divided by his or her height in meters squared.
edgework
Occupations or recreational activities that involve a degree of risk or danger. The prospect of "living on the edge" makes edgework compelling to some individuals.
extreme sports
Forms of recreation that include apparent risk of injury or death and that are attractive and thrilling as a result. Motocross is one example.
drug abuse
The ingestion of a drug to the extent that it impairs the user's biological or psychological well-being.
drug addiction
A condition of drug dependence in which the absence of the given drug in the individual's system produces a drive—physiological, psychological, or both—to ingest more of the drug.
social norms approach
A method of reducing risky behavior that uses emerging adults' desire to follow social norms by making them aware, through the use of surveys, of the prevalence of various behaviors within their peer group.
Puberty phase 1
adrenarche- first increase of sex hormones from adrenal glanda.
- both male and females testosterone level rise
...
- testosterones correlated with frequency of masturbation, coitus, feeling turned on. A lot stronger for guys that girls
...
puberty phase 2
signal from hypothalamus to pituitary to gonads
Gonadarche- rise of sex steroids from gonads
...
- creates capacity for reproduction- ovulation, menarche, spemarche, and ejac
...
emotional issues due to puberty for males
penis anxiety- if it's big enough, and also the uncontrolled erections
ejaculation- wet dreams, ejac during masturbation & coitus
...
body size- the smaller males feel weak and inferior
...
acne- it's a sign of testosterone, but not desirable sign of masculinity
...
emotional issues due to puberty for females
breasts- if it's big enough, the shape indicates sexual attractiveness
vagina- the experience of wetness, may make them feel dirty
...
menstruation- "the curse" concern about hygiene25% feel as if it is unacceptable to talk to this with family
...
body size- feeling fat, unattractive
...
emotional responses to change in puberty
EMOTIONALLY
ambivalent- pride, stress, anxiety, embarrassed, ignorant of process
...
- 2 years lag of female makes them go for older guys, the peers may feel rejected
...
- 30% of males have high testosterones in early years of puberty
...
& 30% of females have high estrogen
...
reproductive capacity in teens
50% of teens feel like they don't have to ability to reproduce, will beat the odds...
- fertility can occur with first menstruation or first ejaculation, but usually doesn't
...
-paradoxical infertility: failure of early coital experience to result in pregnancy adds to disbelief about ultimate fertility.
...
Puberty indication in pre-industrialized society
- puberty is a biological transition to reproductive status
- puberty rite marks transition into adult social status/ ready to marry
...
- puberty and adulthood occur at same time
...
puberty indication in industrialized society
puberty marks the biological transition to reproductive status
-postponement of readiness to marry & adulthood: need for highly educated work force
...
- adolescence is an additional phase of child hood, no clear right of passage into adulthood
...
- many teens use coitus as a de facto rite of passage into adulthood.
...
virginity
technically means abstinence in coitus only.
while 50% still do manual stimulation 10% oral sex, 8% increase of abstinence from other non-coital behavior
...
attitude about teens with their virginity
- positive, they feel like its a gift to be shared with a loved one.. more typical for females.
- negative, teen feels undesirable, embarrassed, wants to come over this deficit.. more common for males.
...
- neutral, my time will come... everyone will have their first time
...
reasons for remaining abstinence from coitus
- fear of negative consequences like sti, and prego
- fear of disapproval from peers, parents, and partner
...
- fear of violating personal moral standards.
...
involuntary- NO ONE WANTS TO HAVE SEX WITH YOU; sad life.
...
factors for teens remaining abstinence from coitus
- teen is smart, and want to go to college and be successful.
-teens a good person, and goes to church
...
-parents are highly educated and are employed, esp. mother
...
- teens family are intact, and are active in the teen's life.
...
- teen lives in a healthy community
...
motivation for sex
curiosity
identity formation (adult, hetero)
...
want to control partner (rewards)
...
social norms ( peer approval, pressure)
...
proving to self (maturity & growth)
...
communicate to express self to partner
...
tension release- soothe conflicts
...
masturbation
male- 60-85% do this 1.7 times a week
females 40-75% do this .5 times a week
...
- can feel like a kid, and feel guilty
...
-comfort with masturbation correlates to later sex life. += satisfaction..
...
oral sex
40% males, 32% females have engaged in _____with peer. perceived as not real sex by teens, not serious & not as important as coitus
50% say that they do this to preserve virginity.
...
reaction to first coitus
males seem to wanted it more than females. the females seem uncertain.
- the males usually feel joyful, and mature while females feel guilt and shame.
...
predictability of pleasure for 1st coitus
1) erotophilia
2) safe place for sex
...
3) extensive childhood masturbation
...
4) use of contraceptives
...
romantic dyad
this means boyfriend, girlfriend
-move from mixed gender hanging out to dating
...
- find exclusive partner and going steady
...
- dating, cohabitation, and marriage
...
- higher rates and more effective use of contraception
...
- perception of being loved
...
-50% males and 75% female said first coitus was with a dating partner
...
buddy sex
friends with benefits, but not a one night stand.
- JUST sex, not relationship.
...
- can be former boyfriend, girlfriend or a previously non sexual friend
...
-55% of 11th graders have ____
...
hooking up
strangers sex, doesn't always have to be coitus.
28-49% - one night stands
...
no expectation of monogamy or friendship.
...
cognitive dimensions
conscious experience of sex approximate adult experience.
- use of same structures as adults, lack info for decision making
...
- strong feelings of urgency, invulnerability, and immortality
...
social dimension
path to self understanding, self esteem, and self acceptance.
- move o other orientation in late adolescence- more likely to view other as a person and respect feelings and point of view, develop empathy
...
gender dimension
female role- achievement is incompatible with femininity, smart girls arent sexy.. WTF...
male role- masculinity is linked to athletic prowness and economic success.
...
- females are less likely to see males as success objects than in the past decades.
...
-masculinity is a risk factor for suicide. - 5 times more higher rate for male than female teens.
...
- rigid male gender roles associated with date rape, stalking, view of women as a property.
...
gender difference of sexual socialization
males- contact comfort is acceptable in the context of genital sex.(contact comfort is disguised as genital sex)
females- genital sex is acceptable as contact comfort
...
(genital stimulation is disguised as contact comfort)
...
- males are seen as the doers assertive, and the females are the done-to
...
- males are scared of their autonomy, femaeles are concerned with threats to acceptance, safety
...
- males are more homophobic, females are more erotophobic
...
orientation dimension
11-14% males and 6-11% females report same sex experience, but most deevlop hetero identity
5% are ambisexual at 17
...
erotic dimension
erotophics and erotophilics have the same rate as being virgins, but philics are less likely to have std and prego.
- erotophobes are more likely to have external rather than internal locus of control.
...
- erotophobes usually feel ****** after having sex. .. guilt, shame, need to be punished.
...
teen prego
declined since the 60's. -28%, but pregnant teen marriage dropped from 60's
most of the guys who impregnate a girl is over 20.
...
factors of teen pregos
- the westernized worlds have the same amount of teen sex, but lower pregos.
- effect of abortion policy
...
- effect of erotophobia- higher pregos
...
-effect of sexual abuse.- usually the father(21+) is much other than the teen girls(12-15)
...
- 66% of teen moms were sexually abused.
...
can either be prego by abuser, or feel like they loss autonomy and is more erotophobic... impaired ability to negotiate no for sex.
...
- poor sex edu- Higher pregnancy compared to european- dutch & danes... they have just as much sex as people in US!
...
- education can be not effective in US
...
- poverty & welfare benefits
...
-
...
coming out process
1) role strain, feeling different
2) identity confusion(12-17)- increase awareness
...
3) identity acceptance, assumption (17-25)- coming out the closet
...
4) identity commitment-pride (25+) coming out to a gay and lesbian community
...
5) identity integration and synthesis (middle adult years)- coming out to straight communities.
...
coming out process influence of sex behaviors
playing out hetero role including other-sex gender sex but being aware something is uncomfortable
- attempt to pass as heteo socially, but remain abstinent- other- gender sex is impossible
...
- experiment same sex activity with peer, but kept a secret.
...
- delayed in homoerotic sex.
...
teenage sexual activity
includes sexual intercourse & other sexual acts for adolescents <20; have increased risk for sexually transmitted disease, pregnancy, & early parenthood
factors that contribute to sexual activity
peer pressure, need to belong, media messages
HP 2020 Objectives
- increase the proportion of adolescents aged no older than 17 who have never had sexual intercourse,
- reduce pregnancy rates among adolescent females,
...
- increase proportion of sexually active teens 15-19 who use contraception to prevent pregnancy and transmission of disease
...
- increase proportion of teens who received formal reproductive health topic instruction before they turn 18
...
oral sex
common - 25% of teens use oral sex as a substitute for intercourse; is also as common as intercourse; most are unaware of risk of STD with oral sex
global teen sexual behaviors
U.S. provides little info about contraception, teens here have less access to health insurance, parental consent is required for sex education, receive federal funding for "abstinence-only" sex education
factors associated w/ sexual activity
peer & intimacy needs; racial/ethnic differences; religious influences on sexual activity; socioeconomic status, family composition, & risky behaviors
STDs more common among females
chlamydia and gonorrhea
early onset of sexual activity
increases risks for multiple partners, unprotected sex, and STDs
rates of STDs are higher in
racial and ethnic minorities as well as teens living in poverty
contraceptive use
increased since 1980s; young, poor, and poorly educated are less likely to use birth control
percentage of teens that use condoms
66%
percentage of girls that use birth control pills
61%
percentage of teens who use two methods of birth control
25%
teen pregnancy
U.S. has a high rate for a developed country; 750,000 teens pregnant each year; 87% are unintended; 1 in 3 teen girls become pregnant
results of teen pregnancy
high school drop outs, poverty, limited occupational choices
TANF
Temporary Assistance to Needy Families - limit of 2 consecutive years and a total of 5 years
consequences of early pregnancy
medical complications like low birth weights and poorer outcomes; educational & economical consequences; cycle of poverty; less prenatal care; substance use and violence
psychosocial consequences & effects family dynamics
...
physical consequences to mother
hypertension; toxemia (edema & protein in urine); anemia; may deliver prematurely; eclampsia (toxic condition w/ convulsions, may lead to coma; happens right after pregnancy)
consequences to newborn & children
higher rate of still births and infant mortality; congenital anomalies are higher
teen fathers
have money and educational problems; need to teach about birth control, role in pregnancy & childcare, improving parenting skills and lifestyle changes
legal issues and teen access to services
exceptions to parental consent; there are state & federal efforts with consent laws; abortion consent is more restrictive; there is legal ambiguity with things like Plan B (emergency contraceptive) and requiring a prescription
nursing role - primary prevention
educate to delay or stop sexual activity, contraception, have goals - SEX EDUCATION, contraception
nursing role - secondary prevention
early detection, prenatal care, parenting education - PRENATAL CARE
nursing role - tertiary prevention
community resources for contraception after birth, parenting skills - SUPPORT SERVICES
U.S. has higher rates of
teen pregnancy, abortion, and birth
pregnant teens are at a higher risk for
complications
adolescents with children
more likely to discontinue education; need public assistance; poor work history
role of the community/public health nurse
sex education and assisting with parenting skills
Life-Span development
Development from birth through old age
Attachment
a psychological nod that develops between and infant and the mother. the father or other caregiver
Gender-Segregated Social Organization
a general form of social grouping in which males play and associate with other males, and females play and associate with other females; that is, the genders are separate from one another
Sexulatization
occurs when a person is valued only for sex appeal or behavior; is held to a standard that equates physical attractiveness with being sexy; is sexually objectified; or sexuality is inappropriately imposed upon a person
Peggy Lee Syndrom
the feelings of disappointment experience by teenage girls ate first intercourse when it is not as thrilling as they expected
Abstinence Standard
a standard in which premarital intercourse is considered wrong, regardless of the circumstances
Permissiveness with Affection
a standard in which premarital intercourse is considered acceptable if it occurs in the context of a loving, committed relationship
Permissiveness without Affection
a standard in which premarital intercourse is acceptable without emotional committement
Double Standard
a standard in which premarital intercourse is considered acceptable for males but not for females
Serial Monogamy
a premarital sexual pattern in which there is an intention of being faithful to the partner, but the relationship may end and the person will then move on to another partner
Hooking Up
a sexual encounter that usually occurs on one occasion involving people who are strangers or aquaintances
Sexting
a sending of sexually charged messages or images by cell phone
Sexual identity
learning to manage sexual feelings and developing new forms of intimacy.
Sexuality in Media
messages about sex are often unrealistic and stereotypical.
Media exposure
related to increased sexual activity.
Sexual script
A stereotyped pattern of role prescriptions for how individuals should behave sexually.
Early sexual activity
associated with drug use, delinquency, and school related problems.
Risk factors for sexual problems
poverty, single parent homes, deviant peers, poor parent-child communication, low/no parental monitoring, weak self-regulation and sensation seeking.
Protective factors for sexual problems
family connectedness, parent-adolescent communication about sexuality, parental monitoring, school connectedness (better academic achievement), spirituality, peer or older youth mentoring about prosocial behavior, a positive or future outlook.
Sexual minority
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer.
Homophobia
Discomfort over close personal interaction with people thought to be gay, lesbian, or bisexual
STIs
Infections that are contracted primarily through sexual contact.
AIDs
an STI caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which destroys the body's immune system.
Genital Herpes
(virus) 20% of adolescents have this STI,
Genital Warts
(virus) caused by HPV. It is the most common STI in 15-24 year olds.
Gonorrhea
Bacteria that can cause fertility problems.
Syphilis
A bacteria that, if untreated, final stages can include cardiovascular disease, blindness, paralysis, mental problems. and death.
Chlamydia
10% of college students have this bacteria.
Rape
Forcible intercourse with a person who does not give consent.
Characteristics of Rapists
-aggression enhances feelings of masculinity or power (hostile attitudes towards women)
Date Rape/ Aquaintence rap
Rape directed at someone whom the perpetrator knows
Sexual dysfunctions
Often occurs in rape victims:
-depression, fear anxiety, lifestyle changes
...
c
Individuals who are about the same age or maturity level are called
A) friends.
...
B) colleagues.
...
C) peers.
...
D) classmates.
...
c?
Which of the following statements about peer contexts is NOT true?
A) Peer contexts include type of peer and the situation or location where the interaction takes place.
...
B) Adolescents encounter different messages from different peers.
...
C) Susceptibility to peer pressure has to do with the setting of the peer interaction.
...
D) Susceptibility to peer pressure has to do with parental monitoring of adolescents and peers.
...
b
Which of the following is NOT a positive aspect of peer relationships?
A) exploring principles of fairness and justice by working through disagreements with peers
...
B) feeling hostile or lonely because of the hurt of being rejected by peers
...
C) learning to be sensitive partners in intimate relationships by forging close friendships with selected peers
...
D) learning to be keen observers of peers' interests in order to integrate into the peer group
...
c
Being rejected or overlooked by peers can lead some adolescents to
A) become closer to their parents.
...
B) be vulnerable to cult recruiters.
...
C) feel lonely or hostile.
...
D) become closer to their siblings.
...
b
Deviant peer relations have been linked to all of the following EXCEPT
A) substance abuse.
...
B) eating disorders.
...
C) delinquent behavior.
...
D) depression.
...
c
Cheri has a secure attachment to her parents. What might this attachment mean to her attachment to her peers?
A) She will very likely be insecurely attached to her peers.
...
B) She will very likely be securely attached to her peers.
...
C) The parent-adolescent attachment pattern is not strongly indicative of the adolescent peer relationship.
...
D) There is no correlation at all between attachment to parents and attachment to peers.
...
c
A recent study by Mitchell Prinstein and colleagues revealed that adolescents who have _____ are most likely to conform to peers.
A) high self-esteem
...
B) low social anxiety
...
C) an uncertain social identity
...
D) none of these
...
a
Which of the following statements regarding conformity to peer pressure has recent research found to be TRUE?
A) Social identity uncertainly is linked to peer conformity.
...
B) Social identity uncertainty decreases in times of school transition.
...
C) Social identity uncertainly decreases in time of family transitions.
...
D) Peers are most likely to conform to peers whom they perceive to be at the same level of social status.
...
a
Which of the following statements about popular children is TRUE?
A) Popular children have social skills that contribute to their being well-liked.
...
B) Popular children are usually conceited.
...
C) Popular children often have difficulty communicating with their peers.
...
D) Popular children are often described as "shy" by their peers.
...
c
Brenda listens carefully to her friends, controls her own negative emotions, and is self confident. Brenda is most likely classified as a(n) _____ child.
A) controversial
...
B) average
...
C) popular
...
D) neglected
...
a
Alex is described as "shy" by his peers; he has a low rate of interaction with peers. Alex is likely to be classified as a(n) _____ child.
A) neglected
...
B) rejected
...
C) average
...
D) controversial
...
c
The best predictor of whether rejected children engage in delinquent behavior or drop out of school later, during adolescence is
A) low rates of interactions with their peers.
...
B) aggression towards peers in junior high school.
...
C) aggression towards peers in elementary school.
...
D) use of alcohol in ninth grade.
...
b
About what percentage of rejected children are actually shy, rather than aggressive?
A) 5 to 8
...
B) 10 to 20
...
C) 25 to 30
...
D) 45 to 50
...
d
Which of the following actions is most likely to increase the probability that an adolescent will be popular?
A) giving out reinforcements to peers
...
B) comforting a friend
...
C) sharing private information with a friend
...
D) all of these
...
c
Children who have peer-related difficulties have been found to
A) come from lower socioeconomic status homes.
...
B) be overweight or obese.
...
C) lack social cognitive skills.
...
D) all of these
...
b
Planning ahead, generating multiple solutions to hypothetical problems, and evaluating physically aggressive responses negatively are all
A) emotional regulation skills.
...
B) social cognitive skills.
...
C) self-efficacy skills.
...
D) prosocial skills.
...
b
Tony has not adjusted well to the peer group at his new school. When another boy accidentally bumps into Tony at a school dance, Tony will be MOST likely to
A) ignore the bump and continue talking to the chaperone who has befriended him.
...
B) aggressively attack the other boy because he assumes that he was bumped on purpose.
...
C) verbally lash out, but he won't be physically aggressive.
...
D) ask those around him if he was bumped on purpose.
...
c
According to Kenneth Dodge, the first step in processing information about our social world is
A) interpreting social cues.
...
B) searching for an appropriate response.
...
C) decoding social cues.
...
D) selecting an appropriate response.
...
d
Yvonne's friend tells her that her new sweater is "like an old-lady sweater—not cool." Yvonne is angry, but she doesn't explode. She says, "I like it," and walks into her class. Yvonne is demonstrating
A) nonassertive behavior.
...
B) assertive behavior.
...
C) emotional blunting.
...
D) emotional self-regulation.
...
a
Conglomerate strategies are
A) the use of multiple techniques to improve adolescents' social skills.
...
B) also known as brainstorming.
...
C) the most effective kinds of problem-solving skills.
...
D) a team approach to teaching social sciences.
...
d
James is actively disliked by his peers. He seems to have no idea how to enter a conversation with others; he frequently barges in and starts talking about an entirely different topic. Which of the following conglomerate strategies might assist James to be more accepted by his peers?
A) Offer comments about the interests of the peer group.
...
B) Listen quietly and slowly ease into a conversation.
...
C) Don't try to change the dynamics of the group.
...
D) All of these strategies could help James.
...
b
Mrs. Brice has several adolescents in her class who are clearly regarded as "weird" by their peers. In order to change the attitude of the majority group toward these few students, Mrs. Brice implements a strategy in which
A) the whole class undergoes social-skills training.
...
B) the whole class works together on a common goal of organizing a food drive.
...
C) the outcast students are paired with sympathetic classmates in hopes of raising their popularity.
...
D) none of these happens.
...
d
Providing a friend with amusement is a function of friendship called
A) ego support.
...
B) social comparison.
...
C) companionship.
...
D) stimulation.
...
b
Rosemary encourages her friend Meredith to try harder in her biology class. Rosemary tells Meredith that she can get a good grade and offers to give her feedback on her reports. Which function of friendship is Rosemary providing for Meredith?
A) intimacy/affection
...
B) ego support
...
C) stimulation
...
D) social comparison
...
b
Which of the following is NOT one of the basic social needs identified by Harry Stack Sullivan?
A) need for secure attachment
...
B) need for competitive companionship
...
C) need for intimacy
...
D) need for social acceptance
...
c
Which of the basic social needs identified by Sullivan intensifies in early adolescence?
A) the need for a secure attachment
...
B) the need for playful companionship
...
C) the need for intimacy
...
D) the need for sexual relations
...
b
Which of the following statements about adolescent friendships is NOT true?
A) Adolescents, more than children, have to learn more complex skills to maintain friendships.
...
B) Children have more intimate friendships than adolescents.
...
C) In adolescence, friendships provide a source of support.
...
D) In adolescence, friends act more as confidants.
...
a
Which of the following statements regarding the quality of adolescent friendships is TRUE?
A) Conflict-ridden friendships are developmentally disadvantageous.
...
B) Poor-quality friendships are better than no friendships at all.
...
C) It is more important to consider the number of friendships than the quality of the friendships.
...
D) Most adolescents have similar types of problems.
...
a
Tara's friends are in honors courses, and they all have high grade-point averages. It is likely that Tara
A) also has positive achievement in school.
...
B) suffers anxiety trying to compete with her friends for grades.
...
C) turns her attention to sports, rather than academics.
...
D) does none of these.
...
b
A high degree of similarity between friends is known as
A) hemophilia.
...
B) homophily.
...
C) homophobia.
...
D) intimacy.
...
b
Chronic loneliness has been linked to
A) impaired cognition.
...
B) impaired physical health.
...
C) poor grades.
...
D) stealing.
...
b
Which of the following statements regarding child and adolescent groups is NOT true?
A) Adolescent groups are more mixed or heterogeneous than children's groups.
...
B) Opposite-sex participation in social groups decreases in adolescence.
...
C) Adolescent groups are more formalized than children's groups.
...
D) Rules are more well-defined in adolescent groups than in children's groups.
...
c
The average number of individuals in a clique is
A) 10 to 12.
...
B) 15.
...
C) 5 to 6.
...
D) 3 to 5.
...
d
Which of the following statements regarding adolescent crowds is TRUE?
A) Crowds are larger than cliques.
...
B) Crowds are less personal than cliques.
...
C) Crowds may or may not spend much time together.
...
D) All of these are true.
...
b
Reputation-based crowds often appear first during
A) late childhood.
...
B) early adolescence.
...
C) late adolescence.
...
D) emerging adulthood.
...
a
Gini is very active in her local chapter of Young Libertarians. Compared to her counterparts who do not participate in youth groups, Gini is more likely to
A) have higher self-esteem.
...
B) be more radical.
...
C) take more history and political science courses in school.
...
D) take part in political demonstrations.
...
b
Recent research found that vulnerable youth who participate in positive extracurricular activities in high school were more likely than non-participants to
A) enter the military.
...
B) enroll in college.
...
C) volunteer in their communities as adults.
...
D) do none of these.
...
c
Boys are more likely than girls to do all of the following EXCEPT
A) participate in organized sports.
...
B) engage in risk-taking.
...
C) associate in small groups.
...
D) engage in "collaborative discourse."
...
c
Megan has a problem with her boyfriend's intense jealousy. She and her friends talk constantly about her problem, focusing on nothing else. According to research, this co-rumination is likely to result in
A) resolution of the problem for Megan.
...
B) decrease in positive friendship quality with her friends.
...
C) an increase in depressive symptoms for Megan.
...
D) all of these.
...
d
Janet dates Ryan primarily because he is popular and good-looking. Which of the following functions of dating does this fulfill for Janet?
A) mate selection
...
B) socialization
...
C) recreation
...
D) status
...
c
The average age of the initial same-sex activity for females is
A) 10 to 14.
...
B) 18 to 22.
...
C) 14 to 18.
...
D) 12 to 16.
...
b
The average age of initial same-sex activity for males is
A) 11 to 13.
...
B) 13 to 15.
...
C) 15 to 17.
...
D) 17 to 19.
...
a
Lydia is a sexually active lesbian adolescent. Which of the following is probably TRUE for Lydia?
A) She has had sex with boys before a same-sex encounter.
...
B) Her initial same-sex encounter was with a casual acquaintance.
...
C) She is in love with her current partner.
...
D) She is open with her parents about her romantic life.
...
a
Researchers have found a link between early dating and
A) adolescent pregnancy.
...
B) suicide.
...
C) eating disorders.
...
D) none of these.
...
b
Most adolescent love is characterized by
A) affectionate love.
...
B) romantic love.
...
C) companionate love.
...
D) agape.
...
d
The type of love characterized by the desire to have another person near and to have a deep, caring
affection for that person is called
...
A) eros.
...
B) agape.
...
C) filial love.
...
D) affectionate love.
...
a
Shirlee and John are both widowed and they have found that they want to be with each other and to grow old together. They both say, "romance is for the young," and they are happy with their relationship. Shirlee and John share which type of love?
A) companionate
...
B) erotic
...
C) agape
...
D) filial
...
d
Most boys and girls who date each other
A) come from similar ethnic backgrounds.
...
B) come from similar socioeconomic backgrounds.
...
C) have similar academic success.
...
D) all of these
...
b
Judy has a pattern of choosing partners whom she perceives to be unresponsive and unavailable. It is probable that Judy had a _____ attachment to her parents.
A) preoccupied/ambivalent
...
B) dismissive/avoidant
...
C) disorganized
...
D) secure
...
d
Debra's parents have a high level of marital conflict. According to research, as an emerging adult, Debra is likely to have romantic relationships that are:
A) stable.
...
B) warm and nurturing.
...
C) superficial.
...
D) conflicted.
...
c
Research shows all of the following to be true of adolescents' friendships and later romantic relationships EXCEPT
A) intimate friendships form the basis for later dating and marital relationships.
...
B) adolescents who are part of a mixed-gender peer group move more readily into romantic relationships.
...
C) young adolescents decrease their mixed-gender peer group participation.
...
D) mixed-gender groups are important to the development of romantic relationships.
...
c
Which of the following is NOT likely to be part of a dating script for females?
A) enjoying the date.
...
B) concern for appearance.
...
C) initiating the date.
...
D) responding to her date's sexual gestures.
...
...
When parents impose strict rules on the dating behavior of their adolescent children, the adolescents frequently deal with this conflict by
A) dating without the knowledge of their parents.
...
B) having a teacher or coach talk to their parents about the norms of dating in the U.S.
...
C) abiding by their parents' rules but showing open hostility.
...
D) doing none of these.
...
d
Approximately what percentage of U.S. couples cohabit before marriage today?
A) 45 percent
...
B) 55 percent
...
C) 65 percent
...
D) 75 percent
...
a
Which of the following statements about cohabitation is NOT true?
A) Almost all cohabitating couples plan to marry at some point.
...
B) Cohabitating couples' relationships are usually short-lived.
...
C) Fewer than 10 percent of cohabitating couples are still living together after five years.
...
D) Relationships between cohabitating couples tend to be more equal than those of husbands and wives.
...
b
Lisa lives with her boyfriend, Jeff. According to recent research, Lisa is more at risk for _____
than her married counterparts.
...
A) depression
...
B) partner violence
...
C) alcoholism
...
D) eating disorders
...
c
Which of the following statements regarding marriage trends in the United States is NOT true?
A) Marriage rates in the United States have declined in recent years.
...
B) The average duration of marriage in the United States is 15 years.
...
C) More than 90 percent of women will marry at some point in their lives.
...
D) More adults are remaining single for longer periods of time.
...
c
Research on premarital education has shown all of the following to be true EXCEPT
A) Premarital education has been linked to lower rates of divorce.
...
B) Premarital education has been linked to lower levels of destructive marital conflict.
...
C) Premarital education is best if the couple begins classes at least a year before the marriage.
...
D) Premarital education focuses on relationship advice.
...
d
Flora and Amy are a lesbian couple. They have been together for 12 years and characterize their relationship as happy. Which of the following is likely to be TRUE of their relationship?
A) They try to find a balance between romantic love, affection, autonomy, and equality.
...
B) They have conflict in the same areas that heterosexual couples do (finances, household chores, etc.)
...
C) They place a high priority on equality in their relationship.
...
D) All of these.
...
Peers
people of the same age who share similar interests.
One of the most important fuction of the peer group
Is to provide a source of information about the world outside the family
Deciding on specific lifestyles is more important in
Emerging adulthood
Cliques and crowds take on more importance
As adolescents "hang out" together
Peer interaction is influnces by
Peer context
Peer context
advancing moral development, Peer interaction, Sharing, Fairness and Equality
Peer context is also influnced
By how effectively parents manage adolscents peers interaction and whether adult are present (Mount, 2012)
Individual difference factor
Personality traits can affect peer interaction, One individual difference that has been found to impair peer relations is the trait of negative emotionality
Peer pressure
Around the 8th and 9th grades, conformity to peers especiall to their antisocial standards peaks, Adolescents who are uncertain about their social identity are most likely to conform to peers (low self-esteem, social aniety)
Peers are mostly likely to conform
when they are in the presence of somone they perceive to have higher status than they do
What are some of the ways the world parent and peers are connected
Parents choices of neighborhood, churches, schools, and their own friends influences the pool from which their adolescents select possible friend. Parents can model or coach their adolescents in ways of relationing to peer
Sociometric status
a measurement that reflects the degree to which children are liked or disliked by their peers as a group
How is sociometric status assessed
By asking children to rate how much they like or dislike each of their classmates or by asking children and adolescents to nominate the peers they like the most ant those they like the least
Developmentalist have distinguished 5 types of peer status (Wentzel & Asher)
Popular children are frequently nominated as a best friend and are rarely disliked by their peers, Average children recieve an average number of both positive and negative nominations from their peers, Neglected children are infrequently nominated as a best friend but are not diliked by their peers, Rejected children are infrequently nominated as somones best friend and are actively disliked by the peers, Controversial children are frequently nominated both as somones best friend and being disliked
Dodge argues that adolescents go through 5 steps in processing information about their social world
Decoding of social cues, Interpretation, Reponse search, Selection of an optimal respoonse, Enactment
Social cognitive and emotion
involves thoughts about social matters, as children move into adolescence they more they acquire social knowledge
Social intelligence is related
To peer popularity but not to academic achievement
From social cognitive perspective
Children and adolescents may have difficulty in peer relations because they lack appropriate social cognitive skills
Popular children
children who are frequently nominated as a best friend and are rarely disliked by their peers
Average children
children who receive an average number of both positive and negative nominations from their peers
neglected children
children who are infrequently nominated as a best friend but are not disliked by their peers
rejected children
children who are infrequently nominated as a best friend and are actively disliked by their peers
controversial children
children who are frequently nominated both as someone's best friend and as being disliked
Decoding of social cues
Stop, calm down , and think before you act
Interpretation
Go over the problem and state how you feel
Response search
set a positive goal
Selection of an optimal reponse
think a lot of solution
enactment
plan a head for the consequences
Friendship
Are a subset of peers who engage in mutual companionship, support, and intimacy
The fuction that adolescents can serve can be categorized in 6 ways (Gottman & Parker)
Companionship, stimulation, physical support, ego support, social comparison, intimacy/ affection
Companionship
friendship provides adolescents with a familiar partner, somone who will to spend time with them and join in collaborative activies
stimulation
friendship provide adolescents with interesting information excitement and amusement
Physical support
Friendship provide resources and assistance
Ego support
friendship provide the expectation of support, encouragement, and feedback that hels adolescents to maintain an impression of themselves as competent, attractive, and worthwhile individual
Social comparison
friendships provides information about where adolescents stand vis-a-vis others and whether adoleescents are doing okay
Intimacy/ affection
friendship provides adolescents with a warm, close, trusting relationship with another individual, a relationship with another individual, a relationship that involve self-disclosure
The most influential theorist in the study od adolescent friendships
Harry Stack Sullivan
The difference between friendship of emerging adulthood and adolescents
Close relationships in emerging adulthood were more intergrated
Willard Hartup
concluded that children and adolescents use friends as coginitive and social resources on a regular basis
The quality of a friendship is also important to consider
developmental advantages occur when adolescents have friends who are socially skilled, supportive, and oriented toward academic achievement
In the context of friendship intimacy has been defined as
In most studieds, it is defined narrowly as self-disclosure or sharing of private thoughts
The most important finding in research on adolescent friendships is that
intimacy is an important feature of friendship
Similarity is referred to as
Homophily, the tendency to associate with similar others
Childhood groups
often are friends or neighborhood acquaintances
Childhood groups
are not as formalized as many adolescent s groups
Adolescent groups
tend to include a broader array of member
Chronic loneliness
Is linked with impaired physical and mental health, It is important to distinguish loneliness from the desire for solitude, it is also interwoven with the passage through life transitions.
Cliques
Are small groups that range from 2 to about 12 individuals and adverage about 5 to 6 individuals
Cliques
member are usually of the same sex and age,
How are cliques formed
because adolescents engage in similar activities, such as being in a club together or on a sports team
Crowds
are large and less personal
Adolescents are usually member of a crowd based on
reputation and they may or may not spend much time together, many of these gruoops are defined by the activities adolescents engage in
Reputation -based crowed often appear for the first time
in early adolescence and usually becomes less prominent in late adolescence
Boys are more likely than girls
to associate in large clusters
Boys are more likely than girls to
engage in competition, conflict, ego, displays, risk taking to seek dominance
Females are more likely to
engage in collaborative dicourse in which they talk and act in reciprocal manner
Females friendship in adolescence are more focued on
intimacy
Boyts friendships are focused on
power and excitment
Heterosexual romatic relationship are chacterized by 3 stages
Entry into romantic attraction and affiliation 11 to 13 triggered by puberty and developing a crush is common, Exploring romantic relationships 14 to 16 casual dating in groups, consolidating dyadic romantic bond 17 to 19 characterized by strong emotional bonds more closely resembling those in adult romatic relationships
Romantic love (passionate love or eros)
strong sexual and infatuation components often predominated inthe early part of a love relationship (characterized by most adolescents by love and also extremely important among college student
Affection love (companionate love)
when individual desires to have another person near and have a deep caring affection for that person (more characterized as adult love)
Dating script
cognitive models that guide interactions for love and relationships, socioculture context a powerful influences, Values and religious beliefs of people in various culture often dictate
c
The two main approaches to student learning are constructivist and
A) deconstructivist.
...
B) instrumental.
...
C) direct instruction.
...
D) cooperative.
...
d
Which of the following statements regarding the constructivist view of student learning is TRUE?
A) It is learner-centered.
...
B) Individuals actively construct their knowledge.
...
C) Teachers are guides to learning.
...
D) All of these are true.
...
a
In Mr. Durgan's U.S. history class, students work in teams to explore, research, and present a topic to the class. They can choose from a list of topics or propose a topic to the teacher for approval. Mr. Durgan serves as their guide and mentor for the project. This is an example of
A) the constructivist approach to learning.
...
B) the jigsaw classroom.
...
C) direct instruction.
...
D) an open education approach.
...
b
4. An important goal in the direct instruction approach to learning is
A) collaboration.
...
B) maximizing student learning time.
...
C) the development of critical thinking skills.
...
D) none of these.
...
a
Which of the following statements regarding the direct approach to learning is NOT true?
A) It is a student-centered approach.
...
B) It is a teacher-centered approach.
...
C) It is a passive approach.
...
D) It emphasizes time on academic tasks.
...
c
6. Ms. Carter teaches a high-school civics class. She lectures and uses PowerPoint slides to illustrate her main points, has the students memorize key facts, and keeps the students focused on the material. Ms. Carter is using which approach to learning?
A) critical thinking
...
B) nontraditional
...
C) direct instruction
...
D) constructivist
...
c
7. One of the criticisms of the direct instruction approach to learning is that it
A) is boring for the learners.
...
B) focuses too much on the development of critical thinking and not enough of the content of the discipline.
...
C) turns children into passive learners.
...
D) wastes valuable class time.
...
c
No Child Left Behind places responsibility for student learning primarily on
A) the federal government.
...
B) individual towns and communities.
...
C) the states.
...
D) teachers' unions.
...
a
All of the following are areas of competency in which students are required by the No Child Left Behind Act to be regularly tested EXCEPT
A) social studies.
...
B) math.
...
C) science.
...
D) English and language arts.
...
d
Which of the following is a criticism of No Child Left Behind?
A) Using a single test score represents a narrow aspect of students' skills.
...
B) Teachers spend too much time "teaching to the test."
...
C) It limits ability to develop higher-level thinking skills.
...
D) All of these are criticisms.
...
d
The transition to middle school or junior high school is stressful because
A) students have less independence than they did in elementary school.
...
B) students have to shift to a team-oriented approach.
...
C) students have too many subjects from which to select their courses.
...
D) many changes are taking place at the same time.
...
b
Employers expect employees to have all of the following basic skills EXCEPT the ability to
A) communicate effectively both verbally and in writing.
...
B) do basic geometry.
...
C) read at relatively high levels.
...
D) solve semi-structured problems.
...
c
Which of the following statements regarding high school dropouts is TRUE?
A) Females are more likely to drop out of school than males.
...
B) The highest drop-out rate in the United States is among Latinos.
...
C) U.S. high-school dropout rates have declined in recent years.
...
D) The drop-out rate for Latino students has been increasing in the 21st century.
...
d
In one study, almost 50 percent of dropouts said their primary reason for leaving school was
A) peer-related.
...
B) personal.
...
C) economic.
...
D) school-related.
...
d
Which of the following statements regarding school dropouts is NOT true?
A) Students from low-income families are more likely to drop out than those from middle-income families.
...
B) A positive trajectory towards academic success is related to good parent-adolescent relationships in early adolescence.
...
C) Approximately one-third of the girls who drop out do so for personal reasons.
...
D) Almost 50 percent of students drop out due to personal problems.
...
a
Mrs. Grundy, a superintendent of schools, wants to implement strategies that will decrease the dropout rate in her district. According to research, what should Mrs. Grundy concentrate on FIRST?
A) Early detection and remediation of children's learning difficulties.
...
B) Allowing adolescents to have shorter school days so that they can work and contribute financially to their families.
...
C) Developing comprehensive sex-education programs to decrease teen pregnancy rates.
...
D) Developing more exciting curricula so that students won't drop out from boredom.
...
a
Which of the following statements regarding the social context of schools is NOT true?
A) The school environment increases in scope and complexity as children move into middle and junior high schools.
...
B) Adolescents socially interact with many different teachers and peers.
...
C) Social behavior is heavily weighted towards peers, extracurricular activities, clubs, and community.
...
D) The classroom is the social system.
...
a
Mr. Delaney encourages his students to be independent thinkers and doers, but he still monitors them and provides clear rules and regulations for his classroom. He engages his students in considerable verbal exchanges about the subject matter and displays a caring attitude towards them. Mr. Delaney has which of the following classroom management strategies?
A) authoritative
...
B) authoritarian
...
C) semi-permissive
...
D) laissez-faire
...
d
Students in authoritarian classrooms often develop
A) passive learning habits.
...
B) poor communication skills.
...
C) anxiety about social comparison.
...
D) all of these.
...
c
Students in permissive strategy classrooms have all of the following EXCEPT
A) low self-control.
...
B) considerable autonomy.
...
C) support for developing learning skills.
...
D) inadequate academic skills.
...
d
Which of the following factors has adolescent expert Jacquelynne Eccles identified as a problem for adolescents entering middle school or junior high school?
A) Teachers become more lax at the same time that young adolescents need more structure.
...
B) Teachers become more like surrogate parents when young adolescents need less warmth and adult interest.
...
C) A decreased emphasis on grades makes things less stressful.
...
D) Teachers become more controlling at a time when young adolescents are seeking more autonomy.
...
a
Which of the following teacher traits is most strongly associated with higher student achievement?
A) positive teacher expectations
...
B) enthusiasm
...
C) ability to plan structured lessons
...
D) poise
...
c
Which of the following statements regarding parental involvement in adolescents' schooling is TRUE?
A) Most parents are fairly knowledgeable about normal adolescent development.
...
B) Parents and teachers usually get to know each other well at the high-school level.
...
C) Parents need to receive better information about curricular choices.
...
D) Parents' involvement needs to decrease by the time their children are in high school.
...
a?
The most frequent type of bullying is
A) being belittled about looks or speech.
...
B) having false rumors and gossip spread.
...
C) being hit or pushed.
...
D) none of these.
...
d
Which of the following individuals is MOST likely to be bullied?
A) Tom, a ninth grader who is somewhat aggressive.
...
B) Janet, a quiet but popular seventh grader.
...
C) Agnes, a studious tenth grader.
...
D) Peter, a somewhat anxious and withdrawn sixth grader.
...
c
Which of the following students is most likely to be a bully?
A) Skyler, who has average grades and is fairly popular.
...
B) Donald, who drinks alcohol and has some mild depressive symptoms.
...
C) Evie, who is shy and socially withdrawn from her peers.
...
D) Lisa, who is an honor student but suffers from anxiety.
...
b
Eddie lives in a housing project for low-income families. His parents both work hard, but there is little time or extra money for their children. Eddie is most likely to attend a school that has
A) high expectations for students.
...
B) inexperienced teachers.
...
C) several state and federal grants to buy computers and other teaching technology.
...
D) none of these.
...
a
Which of the following students is MOST likely to be enrolled in a special-education class?
A) Joey, a Latino adolescent.
...
B) Emmy, an Asian adolescent.
...
C) Oscar, a non-Latino White adolescent.
...
D) Greta, an exchange student from Austria.
...
b
Which students are MOST likely to be suspended from school?
A) Latinos
...
B) African Americans
...
C) Native Americans
...
D) non-Latino Whites
...
b
America's fastest growing minority population is
A) immigrants from the former Soviet Union.
...
B) Latinas.
...
C) Filipinos.
...
D) African Americans.
...
c
Ms. Robbins, a high-school guidance counselor, tells Anita, a Latina adolescent, that she should plan to go away to college. Anita is most likely to
A) agree with Ms. Robbins.
...
B) get married right out of high school and not attend college.
...
C) want to stay close to home, due to family responsibilities.
...
D) ask Ms. Robbins to talk to her parents about letting her move away for college.
...
a
Troy, an African American student, works in cooperation with students from a variety of backgrounds who each contribute different parts of a classroom project in order for the group to reach a common goal. Troy is participating in a
A) jigsaw classroom.
...
B) patchwork classroom.
...
C) crossword classroom.
...
D) router classroom.
...
c
The largest group of U.S. students to receive special education is children with
A) mental retardation.
...
B) emotional problems.
...
C) learning disabilities.
...
D) speech and language impairments.
...
d
ADHD is categorized as
A) an emotional disturbance.
...
B) a cognitive impairment.
...
C) a mental illness.
...
D) a learning disability.
...
d
A learning disability can involve all of the following EXCEPT difficulty with
A) math.
...
B) reading.
...
C) spelling.
...
D) music.
...
a
Individuals who have a severe impairment in their ability to read and spell have a type of learning disability known as
A) dyslexia.
...
B) dyscalculia.
...
C) dyslogia.
...
D) dyspepsia.
...
a
Researchers have found all of the following to be true of learning disabilities EXCEPT
A) learning disabilities reside in a specific area of the brain.
...
B) the most common learning disability involves reading.
...
C) children and adolescents with learning disabilities often have poor handwriting.
...
D) children and adolescents with learning disabilities often cannot match up letters and sounds.
...
c?
A major concern of experts is that ADHD is being
A) underdiagnosed by child psychiatrists.
...
B) incorrectly diagnosed by school teams.
...
C) overdiagnosed by pediatricians.
...
D) overdiagnosed by child neurologists.
...
a
ADHD is best treated with
A) medication and behavior management.
...
B) behavior management without medication.
...
C) stimulant medications.
...
D) antidepressant medications.
...
a
Patrice's daughter, Amber, has a severe hearing disorder which requires that she have a sign-language interpreter in order for her to learn. When Patrice meets with the education team, she is given an educational plan that was developed for another student with mild hearing problems. This plan does not meet Amber's needs. This plan does not meet the standards of
A) an IEP.
...
B) the No Child Left Behind Act.
...
C) an inclusion plan.
...
D) a mainstreaming plan.
...
b
Educating a child or adolescent with special education needs in the regular classroom full-time is called
A) mainstreaming.
...
B) inclusion.
...
C) modified education.
...
D) supplemented education.
...
b
Adolescents who are gifted have a superior talent in some domain and/or
A) are creative.
...
B) have an above-normal average IQ, usually 130 or higher.
...
C) are dedicated to their studies more than average children.
...
D) all of these.
...
b
Moira, age 13, began playing the violin at age 4. Now she can play nearly as well as her father, who is a professional musician. She seems to love her music lessons, and playing the violin seems effortless for her. Moira is demonstrating a characteristic of giftedness that Ellen Winner calls
A) rapid information processing.
...
B) precocity.
...
C) a passion to master.
...
D) marching to her own drummer.
...
d
Linda, age 12, is gifted in art. Her parents arrange for her to take a class in sculpture at a local college, but she does not take directions from the professor very well. While other students ask for support and guidance, Linda creates her sculptures totally on her own. Linda is demonstrating a characteristic of giftedness that Ellen Winner calls
A) rapid information processing.
...
B) precocity.
...
C) a passion to master.
...
D) marching to her own drummer.
...
b
Peers and _____ influences are believed to be especially important factors in adolescent problems.
A) school
...
B) family
...
C) religious
...
D) co-worker
...
??
Variations in the psychological problems that adolescents experience across cultures are linked to all
of the following EXCEPT
...
A) economic aspects of the culture.
...
B) geographic location of the culture.
...
C) technological aspects of the culture.
...
D) religious aspects of the culture.
...
c
Which of the following statements about social factors and their relationship to adolescent problems is NOT true?
A) Poverty is a factor in occurrences of delinquency.
...
B) The quality of the neighborhood is considered a social factor in adolescent problems.
...
C) Poverty is linked to drug use in adolescents.
...
D) Socioeconomic status is a social factor that influences problems in adolescence and emerging adulthood.
...
a
The developmental psychopathology approach focuses on
A) describing and exploring the developmental pathways of problems.
...
B) looking at family patterns of pathology over three or more generations.
...
C) looking at prenatal influences that might predispose an adolescent to psychopathology.
...
D) looking at parental discipline techniques that might contribute to acting-out behaviors.
...
b
Researchers in the field of developmental psychopathology seek to establish links between
A) nature and nurture.
...
B) early precursors of a problem and later outcomes.
...
C) late signs of a problem and prognosis.
...
D) none of these.
...
c
Adolescent and emerging adult problems are usually categorized as either
A) overt or covert.
...
B) latent or hidden.
...
C) externalizing or internalizing.
...
D) neurotic or psychotic.
...
a
Which of the following is NOT an externalizing problem?
A) depression
...
B) juvenile delinquency
...
C) aggression
...
D) antisocial behavior
...
d
Individuals who have had major life changes are more at risk for early death and for _____ than those who do not.
A) diabetes
...
B) depression
...
C) suicide
...
D) cardiovascular disease
...
c
The negative consequences that result from contact between two distinctive cultural groups are known as _____ stress.
A) assimilative
...
B) bicultural
...
C) acculturative
...
D) accommodative
...
b
Managing taxing circumstances, expending effort to solve life's problems, and seeking to master or reduce stress are all part of the definition of
A) stress management.
...
B) coping.
...
C) resilience.
...
D) mastery.
...
c
Kate is having problems understanding the concepts in her sociology class. She goes to see her professor during his office hours, and she studies with a group of students who can help her. Kate is using what Lazarus would call
A) emotion-focused coping.
...
B) reactive coping.
...
C) problem-focused coping.
...
D) supportive coping.
...
b
Sydney, a nursing assistant, is often asked to go to other departments and "fill in" but she doesn't feel competent to deal with many of these situations. Instead of addressing the issue with her supervisor, Sydney calls in sick to work when she is fairly sure she will be asked to move to another department. Sydney is engaging in
A) reactive coping.
...
B) emotion-focused coping.
...
C) behavior-focused coping.
...
D) problem-focused coping.
...
a
Which of the following is NOT an example of maladaptive emotion-focused coping?
A) Seeking a second opinion when you have been given a serious medical diagnosis.
...
B) Denying that your spouse has been in an accident.
...
C) Denying that you have just been told that your job is being eliminated in two months.
...
D) Denying that your significant other is in love with someone else when he or she is engaged to you.
...
b
Which of the following statements regarding coping strategies is NOT true?
A) Many people use both problem-focused and emotion-focused coping.
...
B) Emotion-focused coping works better than problem-focused coping.
...
C) Problem-solving coping works better, in general, than emotion-focused coping.
...
D) All of these are actually true.
...
a
Which of the following is an accurate description of the trend in U.S. adolescents' drug use today?
A) The proportions of eighth-, tenth-, and twelfth-grade U.S. students using illicit drugs declined in the late 1990s and the first years of the twenty-first century.
...
B) The use of drugs among U.S. secondary-school students began to decrease in the early 1990s.
...
C) Cocaine is the most widely used illicit drug by U.S. adolescents in the twenty-first century.
...
D) All of these are accurate.
...
?
47. Alcoholism ranks _____ as a killer of individuals in the United States.
A) first
...
B) second
...
C) third
...
D) fourth
...
a
Kathy's parents use alcohol quite a bit. After they get home from work, they drink steadily all evening and, although she has never seen her parents drunk, they don't spend much time interacting with each other or the children. According to research, Kathy is at risk for
A) drinking heavily herself.
...
B) depression.
...
C) social isolation.
...
D) becoming angry with her peers who drink.
...
c
Adolescents who use prescription narcotics to get high are most likely to obtain the drugs by
A) buying them on the street from drug dealers.
...
B) buying them at school from classmates who are selling their own medications.
...
C) stealing them from the medicine cabinets of their parents and their friends' parents.
...
D) making up stories of being in pain to get prescriptions for the drugs from their doctors.
...
b
Stephanie is using a drug that has caused her to have severe mood swings, paranoid jealousy, and uncontrollable bursts of anger. What class of drugs is Stephanie most likely using?
A) birth-control pills
...
B) anabolic steroids
...
C) anti-anxiety drugs
...
D) none of these
...
b
Which of the following statements about inhalants is TRUE?
A) Inhalants cause users to feel a short-term increase of inhibitions.
...
B) Inhalants cause short-term intoxicating effects in users.
...
C) There are no serious effects to the body from the use of inhalants.
...
D) Use of inhalants by U.S. adolescents has increased slightly in the twenty-first century.
...
c
Al, age 16, has just been convicted of robbery. Because of his age, this offense would be labeled as
A) a misdemeanor.
...
B) a conduct offense.
...
C) an index offense.
...
D) a status offense.
...
b
Criminal acts, whether committed by a juvenile or an adult are known as
A) status offenses.
...
B) index offenses.
...
C) white-collar crimes.
...
D) none of these.
...
b
Tyler, age 13, has brought alcohol to school on two occasions and has run away from home twice. Tyler's acts are
A) index offenses.
...
B) status offenses.
...
C) conduct offenses.
...
D) none of these.
...
c
Jake, age 14, has a long history of setting small fires, torturing kittens, skipping school and fighting with his peers. His parents have sought counseling for him, as they cannot control him and fear that his behavior is getting worse. Jake meets the criteria for a diagnosis of
A) antisocial personality disorder.
...
B) oppositional-defiant disorder.
...
C) conduct disorder.
...
D) sociopathic personality disorder.
...
a
Which of the following did the Pittsburg Youth Study identify as a pathway to delinquency?
A) authority conflict
...
B) negative identity
...
C) cognitive dissonance
...
D) egocentric bias
...
d
Randy started his path to delinquency by lying, followed by property damage, moderately serious delinquency, and finally, serious delinquency. According to the Pittsburg Youth Study, Randy fits into which of the following developmental pathways?
A) overt
...
B) covert
...
C) authority conflict
...
D) negative identity
...
b
Erik Erikson viewed delinquency as an attempt to
A) get attention.
...
B) establish an identity.
...
C) rebel against strict parents.
...
D) establish independence and autonomy.
...
a
Violent youth tend to be males who come from
A) poverty-infested areas of inner cities.
...
B) rural areas where there is nothing to do.
...
C) poor areas of suburbs.
...
D) entitled backgrounds.
...
b
Females have more depressive symptoms than males do, for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
A) more negative body image than males.
...
B) less discrimination than males.
...
C) hormonal variability.
...
D) rumination in their depressed mood.
...
b
Suicide is the _____ leading cause of death in 10 to 19 year olds in the United States today?
A) second
...
B) third
...
C) fourth
...
D) fifth
...
b
Which of the following statements about suicide is TRUE?
A) Suicide rates in adolescents have increased in recent years.
...
B) Emerging adults have triple the suicide rates of adolescents.
...
C) Males attempt suicide more than females.
...
D) All of these are true.
...
d
The highest rate of suicide attempts occurs among
A) Asian American male adolescents.
...
B) Latino female adolescents.
...
C) non-Latino White males.
...
D) Native American/Alaskan Native females.
...
b
Research has shown that the girls most likely to experience dieting or disordered eating behavior are those who are both in pubertal transition and
A) whose families model healthy eating at home.
...
B) sexually active with their boyfriends.
...
C) feel positively about their body image.
...
D) all of these.
...
d
Which of the following statements about being overweight is TRUE?
A) Being overweight as a child is a strong predictor of being overweight as an adolescent.
...
B) Numbers of overweight emerging adults, as well as children and adolescents, have increased recently.
...
C) African American girls and Latino boys have especially high rates of being overweight in adolescence.
...
D) All of these are true.
...
b
Researchers have determined that, compared to clinical approaches, school-based programs aimed at reducing the number of overweight adolescents are
A) just as effective.
...
B) less effective.
...
C) more effective.
...
D) untested; there is no data comparing the two approaches.
...
c
Which of the following are the easiest changes for school-based weight programs to create among students?
A) changes in nutrition and diet
...
B) changes in physical activity
...
C) changes in TV watching
...
D) changes in amount of time on the computer
...
a
The three main characteristics of anorexia nervosa are having an intense fear of gaining weight, having a distorted image of body shape, and
A) weighing less than 85 percent of what is considered normal for age and height.
...
B) abusing laxatives and/or diuretics.
...
C) excessive exercise.
...
D) self-induced vomiting after meals.
...
?/
Recent research indicates that the most effective treatment for adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa is
A) behavioral treatment.
...
B) antidepressant medication.
...
C) family therapy.
...
D) group counseling with other anorexics.
...
d
Which of the following statements regarding adolescents with multiple problems is NOT true?
A) Problem behaviors in adolescence are interrelated.
...
B) Adolescents who are most at risk often have more than one problem.
...
C) High-risk youth often engage in two to three problem behaviors.
...
D) As many as 25 percent of the adolescent population in the U.S. have serious, multiple problem behaviors.
...
B
1. Which of the following was a finding from several research studies of adolescents who watched sexually explicit TV shows?
A) There was a link between the amount of time adolescents watched sexually explicit TV and initiation of dating.
...
B) There was a link between the amount of time adolescents watched sexually explicit TV and the initiation of sexual intercourse.
...
C) Adolescents who watched "sexy" shows were less likely to endorse sexual stereotypes than adolescents who did not watch these shows.
...
D) None of these was a finding.
...
D
2. Obtaining information about adolescent sexuality has been difficult because
A) those with conservative sexual attitudes are less likely to respond to sexual surveys than those with more liberal attitudes.
...
B) some people refuse to answer questions about sex asked by a stranger.
...
C) some people give socially acceptable answers rather than truthful answers.
...
D) all of these.
...
B
3. Research shows that by age 20, what percentage of U.S. youth have engaged in sexual intercourse?
A) 54
...
B) 77
...
C) 82
...
D) 90
...
B
4. Which of the following adolescents is MOST likely to have had a sexual experience before age 13?
A) Abby, a non-Latino White teen
...
B) Zach, an African American teen
...
C) Lynda, an Asian teen
...
D) Josie, a Latino teen
...
C
5. In a national survey, approximately what percentage of both 15- to 19-year-old males and females said that they had engaged in oral sex?
A) 35
...
B) 45
...
C) 55
...
D) 65
...
B
6. A stereotyped pattern of role prescriptions for how individuals should behave sexually is known as a
A) sexual edict.
...
B) sexual script.
...
C) sexual role.
...
D) sexual norm.
...
D
7. Girls commonly cite all of the following reasons for being sexually active EXCEPT
A) being in love.
...
B) pressure from males.
...
C) curiosity.
...
D) pressure from female friends.
...
A
8. Sheila, age 16, has just begun to be sexually active with her boyfriend Ted. Which of the following reasons would Sheila MOST likely say is the main reason she is sexually active?
A) She is in love with Ted.
...
B) She was the last of her group of girlfriends to be sexually active and she liked Ted well enough.
...
C) She was curious about sex.
...
D) She wanted to rebel against her parents' strict religious rules.
...
B
9. Adolescent boys are MORE likely than adolescent girls to cite ______ as a reason for becoming sexually active.
A) being in love
...
B) peer pressure
...
C) curiosity
...
D) none of these
...
B
10. Early sexual activity has been linked to all of the following behaviors EXCEPT
A) delinquency.
...
B) eating disorders.
...
C) drug use.
...
D) school-related problems.
...
A
11. Which of the following adolescents is MOST at risk for engaging in sexual activity?
A) Charlotte, age 14, whose older sister became pregnant at age 16
...
B) Howie, age 15, who lives with his biological parents in a middle-class neighborhood
...
C) Juanita, a 16-year-old Latina whose parents monitor her closely
...
D) Cole, age 17, who is active in three sports and has a close relationship with his parents
...
A
12. The majority of sexual minority (same-sex) individuals experience their first sexual behavior in
A) adolescence.
...
B) late childhood.
...
C) emerging adulthood.
...
D) young adulthood.
...
B
13. Catherine identifies herself as a lesbian. Which of the following is probably TRUE for Catherine?
A) She shares her sexual orientation with five to six percent of women in the U.S.
...
B) She has the same physiological responses to arousal as heterosexual women.
...
C) Her brain structure, particularly in the area of the hypothalamus, is different than the brains of heterosexual women.
...
D) She has a higher level of testosterone than heterosexual women.
...
B
14. Russell, a gay man, participated in a research study in which he was given injections of androgens to see what, if any, change there would be on his sexual orientation. According to research, which of the following was the most likely outcome for Russell in this study?
A) He became more sexually interested in women.
...
B) He experienced an increase in desire but had no change on sexual orientation.
...
C) He experienced a decrease in desire but no change in sexual orientation.
...
D) None of these
...
...
15. Molly, age nine, is being raised by her biological mother and her mother's lesbian partner. Research suggests that Molly will
A) probably grow up to be a lesbian.
...
B) probably grow up to be heterosexual.
...
C) decrease her chances of being a lesbian if she chooses a strong heterosexual woman for a role model.
...
D) increase her chances of becoming a lesbian if she chooses a strong male role model.
...
C
16. Mary believes that all child molesters are gay men and she goes out of her way to avoid a colleague whom she believes is a gay man. Mary's beliefs and behavior could be labeled as
A) sexual harassment.
...
B) stigmatizing.
...
C) homophobia.
...
D) gay bashing.
...
A
17. Phil is a gay man, but he dates women and has told nobody about his sexual orientation. Phil is engaged in a form of self-devaluation called
A) passing.
...
B) closeting.
...
C) covert lying.
...
D) covering.
...
D
19. Which of the following statements regarding sexual orientation and mental health is TRUE?
A) Significantly more same-sex youth commit suicide than heterosexual youth.
...
B) Same-sex youth have higher perceived stress than heterosexual youth.
...
C) Sexual minority youth have less mastery of their lives than heterosexual youth.
...
D) Sexual minority youth have higher rates of depression and anxiety than heterosexual youth.
...
C
20. The most common sexual outlet for adolescents is
A) oral sex.
...
B) petting.
...
C) masturbation.
...
D) sexual intercourse.
...
C
21. Daughters of teenage mothers are at increased risk of
A) dropping out of school.
...
B) poor health.
...
C) being teenage mothers themselves.
...
D) none of these.
...
C
22. The highest rates of adolescent pregnancies and childbearing in the developed world occur in which nation?
A) Canada
...
B) England
...
C) United States
...
D) France
...
C
23. Which of the following girls is MOST likely to become pregnant while a teen?
A) Amy, a non-Latino white girl.
...
B) Robin, an African American girl.
...
C) Sally, a Latina.
...
D) All of them have an equal probability of becoming pregnant while still a teen.
...
A
24. Two reasons for the rise in the proportion of adolescent births that are nonmarital are because marriage has become quite rare in adolescence and because
A) pregnancy is no longer seen as a reason to get married.
...
B) the fathers of these babies are not able to support them as well as their mothers.
...
C) most of these children are given up for adoption, so there is no need to marry.
...
D) none of these.
...
C
25. Senator Gorson makes the case to his colleagues that there should be national legislation mandating parental consent for adolescent girls' abortions. He calls abortion a "medically dangerous procedure" and one that will "scar these young women for life". Research on his statements would seem to indicate that Senator Gorson is
A) correct about the medical risk; research has shown that abortion is medically dangerous.
...
B) correct about the psychological risks; girls who have had abortions are at high risk for depression.
...
C) incorrect on both positions; first trimester abortion is medically safe and a study of girls who had abortions showed they had a decrease in anxiety.
...
D) incorrect about the medical risk, but correct about the psychological risk.
...
A
18. Which of the following adolescents is MOST likely to report victimization as a result of sexual orientation?
A) Jacob, who is a bisexual
...
B) Zully, who is a lesbian
...
C) Katie, who is a heterosexual
...
D) Conrad, who is a gay male
...
C
26. Which of the following is NOT a rationale for stricter abortion laws for adolescents?
A) There is a high risk of physical harm from abortions.
...
B) Adolescents cannot make an adequate informed choice to have an abortion.
...
C) Adolescents and their parents will hinder communication if they have to make decisions together.
...
D) Research has shown that many adolescents will not suffer psychological harm after an abortion.
...
C
27. Which of the following statements regarding adolescent pregnancy is NOT true?
A) Adolescent mothers often drop out of school.
...
B) Adolescent mothers generally do not catch up economically with women who postpone childbearing until their twenties.
...
C) Adolescent mothers are most likely to come from middle class socioeconomic backgrounds.
...
D) Many adolescent mothers were not good students before they became pregnant.
...
A
28. Anna is a 24-year-old woman who is pregnant with her first baby. Her neighbor, Trish, is 16 and pregnant with her first child. Which of the following is most likely to be TRUE of these women?
A) Anna is more likely than Trisha to be receiving prenatal care.
...
B) Anna is more likely than Trisha to have a premature birth.
...
C) Trisha's baby is likely to weigh more than Anna's baby.
...
D) Both mothers will be equally competent caregivers for their babies.
...
C
29. Stephen, age 17, is the father of 16-month-old Jared. If he is typical of most adolescent fathers, Stephen will
A) stay in school.
...
B) have a close relationship with his son.
...
C) have a lower income than an older father.
...
D) all of these.
...
D
30. Which of the following was NOT one of the recommendations that John Conger offered for reducing the rate of adolescent pregnancy?
A) sex education and family planning
...
B) access to contraceptive methods
...
C) broad community involvement and support
...
D) having pregnant teens educated in separate classrooms from their peers
...
A
31. According to recent research, adolescents who look to the future and see that they have the opportunity to become self-sufficient and successful may be motivated to
A) reduce their risk of pregnancy.
...
B) go to college.
...
C) marry wealthy, established men.
...
D) none of these.
...
D
32. A consideration that is especially important for younger teens as they plan to avoid pregnancy is
A) engaging in oral sex rather than sexual intercourse.
...
B) delaying dating until they are 18.
...
C) dating in small groups, rather than individual dating situations.
...
D) abstinence.
...
A
33. A recent study of U.S. students in grades 9-12 found that nearly _____ of the students reported that they had been physically forced to have intercourse against their will.
A) 8 percent
...
B) 10 percent
...
C) 12 percent
...
D) 14 percent
...
D
34. Men who rape women are likely to have all of the following characteristics EXCEPT
A) they are angry at women in general.
...
B) aggression increases their sense of power.
...
C) they want to hurt their victims.
...
D) they are likely to be under the influence of heroin or other opiates.
...
B
35. Carla, a 19-year-old college sophomore, is a victim of rape. Which of the following statements about her rape is most likely to be TRUE?
A) Her assailant was a stranger.
...
B) She knew the person who raped her.
...
C) She reported the rape to the police.
...
D) She reported the rape to campus security.
...
A
36. Which of the following statements about the aftermath of rape is NOT true?
A) About 40 percent of rape victims have made a suicide attempt.
...
B) Sexual dysfunctions occur in 50 percent of rape victims.
...
C) Many rape victims make lifestyle changes, such as moving to another apartment or home.
...
D) Many rape victims experience depression, fear, and anxiety for months or years.
...
C
37. A recent study of adolescent girls indicated that
A) approximately 90 percent of the girls had experienced athletic sexism.
...
B) approximately two-thirds of the girls had experienced academic sexism.
...
C) most of the girls had experienced sexual harassment at least once.
...
D) none of these.
...
B
38. Dana, age 15, has to deal with constant comments from the boys in her science class about her breast size, skin blemishes, and large hips. Her teacher does nothing to stop these offensive remarks. As a result, Dana's grade in science is compromised. Dana is a victim of
A) quid pro quo sexual harassment.
...
B) hostile environment sexual harassment.
...
C) third-party sexual harassment.
...
D) rude boys, but no type of sexual harassment.
...
A
39. Mr. Nathanson asks his 16-year-old student Mitzi to sit on his lap when she comes to his office after school seeking help on her research paper. She refuses and is dismayed to find that she receives an F on the paper. Mitzi suspects that her refusal of her teacher's advance resulted in the failure. Mitzi may be a victim of
A) quid pro quo sexual harassment.
...
B) hostile environment sexual harassment.
...
C) third-party sexual harassment.
...
D) a hard grader, but no sexual harassment.
...
A
40. Which of the following statements regarding adolescents' sources of sexual information is NOT true?
A) Male adolescents are more likely to talk to their fathers about sex than their mothers.
...
B) Adolescents get information about sex from the Internet.
...
C) Female adolescents are more likely to have conversations about sex with their mothers than with their fathers.
...
D) Many parents are uncomfortable talking about sex with their adolescents.
...
B
41. Which of the following adolescents is MOST likely to romanticize sexuality?
A) Kurt, age 13.
...
B) Nadia, age 16.
...
C) Julia, age 19.
...
D) All of them are likely to romanticize sexuality equally.
...
A
42. A recent survey of parents in Minnesota revealed that
A) almost 90 percent of the parents recommended teaching about abstinence and contraceptive information.
...
B) most parents favored an abstinence-only curriculum.
...
C) most parents said that sex education should be introduced in junior high school.
...
D) none of these
...
B
43. The current trend in sex education in schools in the United States is increasingly focused on
A) safer sex.
...
B) abstinence.
...
C) comprehensive sex education.
...
D) decreasing sexually-transmitted diseases.
...
C
44. Which of the following statements regarding abstinence-only sex education programs is TRUE?
A) They delay the onset of sexual intercourse.
...
B) They reduce HIV-risk behavior.
...
C) They do not delay the onset of sexual intercourse.
...
D) They are preferred by the majority of parents.
...
B
The individual's cognitive representation of the self, the substance and content of self conceptions is
called
...
A) self-evaluation.
...
B) self-understanding.
...
C) self-esteem.
...
D) none of these.
...
C
Ben knows that he is a baseball player, a member of his church, an older brother, and a fan of jazz
music. This describes Ben's
...
A) personality.
...
B) self concept.
...
C) self understanding.
...
D) self-assessment.
...
D
Which of the following statements regarding adolescent self-understanding is TRUE?
A) Over time, an adolescent's self-understanding becomes more differentiated.
...
B) Adolescents understand that they possess different selves depending on the specific role or context.
...
C) The self fluctuates across situations and time.
...
D) All of these are true.
...
A
Sari goes through many different emotions in one day. One minute she is laughing with her friends, and later she is edgy and snapping at her sister. Sari's fluctuating self has been called the
A) barometric self.
...
B) bipolar self.
...
C) pendulum self.
...
D) unstable self.
...
C
Carl Rogers argued that a strong discrepancy between the real self and the ideal self is a sign of
A) maturity.
...
B) cognitive dissonance.
...
C) maladjustment.
...
D) emerging adulthood.
...
C
Which of the following statements regarding possible selves is NOT true?
A) Possible selves include what individuals would like to become.
...
B) Possible selves include what individuals are afraid of becoming.
...
C) Possible selves that have a negative aspect are unhealthy and should be avoided.
...
D) Aspects of the future negative self can identify behaviors to be avoided.
...
D
What happens if youth from different ethic backgrounds are unable to effectively navigate among their different worlds?
A) They develop bicultural selves.
...
B) They develop multicultural selves.
...
C) They become culture brokers for others.
...
D) They can experience alienation from family, peers, and school.
...
A
Melody moved to the United States from the Philippines with her family. Although she has encountered some barriers related to language and racism, she also has made some close friends and, in general, moves easily between the two cultures. Which of the following is Melody LEAST likely to develop?
A) alienation from family
...
B) abilities as a culture broker for others
...
C) a bicultural self
...
D) none of these
...
C
Markus and colleagues argue that
A) in Japanese culture, individuality is promoted and maintained.
...
B) in North American cultures, relatedness to others is stressed.
...
C) all selves are culture-specific.
...
D) all of these are true.
...
B
Research has shown that narcissism combined with high self-esteem is related to
A) major depression.
...
B) high aggression.
...
C) eating disorders.
...
B) truancy.
...
A
Research on trends in narcissism from 1980 to 2007 showed
A) no increase in narcissism among high-school and college students.
...
B) a significant increase in narcissism among high-school and college students.
...
C) a slight decrease in narcissism among high-school and college students.
...
D) none of these.
...
B
Research indicates that self-esteem among females in emerging adulthood may be due to
A) poor social skills.
...
B) negative body image.
...
C) conflict with parents.
...
D) conflict with peers.
...
C
Nick's parents told him that he did a "good job" for everything, even when his performance was
mediocre or poor. Nick's college sociology teacher gave him a C+ on a paper and included constructive
...
criticism on his writing and critical thinking skills. According to research, Nick will
...
A) be unhappy with his grade but appreciative of the feedback on his work.
...
B) understand that he did not do his best work on this paper.
...
C) have difficulty handling criticism.
...
D) be angry with his parents for not preparing him for the real world.
...
A
The most powerful contributor to global self-esteem in adolescence is
A) physical appearance.
...
B) academic achievement.
...
C) popularity with peers.
...
D) athletic achievement.
...
B
It is extremely important to Sean, age 19, to make the Dean's List in college. His twin brother, Seamus, is more focused on being chosen for the rugby team. According to Susan Harter, Sean and Seamus have each identified their
A) vulnerable area for self-esteem.
...
B) domain important to the self.
...
C) domain important to their parents.
...
D) domain important for social approval.
...
D
Erikson believed that _____ was the central issue for adolescents.
A) intimacy
...
B) autonomy
...
C) generativity
...
D) identity
...
A
Erikson called the gap between the security of childhood and adult autonomy
A) a psychosocial moratorium.
...
B) an identity crisis.
...
C) an identity-diffused period.
...
D) a psychological time-out.
...
C
Two core ingredients in Erikson's theory of identity development are _____ and role experimentation.
A) rebellion
...
B) academic success
...
C) personality experimentation
...
D) none of these
...
A
William Damon, author of The Path to Purpose, is concerned that too many of today's youth are
A) not moving towards any identity resolution.
...
B) without a sense of direction.
...
C) developing maladaptive habits.
...
D) all of these.
...
D
Tony has very little interest in choosing a career path. James Marcia would say that Tony's identity status is
A) identity moratorium.
...
B) identity foreclosure.
...
C) identity achievement.
...
D) identity diffusion.
...
D
Myra's parents have always told her that she will be an engineer like her grandfather. Myra never even considered any other career and she is now enrolled in a pre-engineering program at a community college. James Marcia would classify Myra in which identity status?
A) identity achievement
...
B) identity moratorium
...
C) identity diffusion
...
D) identity foreclosure
...
D
Bob has explored a number of career paths in his senior year of high school and he has decided that he wants to pursue a career as a forensic psychologist. James Marcia would classify Bob in which identity status?
A) identity foreclosure
...
B) identity diffusion
...
C) identity moratorium
...
D) identity achievement
...
A
Stacy has explored a number of careers that involve helping other people but she has not yet made a
commitment to an identity. According to James Marcia, Stacy is in which identity status?
...
A) identity moratorium
...
B) identity diffusion
...
C) identity foreclosure
...
D) identity achievement
...
D
What has been found to be a turning point in developing identity in late adolescence and emerging adulthood?
A) relationships
...
B) autonomy
...
C) mortality events
...
D) all of these
...
A
Marcia identified at least three aspects of young adolescent development that are important to identity formation. They are an established sense of industry, a self-reflective stance towards the future, and
A) confidence in parental support.
...
B) academic success.
...
C) positive peer relationships.
...
D) good health.
...
B
College produces key changes in identity, due to a wide range of new experiences and
A) increased social skills.
...
B) increased complexity in reasoning skills.
...
C) increased autonomy.
...
D) all of these.
...
A
James Cote argues that a positive identity in emerging adulthood requires
A) self discipline.
...
B) financial security.
...
C) autonomy.
...
D) job stability.
...
C
The process of refining and enhancing the identity choices made in emerging adulthood is known as
A) identity clarification.
...
B) identity solidification.
...
C) identity consolidation.
...
D) identity certainty.
...
B
Which of the following parenting styles has been associated with fostering identity achievement?
A) autocratic
...
B) democratic
...
C) permissive
...
D) none of these
...
A
Ross has parents who provide him with little guidance and who allow him to make his own decisions. Ross is likely to be
A) identity achieved.
...
B) identity foreclosed.
...
C) identity diffused.
...
D) identity confused.
...
D
Carroll and Gloria are first-generation immigrants from Poland. The degree to which they begin to feel "American" may be related to
A) securing jobs in the United States.
...
B) learning to adapt to American food.
...
C) buying a home.
...
D) whether or not they develop social networks beyond their ethnic group.
...
B
Research by Heath and McLaughlin show that an important aspect of the social context, increases the likelihood that they will develop a positive ethnic identity is
A) religious schools.
...
B) youth organizations.
...
C) inner-city basketball teams.
...
C) health education programs.
...
D
Which of the following statements about gender and identity in the 21st century is TRUE?
A) Vocational concerns are more central to male identity.
...
B) Affiliative concerns are more central to female identity.
...
C) Males are more oriented to ideological commitments.
...
D) Gender differences have begun to disappear.
...
C
Erikson argued that _____ must be established before adolescents can develop intimacy.
A) autonomy
...
B) generativity
...
C) identity
...
D) ego integrity
...
A
During which stage do emotional highs and lows occur most frequently?
A) early adolescence
...
B) middle adolescence
...
C) late adolescence
...
D) emerging adulthood
...
D
Christopher's mother tells her friend that she does not understand why he is so moody and changeable. Christopher is most likely in
A) late adolescence.
...
B) middle adolescence.
...
C) emerging adulthood.
...
D) early adolescence.
...
D
Which of the following statements regarding hormones and emotions is TRUE?
A) Hormonal influences are largely responsible for negative emotions that occur in puberty.
...
B) Hormonal changes and environment are about equal in accounting for negative emotions that occur in puberty.
...
C) Hormonal factors are strongly associated with positive emotions.
...
D) Environmental experiences may contribute more to emotions of adolescents than hormonal changes.
...
D
Emotional competence includes all of the following skills EXCEPT
A) awareness of emotional expression's role in relationships.
...
B) adequately coping with positive emotions by using strategies to moderate their intensity.
...
C) being aware of one's emotional state.
...
D) not being overwhelmed by one's emotional state.
...
A
Jim is really angry with his friend for not returning a sports jacket that he borrowed. However, Jim puts on his favorite CD and distracts himself from his negative emotion. Jim clearly has some
A) emotional competence.
...
B) self-control.
...
C) irresponsible friends.
...
D) all of these.
...
C
The _____ is the central aspect of the personality.
A) temperament
...
B) cardinal trait
...
C) self
...
D) ego
...
B
The BEST predictor of adjustment and competence in adolescents is
A) extraversion.
...
B) the emergence of conscientiousness.
...
C) agreeableness.
...
D) openness to experience.
...
C
A number of research studies have found that the most important Big Five factor of personality in adolescent development is
A) openness to experience.
...
B) agreeableness.
...
C) conscientiousness.
...
D) extraversion.
...
...
Which of the following statements regarding stability of personality is TRUE?
A) Dominance and dependency tend to become less stable in adolescence than in late childhood.
...
B) Researchers find more change than stability in people ages 18-26.
...
C) Many adolescents become less socially comfortable as adults.
...