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Terms in this set (52)
System used to describe and characterize the earth and other geographies for the purpose of visualizing and analyzing geographically referenced information
Representation of spatial or geographic information as a series of thematic layers of information for an area of interest
General reference (planimetric) maps
Shows important physical (natural and man-
made) features in an area. Their main purpose is to summarize the landscape to aid
discovery of locations
Shows important physical (natural and man-made) features in an
area, particularly elevation(contour lines)
Depict information on a particular topic or theme that may be physical, statistical, measured, or interpreted. E.g. weather, population density and
Combine aspects of topographic, general reference and thematic maps and are produced as navigation aids.
Shows detailed description of the location of a parcel of land and property titles
A system for working with maps and geographic information. It is used for the following:
1. Creating and using maps
2. Compiling geographic data
3. Analyzing mapped info
4. Sharing and discovering geographic info
5. Using maps and geographic info in a range of applications
6. Managing geographic info in a database
Elements of a good map
2. North arrow
3. Scale bar and/ or grid
4. Location map
5. Legend and/ or labels
7. Notes about projection, coordinate system, datum, data source(s)
8. Map credits: cartographer name, date
An application that provides a catalog window that is used to organize and manage various types of geographic information for ArcGIS for Desktop. The kinds of information that can be organized and managed in ArcCatalog includes:
2. Raster files, layer files
3. Folder connections
4. Geoprocessing toolboxes, models, and python scripts
5. GIS services published using ArcGIS for Server
Central application used in ArcGIS. ArcMap is where you display and
explore GIS datasets for your study area, where you assign symbols,
and where you create map layouts for printing or publication. ArcMap
is also the application you use to create and edit datasets.
1. Work with maps
2. Print maps
3. Compile and edit GIS datasets
4. Use geoprocessing to automate work and perform analysis
5. Organize and manage your geodatabases and ArcGis documents
6. Publish map documents as map services using ArcGis for Server
7. Share maps, layers, geoprocessing models, and geodatabases with other users
8. Document your geographic information
9. Customize the user experience
The central place where you find, manage, and execute geoprocessing tools. Tools can also be managed and executed from ArcCatalog. The ArcToolbox window contains toolboxes, which in turn contain tools and toolsets (a toolset is just an organizational device, like a system folder). Tools must be contained in a toolbox—they cannot exist outside a toolbox.
Displays a collection of layers drawn in a particular order for a given map extent and map projection.
-When you create a map, it creates a default ____ listed in the table of contents as layers
-Can have as many ____ as you want
-Each of those have a coordinate system associated with it
The mechanism used to display geographic datasets
-Each on references a dataset and specifies how that dataset is portrayed using symbols and text labels
-When you add this to the map, you specify its dataset and set its map symbols and labeling properties
-Each map in ArcGis is assembled by adding a series of these
-Listed in a particular order: those listed at the bottom are displayed first, followed by the those above them
-Have a coordinate system associated with them
Reference system used to represent the locations of geographic features, imagery, and observations such as GPS locations within a common geographic framework.
-Its measurement framework which is either geographic (in which spherical
coordinates are measured from the earth's center) or planimetric (in which the
earth's coordinates are projected onto a two-dimensional planar surface)
-Unit of measurement (typically feet or meters for projected coordinate systems
or decimal degrees for latitude-longitude).
-Map projection for projected coordinate systems.
-Other measurement system properties such as a spheroid of reference, a datum,
and projection parameters like one or more standard parallels, a central meridian,
and possible shifts in the x- and y-directions
Geographic coordinate system
A global or spherical coordinate
system to define locations on the earth. It includes an angular unit of
measure, a prime meridian, and a datum (based on a spheroid). In a geographic coordinate system, a point is referenced by its longitude
and latitude values.
Projected coordinate system
Based on a map projection such as
transverse Mercator, Albers equal area, or Robinson, all of which (along with numerous other map projection models) provide various mechanisms to project maps of the earth's spherical surface onto a two-dimensional Cartesian coordinate plane. Projected coordinate
systems are sometimes referred to as map projections.
The angular distance, usually measured in degrees north or south of the equator. These lines are also referred to as parallels
The angular distance, usually expressed in degrees, minutes, and seconds, of the location of a point on the earth's surface east or west of an arbitrarily defined meridian (usually the Greenwich prime meridian)
Defined as the surface of the earth's gravity field, which approximates mean sea level. It is perpendicular to the direction of gravity pull. Since the mass of the Earth is not uniform at all points, the magnitude of gravity varies, and the shape of the geoid is irregular.
Approximates the shape of the earth. Since the
earth is not a perfect sphere, it is a three-dimensional shape created from a two-dimensional ellipse
Defines the position of the spheroid relative to the center of the earth. It provides a frame of reference for measuring locations on
the surface of the earth. Built on top of the selected spheroid, and can incorporate local variations in elevation.
A coordinate-based data model that represents geographic features as points, lines, and polygons
The process of examining the locations, attributes, and relationships of features in spatial data through overlay and other analytical
techniques in order to address a question or gain useful knowledge.
-Understanding where things are or where events occur
-Measuring sizes, shapes, and distributions of things or measurements
-Analyzing relationships and interactions between places
-Optimizing locations for facilities, or routes for transportation
-Detecting and quantifying patterns and relationships between things or measurements
-Making predictions based on existing or theoretical patterns and relationships
Local vector operation
Uses data from one polygon, point or line to determine output in the same location. E.g. population distribution across countries
Neighborhood vector operation
Uses data from nearby polygons, points or lines to determine output. E.g. number of adjacent countries
Global vector operation
Uses data from all polygons, points or lines to determine output. E.g. ranking of population across countries
Classification of spatial data
Method used for grouping data on a
map. It can be used to create new data or change the display on existing data.
-Depending on the type of data and what you would like to present on your map, you need to come up with a classification scheme and
appropriate color ramp.
Every feature gets either a 0 or a 1 depending on a criteria
Breaks at equal intervals
Defined interval classification
Equal interval size
intervals each containing the same fraction
Natural breaks classification
Using Jenks optimization method
Geometrical interval classification
For data that does not follow normal distribution
Standard deviation classification
Finds the mean value, then places class breaks above and below the mean at intervals of either .25, .5, or 1 standard deviation until all the data values are contained within the classes
In its simplest form, a this consists
of a matrix of cells (or pixels) organized into
rows and columns (or a grid) where each cell
contains a value representing information, such
as temperature. They are digital aerial
photographs, imagery from satellites, digital
pictures, or even scanned maps.
-Like vectors, way to convert raw material into something useful
-Like vectors, can reveal patterns and trends
-Unlike vectors, not about coordinate or attribute values, but cell values
Represented by a single matrix of cell values, and a raster with multiple bands contains multiple spatially coincident matrices of cell values representing the same spatial
Local raster function
Using only data at one cell location
to determine output in same cell location.
E.g. mathematical operations on all raster
Neighborhood raster function
Using data from a matrix of raster cells nearby to determine output in a cell location.
Global raster function
Using data from all raster cells to
determine output in a cell location.
Downsampled version of the original raster dataset and can contain many downsampled layers (improves performance)
Raster property: Exact same grid resolution; exact same grid centers
Raster property: Exact same extent
Change the spatial resolution of your raster dataset and set rules for aggregating or
interpolating values across the new pixel sizes
Nearest neighbor assignment
Type of resampling: The fastest of the interpolation methods. It is used primarily for discrete data, such as a land-use classification, since it will not change the values of the cells. The maximum spatial error will be one-half the cell size.
Type of resampling: determines the new value of a cell based on a weighted distance average of the four nearest input cell centers. It is useful for
continuous data and will cause some smoothing of the data.
Type of resampling that determines the new value of a cell based on fitting a smooth curve through the 16 nearest input cell centers (also appropriate for continuous data)
Allows us to limit the extent of calculations
-Can reduce processing time
-Saves output space
-Can be used as an analytical tool
-Can work on either vectors or rasters
-Uses the clip layer as a binary indicator to generate the output raster
Gets data from a vector feature into a raster
Allows you to combine data from the attribute tables of different layers together
Help build a polynomial transformation that will shift the raster dataset from its existing location to the spatially correct location
-Number depends on the complexity of the data
-Generally, greater overlap between the raster and the existing spatial data is preferable
Means that the internal coordinate system of a map or aerial photo image can be related to a ground system of geographic coordinates. In other words, ______ means to associate something with locations in physical space.
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