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CHEM 101 Exam 1
Terms in this set (86)
What is matter?
Anything that takes up space and has mass
What is energy?
The capacity to do work
What is the SI unit for temperature?
What is the SI unit for length?
What is the SI unit for mass?
What is the SI unit for time?
What is the SI unit for amount of substance?
What is the SI unit for electric current?
What is the SI unit for luminous intensity?
How many meters are in a kilometer?
How many meters are in a mega-meter?
How many meters are in a terameter?
How many meters are in a decimeter?
How many meters are in a centimeter?
How many meters are in a millimeter?
How many meters are in a micrometer?
How many meters in a nanometer
How many meters in a picometer?
What is density?
The ratio of a substance's mass to it's volume
What is a pure mixture?
A mixture made up of only one type of particle and its composition is invariant; can be either and element or compound
What is a mixture?
A substance composed of two or more particles in proportions that can vary from one sample to another
What is a heterogeneous mixture?
A mixture in which the composition varies from one region of the mixture to another
What is a homogeneous mixture?
A mixture in which the composition is uniform throughout.
What is the law of conservation of mass?
In a chemical reaction matter is neither created nor destroyed.
What is the law of definite proportions?
All samples of a given compound, regardless of source or how they were prepared, have the same proportions of their constituent elements
What is the law of multiple proportions?
When two elements (call them A and B) form two different compound, the masses of element B that combine with 1 g of element A can be expressed as a ratio of small whole numbers
What are the four parts of Dalton's atomic theory?
1. Each element is composed of tiny, indestructible particles called atoms.
2. All atoms of a given element have the same mass and other properties that distinguish them from the atoms of other elements
3. Atoms combine in simple, whole-number ratios to form compounds
4. Atoms of one element cannot change into atoms of another element. In a chemical reaction, atoms only change the way that they are bound together with other atoms.
What is an electron and where is it found?
An electron is a low-mass particle with a negative charge found in all atoms. It is located right outside the nucleus.
How much does an electron weigh?
9.109 × 10-31 kg
How much does a proton weight?
1.673 × 10-27 kg
How much does a neutron weigh?
1.675 × 10-27 kg
What is a proton and where is it found?
Positively charged particles that are contained within the nucleus
What is a neutron and where is it found?
Neutral charged particles that are contained within the nucleus
What is an atomic mass unit?
It is 1/12 the mass of a carbon atom containing six protons and six neutrons.
What are isotopes?
Atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
What is an element's mass number?
The sum of the protons and neutrons in an atom
What is an element's atomic number?
The number of protons within an atom of an element
What does Avogadro's constant represent?
1 mole of an element contains 6.022 * 10^23 particles
What is a mole?
It is the amount of material containing 6.022*10^23 particles
What is a cation?
A positively charged ion
What is an anion?
A negatively charged ion
What are intensive properties?
Properties that don't depend on amount of matter present
What are extensive properties?
Properties that do depend on the amount of matter present.
What is a chemical property?
A material's properties that become evident during or after a chemical reaction
What are physical properties?
Properties that can be observed or measured without changing the matter
What type of property is density?
intensive physical property
What is electromagnetic radiation?
A type of energy embodied in oscillating electric and magnetic fields
What is wavelength?
The distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves
What is frequency?
The number of waves that pass a given point per second
What is a quantum?
The amount of energy required to move an electron from one energy level to another
What are photons?
Packets of light energy
What is the wave-particle duality of light or an electron?
It is how we both light and electrons are in two different states at the same time (wave and particle) we we don't observe them. However, we can only observe in one state at a time.
What is the photoelectric effect?
The emission of electrons from a metal when light shines on the metal with a specific wavelength and frequency
What is the electromagnetic spectrum?
The range of wavelengths or frequencies over which electromagnetic radiation extends.
What are all of the types of electromagnetic radiation in order of highest frequency to lowest?
Gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet, visible light, infrared, microwave, and radio.
In the visible light spectrum, what is the highest to lowest frequency of colors?
V, I, B, G, Y, O, R
What is a continuous spectrum?
White light that has no breaks in it and shows all the colors of the visible spectrum.
What is a line spectrum?
The spectrum of an element that appears as a series of lines. Each line corresponds to a distinct frequency of light and how much frequency is needed to move an electron up in an energy level.
What is the absorption spectrum?
A spectrum of electromagnetic radiation transmitted through a substance, showing dark lines or bands due to absorption of specific wavelengths.
What is the emission spectrum?
A series of bright lines on a dark background that show specific wavelengths and frequencies of each energy level.
What was Niels Bohr hypothesis about electrons within an atom?
He believed electrons traveled around the nucleus in circular orbits that exist in fixed distances from the nucleus. He also believed that when an electron moves up or down in energy levels, energy is either absorbed or emitted.
What is the limitation on the Bohr Model?
Can't predict the spectrum of any other atom besides hydrogen because a multi-electron atom has more than one electron which causes it to have a different amount of energy to move the electrons.
What is a ground state of an electron?
When electrons are in the lowest possible energy levels
What are excited states of an electron?
When electrons move up into a different energy level and they are at a higher state.
What are atomic orbitals?
Regions where there is a high probability of finding an electron
What are the principle quantum numbers(n)?
An integer that determines the overall size and energy of an orbital
What is the angular momentum quantum number(l)?
An integer that determines the shape of the orbital (s,p,d,f)
What is the magnetic quantum number(ml)?
An integer that specifies the orientation of the orbital
What is the spin quantum number (ms)?
IT specifies the spin of the electron. If it spins up, the number is +1/2. If it spins down, the number is -1/2.
How do you find the number of sub levels within a shell?
It is represented by the principle quantum number, n
How do you find the number of orbitals per shell?
It is the principle quantum number squared, n^2.
How do you find the number of orbitals in a sub shell?
It is the subshell's number multiplied by 2 and added by 1, 2l + 1.
What is an electric field?
a region where an electrically charged particle experiences a force
What is a magnetic field?
Where magnetized particles experiences force
What is a group in the periodic table?
column of elements
What is a period in the periodic table?
What is electron configuration?
The arrangement of electrons in the orbitals of an atom
What is the periodic law?
When the elements are arranged in order of increasing mass, certain sets of properties recur periodically
What is the Pauli Exclusion principle?
No two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers
What is effective nuclear charge?
The net positive charge experienced by an electron in a multi-electron atom. The equation for this would be the number of protons minus the number of electrons to get the charge.
What is Coulomb's Law?
States that the PE of two charged particles depends on the charges and seperation
What is shielding?
When electrons in inner shells weaken the attraction between electrons in the outer shell
What is the penetration effect?
When electrons closer to the nucleus experiences a greater nuclear charge but they have a lower energy
What are degenerate orbitals?
Orbitals with the same energy. They are usually in the same energy level and sub shell
What is Hund's rule?
when filling degenerate orbitals, electrons fill them singly first, with parallel spins
What is the Aufbau principle?
An electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that can receive it
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