Midterm - History

Compromise of 1850
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 99
Terms in this set (99)
Andrew Johnson-tried to break the planters' power by excluding high ranking confederates and wealthy southern landowners from voting privileges -vetoed Freedman's Bureau Act and Civil Rights ActRadical Republicans-wanted to destroy the political power of former slaveholders -wanted AA to be given full citizenship and the right to voteSharecroppers-landowners who divided their land and assigned each head of household a few acres along with seed and toolsTenant Farmers-person who farms rented landScalawags-white southerners who joined the Republican partyPlanter class-composed of whites who owned plantations growing sugar, cotton, tobacco, and slavesCarpetbaggers-northerners who moved to the south after the warBlack Codes-limited civil rights for AA14th and 15th Amendments-14: prevented states from denying rights and privileges to U.S. citizens -15: no one can be kept from voting because of race and colorGrandfather Clause-even if a man failed the literacy test or could not afford the poll tax, he was still entitled to vote if he, his father, or grandfather had been eligible to vote before Jan. 1, 1867 -prevented AA from voting and still allowed whites to votePoll Tax-an annual tax that had to be paid before qualifying to voteLiteracy Tests-required for AAs to voteHomestead Act-offered 160 acres of free land to any citizen or intended citizen who was head of the household -settle land in the westReservation System-Americans put Indians in a reservation to control them and separate them from their cultureSodbusters-plow used to break the sodBuffalo-plain Indians' main source of food, clothing, shelter, and fuelPlains Indians-believed that powerful spirits controlled events in the natural world -no individual was allowed to dominate the groupExodusters-AAs who moved from the power-Reconstruction south to KansasBuffalo Soldiers-four regiments made up of AA soldiersRailroads in the west-led to the expansion away from the eastern U.S.Barbed Wire-ranchers fenced the land with it because it was cheap and easy to use -helped turn the open plains into a series of fenced-in ranchesTurner's Thesis-stressed the importance of the frontier and its impact on AmericaCowboys-stemmed directly from the first Spanish ranchers in MexicoVaquero-first to wear spurs (used to control a horse)Jim Crow-laws that separated whites from blacks in public areasPlessy vs. Ferguson-supreme court ruled that the separation of races in public accommodations was legal and didn't violate the 14th amendment -during the Brown vs. Board educationSegregation-racial laws to separate white/black people in public and private facilitiesNAACP-National Association for the Advancement of Colored People -founded by AAs who joined with reformers in NY -aimed for full equality among all racesGrange-provides a social outlet and an educational forum for isolated farm familiesTechnology-advances began to meet the nation's needs for communication, transportation, and space2nd Industrial Revolution-saw rapid industrial development (technology, telephones, radios, railroads, etc.)inventions-skyscrapers, printing press, airplanes, Kodak cameraSocial Darwinism-Charles Darwin's theory that individuals flourish and pass down their traits along to the next generationMonopolies Big Business-firm that bought out all of its competitors (complete control over an industry's production, wages, and prices)trusts-lowered companies' prices to drive out competition, then increased prices when all other companies have been driven outTrust busting-filing suits under the Sherman Antitrust Act by President RooseveltSherman Antitrust Act-made it illegal to form a trust that interfered with free trade between states and other countriesUnions-laborers (skilled/unskilled/black/white/men/female) who joined together to improve their lotCollective bargaining-negotiation between representatives of labor and managementWorker's rights-group of legal rights between workers and employees about pay, benefits, and safe working conditionsInterstate Commerce Act-reestablished the right of the federal government to supervise railroad activities and established a five member interstate commerce commission for that purposeEllis Island-inspection at immigration stations -about 20% of immigrants were detained for a day or more before being inspectedAngel Island-where Asians, primarily Chinese, gained admission to enter the West Coast -immigrants endured harsh questioning and long detentionImmigration-native-born Americans that are of different cultures and races -migration into a countryPatronage-giving of government job to people who had helped a candidate get elected (bribery)Pendleton Act-authorized a bipartisan civil service commission to make appointments to federal jobs through a merit system based on candidates performance on examinationPresident James Garfield-angered the people by giving reformers most of his patronage jobs once he was elected -assassinatedUrbanization-growth of cities mostly in the regions of Northeast and MidwestSkyscrapers-buildings that were built up, not wide -development of the steel frame and elevatorSubway-marked beginning of rapid transit -transportation that was popular during the 1800sSuspension bridges-made of steel cable (Brooklyn bridge) -brought cities closer togetherProgressivism-aimed to restore economic opportunities and correct injustices in American life -protect social welfare, create economic reform, promote moral improvementmuckrakers-journalists who wrote about the corrupt side of business and public life in mass circulation magazines during the early 20th centuryGentlemen's agreement-informal agreement between the U.S and the empire of Japan where the U.S. would not restrict on Japanese immigration and Japan wouldn't allow further emigration into U.S.Chinese Exclusionary Act-prohibits all immigration of Chinese laborersImperialism-policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker nationsRoosevelt Corollary-U.S. would now use force to protect its economic interests in Latin America -in Monroe doctrineSpanish-American war-revolt against Spanish rule -Spanish government was immoral and wanted to gain Cuba, but America intervenedTreaty of Paris-U.S. gained Puerto Rico, Guam, and Philippine IslandsOpen Door Policy-established U.S. trading rights in ChinaBig Stick Diplomacy-Theodore Roosevelt's concept of negotiating peacefully with the threat of a militaryGood Neighbor Policy-U.S. wasn't to interfere with Latin American domestic affairs -expected to create new economic opportunities but Latin Americans were suspiciousNew Freedom-Wilson criticized regulated monopoly -thought government had too much power in the economyWWI-assassination of archduke Franz Ferdinand spurred Austria-Hungary to declare war on SerbiaNeutrality-not supporting/helping either side in a conflict -U.S.Selective Service Act-required men to register with the government in order to be randomly selected for military serviceWomen's suffrage-women's right to voteTemperance-abstinence from alcoholic drinkThe Great Migration-large-scale movement of hundreds of thousands of southern blacks to cities in the NorthTreaty of Versailles-established new nations and shifted the boundaries of other nationsWilson's 14 Points-addressed to prevent another war -dealt with boundary changes -no secret treaties -freedom of seas -tariffs lowered -arms reducedLeague of Nations-provided a forum for nations to discuss and settle their grievances without having to resort to war -rejected 14 points -Germany had to pay war reparationsArticle X-section calling our assistance to be given to a member that experience external aggressionHenry Cabot Lodge-leader of conservative senators that were suspicious of the provision for joint economic and military action against aggression, even though it was voluntary -opposed the League of NationsA. Mitchell Palmer-U.S. attorney general who took action against the red scare -feared communismRed scare-fear that communists might seize power because strikers were accumulatingPalmer Raids-series of raids on offices of the Union of Russian workers in 12 cities -thought they were communists -hunted down suspected communists, socialists, and anarchistsCommunists-believed in a single party government ruled by a dictatorship to equalize wealthy powerUrban sprawl-cities spread in all directionsAutomobile-changed American landscape (paved roads, garages, driveway, gas stations, motels, malls)Ford Model T-first affordable automobile (middle-class American) demonstrated the economic concept of elasticityKellogg-Briand Pact-promised not to use war to resolve disputes or conflicts of natureProhibition-banning of alcoholic beverages18th amendment-prohibition of alcoholic beverages in the U.S.Organized crime-criminals in a group who have leaders and a structure -smuggling, bootlegging, and gangs (Al Capone)Bootlegging-people who bought liquor and smuggled it in their bootHarlem Renaissance-literary and artistic movement celebrating African American culture -1920sJazz-born in 20th century in New Orleans -Louis Armstrong -spread music in New Orleans to the North -F. Scott Fitzgerald termed "Jazz Age"Blues-originated in the Deep South -soulful -black spirituals