AP US History- Chapter 10-13
Chapter 10-13 Nelson AP US History
Terms in this set (92)
-became president in 1800
-Strong believer in strict construction
-forced to modify some of his principles in office
-Does Not undo everything Hamilton did
-Federalist Supreme Court justice
-legal efforts established the principle of judicial review
-Court cases at this time assert national power.
-McCulloch v. Maryland says Supreme Court has power to create a national bank.
-Cohens v. Virginia says Supreme Court has power to review state court cases.
-Gibbons v. Ogden says national gov. regulates the trade.
-Marshall's rulings gave the Supreme Court its powers and greatly strengthened the federal government, giving it power to overrule state governments sometimes.
- important addition to the system of "checks and balances" created to prevent any one branch of the Federal Government from becoming too powerful.
-process under which executive and legislative actions are subject to review by the judiciary. The power of courts to assess whether a law is in compliance with the constitution.
Marbury v. Madison
-Added judges at lower levels(federalist), and decreased judges at top because they lost the presidency and wanted more power in judicial branch
-William Marbury had been appointed a justice of the peace for the District of Columbia in the final hours of the Adams administration.
-Madison refused to deliver Marbury's commission(job/duty) so Marbury petitioned for a writ of mandamus convincing delivery of the commission.
-Writ of Mandamus-a judicial writ issued as a command to an inferior court or ordering a person to perform a public or statutory duty.
-Established for the first time the principle that the Supreme Court can declare an act of Congress void if it is inconsistent with the Constitution.
-Ruling based on a "midnight judge" case that established the right of the Supreme Court to declare laws unconstitutional
French ruler who acquired Louisiana from Spain only to sell it to the United States
Former vice-president, killer of Alexander Hamilton, and plotter of mysterious secessionist schemes
British attack on American sailors that aroused angry demands for war
Embargo Act of 1807
Restrictive trade policy that hurt Britain, but hurt American shippers and farmers even more
Shawnee leader who organized a major Indian confederation against U.S. expansion
Leader of Congressional "War Hawks" who pushed for the War of 1812
Macon's Bill #2
Hoped to stop British and French from stealing American ships during Napoleonic Wars
What did Tecumseh and the Prophet hope to accomplish?
convince Indians not to drink alcohol or trade on credit with settlers, abandon white customs and live independently, and prevent being pushed farther west.
What two battles opened the way for white expansion east of the Mississippi?
Battle of Tippecanoe and Battle of the Thames
What did the War Hawks want?
For the US to go to war with British in War of 1812
Why were New Englanders opposed to War of 1812?
Because they were hurt by embargo. Also, they preferred to stay home and protect their families (during war). They were afraid to lose trading partners in Britain.
Why was the War of 1812 one of America's worst-fought wars?
There was a lack of support from men to fight. This lead to the American army being small and powerless. Even America's strong navy wasn't good enough. At home, there was political disunity. None of the states enforced drafts to federal military, and with all the states against each other, very little self-defense was done. In terms of alliances, the US's Indian alliances were negligible in comparison to Britain's Indian alliances.
What were the terms of the Treaty of Ghent?
-Ended War of 1812
-Released all prisoners
-restored all war lands and boats.
-Area near Great Lakes and Pacific coast returned to US,
-upper Canada returned to Britain.
-British promised to return freed black slaves, but later paid US $350,000 for them back.
-British's idea of Indian buffer zone collapsed.
-Failed to produce victory for either side.
-Essentially, it restored status quo of pre-war.
-Northern federalist states threatened to secede, over controversy concerning War of 1812.
-proposed Constitutional changes to prevent similar crises from occurring in future.
-Marked end of the Federalists as a national party.
1. removing the three-fifths compromise which gave slave states more power in Congress
2. requiring a two-thirds vote in Congress for the admission of new states
3. declarations of war
4. laws restricting trade
Demilitarized Great Lakes and Lake Champlain. US and Britain had joint control over Oregon Territory.
Impact of sectionalism
-War of 1812 increased sectionalism
-More factories were built in Northeast, causing differences between North and South (grew farther apart).
-Western expansion led to sectionalism.
-Missouri Controversy drove wedge between North and South.
-North thought South was conspiring to expand slavery
-South thought North was trying to destroy Union and slavery.
Spain ceded Florida to the US and renounced any claim to Oregon in return for a US renunciation of any tenuous claims we might have to Texas and $5 million in claims of Americans against the Spanish government in Florida
Proclamation of Neutrality
US would remain friendly and impartial toward both Britain and France rather than become embroiled in the French Revolution in the critical first years of the Republic
Drafted by John Quincey Adams under President Monroe, it stated that US would refrain from intervention in European affairs but would regard as an "unfriendly act" any attempt at further colonization in the Western Hemisphere. Very little immediate effect.
Spain guaranteed American farmers the use of the Mississippi River and the right of deposit in New Orleans in an attempt to prevent an Anglo-American reproachment
XYZ Affair (1797-98)
US staunchly rejected French demands for an apology, a loan, and a bribe just to begin negotiations, without any guarantee of negotiation being made
Washington's Farewell Address
-stay out of foreign affairs
-dont create political parties
Britain agreed to evacuate forts in the Northwest but made no concessions on impressment or violations of our rights as a neutral
US stopped all foreign trade in an effort to pressure Britain and France into respecting our rights as a neutral. Hurt New Englanders.
War of 1812
US declared war against Britain in an effort to gain Canada, an end to Indian troubles on the frontier, and respect for our rights as a neutral
Two military heroes who emerged from the War of 1812
Andrew Jackson (Battle of New Orleans) and Oliver Hazard Perry
Why was American victory in Battle of New Orleans meaningless?
Peace treaty had been signed several weeks before
One significant consequence of War of 1812
increase in manufacturing and economic independence
Why was Era of Good Feelings misnamed?
Panic of 1819 and battle over slavery in Missouri
Missouri Compromise (1820)
-Missouri will be a slave state and Maine will become a free state
-No more slavery would be permitted in the Louisisana Purchase territory north of the southern boundary of Missouri (36° 30' Line)
-problem because of balance of power in the senate (2/state)
-south disliked because that would mean more free states in senate
Two buildings burned by British in 1814
Capitol and Executive Mansion
Henry Clay's ambitious nationalistic plans for tariffs, internal improvements, and expanded manufacturing
Dartmouth College v. Woodard
Daniel Webster successfully argued that a state could not change a legal charter once granted. Both parties must agree to break a contract.
Panic of 1819
First severe depression since 1790
Tsar Alexander I
Russian ruler whose mediation proposal led to negotiations ending War of 1812
What was Jefferson's chief reason for purchasing Louisiana?
Gave the US control over Mississippi River
Results of War of 1812
Isolationism, Native American tribes lost their British allies, manufacturing grew in New England, Federalist party opposed was and was weakened, nationalism(in spirit, arts, literature, and distinguished some traits of America)
Clay's American System
Tariff of 1816 (South upset about high tariff), National Road and Erie Canal (South doesn't want to pay for them, because they only benefit North and West), Recharter of Bank of United States (South thinks it will only benefit wealthy).
Panic of 1819
Caused by wildcat banking practices and land speculation, led to economic troubles in West
Election of 1820
Nationalism, nearly unanimously voted for Monroe (1 electoral college voted for Adams to prevent Monroe from being unanimously elected (Washington was only one))
Election of 1824
Jackson vs. Clay vs. John Quincey Adams vs. Crawford. Jackson had popular vote, but not enough electoral college votes for victory (decided by House, who chose between Jackson, Adams, and Crawford). Corrupt Bargain- Clay used influence in House to support Adams (who won). Clay was then named Secretary of State by Adams.
1778, was France's justification of asking America to support France after French Revolution when they were fighting British.
Whiskey Rebellion (1794)
Response to Hamilton's Whiskey Excise. Put down by 15,000 troops.
Battle of Tippecanoe
1811, Americans won, led by future president William Henry Harrison. They defeated Native Americans led by Tecumseh.
Causes of War of 1812
British impressment of American sailors, Chesapeake-Leopard Affair, right to trade, expansionism (led by Clay, War Hawks wanted Canada and Florida), British provoke Native Americans to attack American settlers on frontier.
Britain kidnapped sailors and forced them into their navy
Undeclared naval war, North Africans pirated American ships. Caused Jefferson to increase size of navy to fight pirates.
Napoleon hoped that US would gain power, and balance power of Britain. Napoleon wanted to focus on Napoleonic Wars in Europe. Congress wasn't in secession, so Jefferson wasn't allowed to spend any money, but he made purchase ($15 million) anyway (Napoleon wanted immediate answer). Jefferson hoped that settlers would become farmers, and join Republicans.
Benefits of Louisiana Purchase
Doubles size of US. Removed French from North America. Secured Mississippi River for US. Bread-belt of nation..
Jefferson Takes Office
Maintains many Federalist policies (repealed Excise). Peaceful transition between political parties.
Failure of Adam's Administration
Undeclared naval war with France split Federalist party. Alien and Sedition Acts.
Undeclared Naval War with France
1798-1800 John Adam's decision to make peace with France rather than fight cost Adams his popularity, split Federalist Party, and helped Republicans win majority in presidency and both houses of Congress.
Alien and Sedition Acts (1798)
-Reacting to possible war with France and XYZ affair
-Federalists passed this law.
-Alien Acts- made it difficult to become a citizen (had to live in America for at least 14 years)
-Federalists maintained power, because when immigrants become citizens, most side with Republicans.
-Gave gov. new powers to imprison or deport foreigners
-Sedition Acts- illegal to criticize government (infringed 1st Amendment).
-Ended after Jefferson became president
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Written by Madison and Jefferson, proposed that state governments could choose not to follow federal laws- Nullification.
Who wrote Bill of Rights?
Revolution of 1800
Jefferson had a completely different vision of America than that of the Federalists whom he replaced.
Chief Justice of Supreme Court, solidified the power of federal government, by establishing principles that centralized power, especially to judicial branch. (Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch v. Maryland, Gibbons v. Ogden)
Goal of American System
Proposed after War of 1812 by Henry Clay, outlined plan for broad economic growth for the United States.
Attack on Washington
1814, Britain defeated Napoleon, and US became Britain's only enemy. British attacked New York, then Washington. The British sacked Washington, causing many to flee city. As this was happening, Treaty of Ghent was being signed in Belgium.
Electoral College would vote for president and vice presiden separately
Election of 1800
Jefferson chosen over Adams by House of Representatives. Hamilton supported Jefferson due to his hatred of Burr.
Alien and Sedition Acts were not renewed, whiskey tax was eliminated, Jefferson opposed further expansion of national debt, supported National Bank.
created by Hamilton, tax on whiskey, made small farmers mad.
Reform of Courts
Adams appointed "midnight judges" at the end of his presidency. Marshall increased power of Supreme Court (established judicial review, for example).
Jefferson encouraged expansion. Over 1 million settlers lived between Appalachian Mountains and Mississippi River in 1800. In 1804, land became cheaper and easier to purchase. Jefferson thought that Americans should show Native Americans the benefits of farming, but his desire of expansion outweighed his desire of fair treatment of Native Americans.
Opened trade with all countries except England and France, proposed in 1808 by Madison.
Vice president under Jefferson 1800-1804, tried to become governor of New York. Was sought after to lead secession of some northern states from union. Hamilton accused him of trying to ruin union, and they dueled, where Hamilton was killed. Then, Burr moved to West. Plotted secession of Louisiana, but was betrayed and arrested. Marshall helped Burr in some rulings (possible to undermine Jefferson).
Supposed to make America less economically dependent on Europe by encouraging production of goods in US. Created Second National Bank (chartered in 1816), large protective tariff (Tariff of 1816) which would encourage production and interstate commerce. Supported by Madison, implemented by Monroe. Depression still gripped America in 1819.
leader- Hamilton and Adams
1. Rule by the "best people"
2. Hostility to extension of democracy
3. A powerful central government at the expense of states' rights
4. Loose interpretation of the Constitution-(if it is not forbidden, it is permitted- invoke the "elastic clause")
5. Government to foster business; concentration of wealth in interests of capitalistic enterprise
6. A protective tariff
8. National debt a blessing, if properly funded
9. An expanding bureaucracy: a system of government in which most of the important decisions are made by state officials rather than by elected representatives.
10. A powerful central bank
11. Restrictions on free speech and press
12. Concentration in seacoast area
13. A strong navy to protect shippers
leader-Jefferson and Madison
1. Rule by the informed mass
2. Friendliness toward extension of democracy
3. A weak central government so as to preserve states' rights
4. Strict interpretation of the Constitution-(if it is not permitted, it is forbidden- interpret literally)
5. No special favors for business; agriculture preferred
6. No special favors for manufacturers
8. National debt a curse; rigid economy
9. Reduction of federal officeholders
10. Encouragement to state banks
11. Relatively free speech and press
12. Concentration in South and Southwest; agricultural areas and backcountry
13. A minimal navy for coastal defense
significance of Hamilton's economic plan
1. Hamilton's vision for reshaping the American economy included a federal charter for the Bank of the U.S.
2. Modeled along the Bank of England, a central bank would help make the new nation's economy dynamic through a more stable paper Currency.
3. Hamilton wanted the United States to adopt a Mercantilist economic policy, which would protect American manufacturers through direct government Subsidies (handouts to business) and Tariffs(taxes on imported goods).
4. This Protectionist policy would help fledgling American producers to compete with inexpensive European imports.
Main issues of Jefferson's presidency/his political views—how he changed
-Jefferson keeps Hamilton's 4 point plan:
1. Establish the nation's credit worthiness- assume the debts that the states have accumulated.
2. Create a national debt to create bond with the countries that we owe. Make them care about our success.
3. Create a bank of the United States- hold public funds, currency, house money.
4. Whiskey tax- excise tax on whiskey-hurts farmers
-Jefferson does not want foreign affairs but declares war on Barbary states-Tripolitan War
-Keeps tariffs- cannot have free trade unless all nations agree.
-Want to reduce debt
-Army size is reduced
-Excise taxes are repealed
-Alien and Seditions Acts repealed
-More of Georgia is claimed
-Territories could become states if they had certain amount of people and their own constitution.
-Louisiana Purchase cost 15 million dollars- constitution does not state president can purchase land(unconstitutional).
-President and Vice President are now voted for separately.
-Embargo Act (national and against his beliefs)- shut trade with the world then targeted Britain and France.
-Ban of slave importation even though he owned slaves.
Sectional & political views on War of 1812
-The War of 1812 can be understood as a conflict in which the United States reasserted its independence from Great Britain, her former colonial master, who after the War of Independence continued to assert prerogatives
-Southerners and Westerners wanted war and northerners didn't
-North were pro-British, but South hated Britain(pro-French)
Causes of the War of 1812
-Impressment by British
-British arming of Native Americans
-Britain and France attacked when US tried to trade with the other
-Britain refused to surrender western forts as promised in the Treaty of Paris after the Revolutionary War
Effects of the War of 1812
-National moral increased
-American patriotism increased
-Weakened native american resistance
-U.S. manufacturing grew bc we refused to buy british goods.
-Burning of the nation's capital, Washington, D.C
-Two centuries of peace between the United States and Britain.
-4 candidates-(All considered republicans)
-John Q. Adams - (North)Wins election because of the electoral votes, unpopular nationalistic views
Corrupt bargain- Clay influenced the decisions of the House of Rep. in favor of J.Q. Adams.
-Andrew Jackson (Old Hickory) - (West)Won popular vote since he was a military hero.
-Candidates had a competitive campaign (used banners, badges, parades, barbecues, free drinks and baby kissing to get votes.)
Tariff of 1828
+North- national republicans-industry like tariff
+South- democrats- farmers hate tariff
+Jackson threatens to send military to South Carolina to pay taxes.
-Government's bank to take in funds and surplus money.
people questioned its constitutionality.
-used "necessary and proper clause" since gov needs it as a regulatory system that handles the money.
need to be re-chartered after some time(renewal).
-Jackson hates it and was going to veto it.
-Average person didn't know about the national bank so people agreed with Jackson to veto it.
-Getting rid of national bank caused different currency and money problems.
Andrew Jackson's political views—before, during presidency
-Makes office very powerful
-Vetoes a lot- does whatever he wants
-Popular democracy- more people vote(voting restrictions got rid of)
-Jackson became the leader of the new Democratic Party.
-A supporter of states' rights and slavery's extension into the new western territories.
-He opposed the Whig Party and Congress on polarizing issues such as the Bank of the United States.
-His legacy is harmed by his role in the forced relocation of Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi.
-Conservative (wants to preserve how things were)
-Believed in industry
-Whigs were made up of many different religions and different types of people-diverse (not just farmers or businessmen)
-The Whig party (1834)formed in opposition to Andrew Jackson and the Democratic party.
-Wanted to build roads and canals- make internal improvements
-Favor strong national gov.
-Believed in agriculture
-Favor state gov.
-Believed in leaving industries alone
-Americans moved and lived on Mexican land-newly won land therefore empty.
-Americans and Mexicans fought over Mexico prohibited importation of slaves to TX.
-Lone-star rebellion takes place.
-Texas-1836 wins its independence, for 10 yrs its own country.
-Dispute on border of Texas leads to Mexican war.
-If Texas would join the US, it would throw off the number of slave vs non-slave states because there was an even number before. (why Texas didn't join the US yet.)
Anti federalist(1787)→Jeffersonian republican(1796)→republicans→Jacksonian democrats→democrats
other rights that may exist aside from the ones explicitly mentioned, and even though they are not listed, it does not mean they can be violated
10th amendment (supremacy clause)
a power not given to the govt but not denied given to states then given to states
necessary and proper clause (elastic clause)
Congress has the power, "To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof."
Washington=1787-1797 (constitutional period)
John Adams(federalist)=1797-1801 (constitutional period)
James Madison(D-R)=1809-17 (Jeffersonian era)
James Monroe(D-R)=1817-25 (era of good feeling)
John Quincy Adam(NR)=1825-29 (Jacksonian era)
Andrew Jackson(D)=1829-1837 (age of Jackson)
Martin Van Buren (D)=1837-41( age of Jackson
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