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contains H3O+ ions, sour taste, below 7 on pH scale, turns blue litmus paper red

acids used in industry

HCL- cleans metals
HNO3- fertilizers, explosions
H2SO4- fertilizers, batteries
H3PO4- fertilizers, soft drinks

acids in the house

vinegar, asprin, soft drinks, fruit drinks

acids in your body

stomach, muscles


hydroxide OH- ions, bitter taste, above 7 on the pH scale, turns red litmus paper blue

bases used in industry

NaOH- soap, dry cleaners, textiles, paper, drain cleaner
CaOH2- lime, plaster, soil
ALOH3- water purification
MgOH2- antacid

bases in the house

soap, shampoo, ammonia, baking soda, antacid

bases in your body

blood, intestinal fluids


measures the concentration of OH+ ions

pH scale

measures the strength of acids and bases, 0-14, below 7 on scale is acid, 7 is neutral, above 7 is a base


organic compound, changes color in presence of acids or bases

strong acid


strong base

-OH ions

litmus paper colors for acids and bases

acid- blue paper turns red
base- turns red paper blue


reaction between acid and base when cancelled out


compound formed when acid and base cancel out

physical property

one that can be measured and observed doesnt change material

example of physical properties

color, size, shape, transparency, texture, boiling point, melting point, state of matter, flexibility, density, dimensions, solubility, cleavage, fracture, luster, magnetism, hardness, specific gravity, smell, symmetry

chemical property

how something reacts with something else can change into another thing

examples of chemical properties

flammability, oxidation, reaction to acid, reaction to base


how heavy or compact something is mass of object/volume= density g/mL or g/cm3


water= density of 1
density of more than 1= sinking
density of less= floating

physical change

change in appearance or shape of material doesnt change

examples of physical change

breaking, tearing, coloring, melting and boiling point

chemical change

material that reacts to become something else

examples of chemical change

burning, oxidation, bubbling, corroding

law of conservation of matter

can not create or destroy mass/matter only can change it


homogenous mixture that remains constantly uniformly mixed and has particles that are so small they cant be seen without a microscope


being dissolved


doing dissolving


how much a solute can be dissolved by a solvent at a certain temperature

factors to affect solubility

higher temperature- increase solubility
lower temperature- decrease solubility
type of solvent
type of solute


more solute can be dissolved


nothing more can be dissolved between molecules

super saturated

holds more solute than normal due to higher temperatures


partially charged particles

non polar

doesnt have charged atoms

how do solutions form

molecules in the solvent surround molecules of solute and spread them out

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