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38 terms

Physical Science acids and bases and solutions

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acids
contains H3O+ ions, sour taste, below 7 on pH scale, turns blue litmus paper red
acids used in industry
HCL- cleans metals
HNO3- fertilizers, explosions
H2SO4- fertilizers, batteries
H3PO4- fertilizers, soft drinks
acids in the house
vinegar, asprin, soft drinks, fruit drinks
acids in your body
stomach, muscles
bases
hydroxide OH- ions, bitter taste, above 7 on the pH scale, turns red litmus paper blue
bases used in industry
NaOH- soap, dry cleaners, textiles, paper, drain cleaner
CaOH2- lime, plaster, soil
ALOH3- water purification
MgOH2- antacid
bases in the house
soap, shampoo, ammonia, baking soda, antacid
bases in your body
blood, intestinal fluids
pH
measures the concentration of OH+ ions
pH scale
measures the strength of acids and bases, 0-14, below 7 on scale is acid, 7 is neutral, above 7 is a base
indicator
organic compound, changes color in presence of acids or bases
strong acid
H30+ions
strong base
-OH ions
litmus paper colors for acids and bases
acid- blue paper turns red
base- turns red paper blue
neutralization
reaction between acid and base when cancelled out
salt
compound formed when acid and base cancel out
physical property
one that can be measured and observed doesnt change material
example of physical properties
color, size, shape, transparency, texture, boiling point, melting point, state of matter, flexibility, density, dimensions, solubility, cleavage, fracture, luster, magnetism, hardness, specific gravity, smell, symmetry
chemical property
how something reacts with something else can change into another thing
examples of chemical properties
flammability, oxidation, reaction to acid, reaction to base
density
how heavy or compact something is mass of object/volume= density g/mL or g/cm3
densities
water= density of 1
density of more than 1= sinking
density of less= floating
physical change
change in appearance or shape of material doesnt change
examples of physical change
breaking, tearing, coloring, melting and boiling point
chemical change
material that reacts to become something else
examples of chemical change
burning, oxidation, bubbling, corroding
law of conservation of matter
can not create or destroy mass/matter only can change it
solution
homogenous mixture that remains constantly uniformly mixed and has particles that are so small they cant be seen without a microscope
solute
being dissolved
solvent
doing dissolving
solubility
how much a solute can be dissolved by a solvent at a certain temperature
factors to affect solubility
higher temperature- increase solubility
lower temperature- decrease solubility
pressure
type of solvent
type of solute
unsaturated
more solute can be dissolved
saturated
nothing more can be dissolved between molecules
super saturated
holds more solute than normal due to higher temperatures
polar
partially charged particles
non polar
doesnt have charged atoms
how do solutions form
molecules in the solvent surround molecules of solute and spread them out