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What is the effect of TSH and where is it produced?
*Effect- thyroid stimulating hormone stimulates thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones
*Produced in anterior pituitary
What does glucagon do as a hormone, and where is it produced?
*Glucagon- increases blood glucose levels
*Produced in alpha cells on the periphery of clusters (pancreatic islets)
Formed elements consist of three main components. What are they?
Erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes (RBCs, WBCs, platelets)
What value is there to a change in the percentage of white blood cells to diagnostic medicine?
May indicate diseases
In counting 100 WBC you are able to distinguish 15 basophils. Is this a normal number for the WBC count and what health issues can you draw from this?
*Not normal number, number is too high, normal basophil count is <1%.
*May indicate an allergic reaction or exposure to radiation.
What is the name of a surface membrane molecule on a blood cell that causes and immune reaction?
A person has antibody A and antibody B in his or her blood with no Rh antibody. What blood type does this person have?
Person with blood type B negative is injected with type A positive blood. What will happen after injection?
Blood will agglutinate and potentially clot B antigens combine with anti-B agglutinins (antibodies)
Decrease in number of RBC in a given volume of blood or decrease in amount of hemoglobin in the blood
What is the name of the depression between the two ventricles on the anterior surface of the heart?
The bicuspid valve is located between what two chambers of the heart?
Left atrium and left ventricle
What is the function of the aortic semilunar valve?
Prevent blood flow back into the left ventricle from the aorta
What adaptation do you see in the walls of the left ventricle being thicker than those of the right ventricle?
Left ventricle have thicker walls because it pumps blood to whole body vs. the right ventricle that only pumps to the lungs
In terms of function how is cardiac muscle different from skeletal muscle?
Cardiac muscle can contract independently of neural impulses, while skeletal muscle cannot
Which two chambers of the heart (atria or ventricles) contract last in a normal cardiac cycle?
After the AV node depolarizes what structures conduct the impulse to the myocardium of the ventricles?
Atrioventricular bundle, bundle branches, Purkinje fibers
Why is the ECG event indicating atrial repolarization not seen in an ECG?
It occurs at the same time as ventricular depolarization which is the larger electrical event
What does a heart block do to impulse transmission in the heart?
Slows the impulse in the heart and lengthens the QRS compels of ECG
What effect does fibrillation have on cardiac muscle contraction and on pumping efficiency of heart? Which is more serious-atrial or ventricular fibrillation?
Random contraction in cardiac muscle results in numerous loci of contractions, atria and ventricles could (fine) at different rates which could be antagonistic to each other & reduce efficiency of heart
If myocardial infarct (heart attack) destroyed a portion of the right or left bundle branches what change would you see in an ECG?
Portion of ECG electrically measured events of bundle branches would be altered, would see an increase of time of QRS interval
Blood from the left subclavian artery flows into what vessels as it moves toward the left arm?
Left axillary artery
An aneurysm is a weakened, expanded portion of an artery. Ruptured aneurysms can lead to rapid blood loss. Describe the significance of an aortic aneurysm versus a digital artery aneurysm.
The pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs. Umbilical arteries carry a mixture of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. Why are these blood vessels called arteries?
They carry blood away from the heart
Blood from the common carotid artery next travels to what two vessels?
External and internal carotid artery
Name three blood vessels that exit from the aortic arch.
Brachiocephalic artery, left common carotid artery, and left subclavian artery
How do the aortic arch arteries of a cat differ from those of a human?
The pattern of the arteries that leave the aortic arch are somewhat different
Blood from the celiac artery flows into three different blood vessels. What are these vessels?
Splenic artery left gastric artery, common hepatic artery
Blood from the superior mesenteric artery feeds what major abdominal organs?
Small intestines, ascending colon, first part of transverse colon
What is arteriosclerosis?
Hardening of the arteries and is caused by development of cholesterol plaque
In what part of the arterial wall does cholesterol plaque develop?
Under the endothelial layer: tunica intima
How do the lower pelvic arteries in humans differ from those in cats?
There is no common iliac artery in cats, as there is in humans
What major vessels take blood to the hepatic portal vein?
Superior & inferior mesenteric veins, splenic veins & gastroomental veins
Blood in the small intestine travels to the hepatic portal vein by what vessel?
Superior mesenteric vein
In the fetal heart, what is the name of the shut between the pulmonary truck and aortic arch?
What is the name of the vessels that carry lymph from the lymph capillaries to the veins?
How does the use of medical leeches work for a region that has suffered trauma (edema)?
Placed on ends of extremities and drain excess tissue fluid from the region, this decreases edema and removes debris and pathogens
What effect would the removal of nodes of the axillary region have on the drainage of the pectoral region?
Would cause edema of the pectoral region
Mechanisms by which blood from the deep veins can be returned to the heart.
Standing on your head & weaving support hose
When the first sound is heard during measurement with a blood pressure cuff, what is measured, systolic or diastolic pressure?
Emotions have an effect on blood pressure. Predict the blood pressure of a person who recently had a heated argument with a roommate about rent money.
Elevates blood pressure
Illness can affect blood pressure. Illness tends to increase stress responses. Predict the blood pressure of a person with a sinus headache and postnasal drip.
Elevates blood pressure
Both nicotine and caffeine elevate blood pressure. Explain how an increase in blood pressure can have a negative effect on the pumping efficiency of the heart.
The nasal cartilages are made of hyaline cartilage. What functional adaptation does cartilage have over bone in making up the external framework of the nose?
Cartilage maintains shape and is flexible. This is important for keeping breathing passages open but is capable of breathing.
Three structures make up the nasal septum. What are they?
Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone, vomer, and the nasal cartilage
What is the function of respiratory epithelium and the superficial blood vessels in the nasal cavity?
Warm and moisten the external air, prior to it entering the lungs
What is the name of the structure that prevents fluid from entering the nasopharynx during swallowing?
The trachea branches into two tubes that go to the lungs. What are these tubes called?
Main or primary branch
The surface area of the lungs in humans is about 70 square meters. How can this be so if the lungs are located in the small space of the thoracic cavity? What role do alveoli play in the nature of surface area?
The division of the lungs into many small sacs increases surface area. The surface area can be increased by adding more inner walls to a particular region.
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