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American History Chapter 3
Terms in this set (61)
held that the people should control the government and that a simple government best suited the needs of the people
Elected President in 1800
The Election of 1800 was decided by
House of Representatives
First president to take office in the new capital (Washington D.C)
Marbury v. Madison
This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review
1803 purchase of the Louisiana territory from France. Made by Jefferson, this doubled the size of the US.
The practice of seizing Americans at sea and drafting them into the British Navy
Causes of the War of 1812
Impressment, Officials in British Canada supplying arms to Natives, and War Hawks demanded War.
Most Impressive American victory in War of 1812
Battle of New Orleans
An agreement to stop fighting
Treaty of Ghent
Ended the War of 1812
Consequences of War of 1812
End to Federalist Party (members opposed war)
Encouraged growth of American industries (Britain no longer trade option)
Confirmed status of US as free and independent
Lewis and Clark Expedition
an expedition led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark that began in 1804 to explore the Louisiana Purchase
elected president in 1816
the belief that national interests should be placed ahead of regional concerns or the interests of other countries
Agreement in which Spain gave up all of Florida to the United States
warned all European powers not to interfere with affairs in the Western Hemisphere. They should not attempt to create new colonies or to try to overthrow newly independent republics. At the same time the United States would not involve itself in European affairs.
Invented the cotton gin
Negative Outcome of Cotton gin
Contributed to the expansion of slavery
Clay's American System
Establish protective tariff, bring back national bank and sponsor development of transportation systems
"Compromise of 1820" over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.
Election of 1828
Andrew Jackson elected president
A policy of spreading more political power to more people. Giving common people the chance to participate in government
Indian Removal Act
Under this law, the federal government provided funds to negotiate treaties that would force the Native Americans to move west.
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles to the Indian Territory. More than 4,000 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
Jackson believed the Bank of US had too much power and was too rich. Vetoed the 2nd Bank charter and withdrew government money from the US Banks and put it into "pet banks"
Willaim Henry Harrison
Elected President in 1840 but died just a month after his inauguration
elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died
The belief that the U.S. was ordained to expand to the Pacific Ocean
Santa Fe Trail
Trail from independence Missouri to Santa Fe New Mexico in the mid-1800s
Trail from independence Missouri to Oregon used by many pioneers during the 1840s
used the Oregon Trial to move West to escape religious persecution
Stephen F. Austin
Prominent settler who established a colony in Texas. He was imprisoned after asking the Mexican government for more self-government in Texas, which led to the Texas Revolution.
the 1836 rebellion in which Texas gained its independence from Mexico
Battle of the Alamo
1836 attack on the Alamo mission in San Antonio by Mexican forces during the Texas revolution. All U.S. defenders died in the 13 day siege.
Commander of the Texas army at the battle of San Jacinto
James K. Polk
Elected President of the United States in 1844. A former slaveholder, he favored adding Texas to the United States.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Under this agreement the Rio Grande became the border between Texas and Mexico and New Mexico and California became part of the United States.
strip of land in present day Arizona and New Mexico for which the United States paid Mexico $10 million in 1853.
California Gold Rush
Mass migration to California following the discovery of gold in 1848
Period of vast economic growth where people increasingly bought and sold more goods rather than make for themselves.
The freedom of private businesses to operate competitively for profit with little government regulation.
Samuel F. Morse
A New England artist who patented the telegraph, which sent messages in code over a wire in a matter of seconds.
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat
Lowell Textile Mills
19th-century mills for the manufacture of cloth, located in Lowell, Massachusetts, that mainly employed young women.
A work stoppage to force an employer to respond to workers demands.
Reason for Irish immigration
Second Great Awakening
A period of widespread Christian movement to awaken religious sentiments that lasted from the 1790s to the 1830s.
movement to ban slavery
shared with revivalism faith in the individual. Instead of appealing to emotions, they emphasized reason as the path to perfection.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.
Emphasized the truth could be discovered intuitively by observing nature and relating it to one's own emotional and spiritual experience
William Lloyd Garrison
Radical White abolitionist. He established his antislavery newspaper The Liberator
Delivered an uncompromising message of immediate emancipation
(1817-1895) American abolitionist and writer, he escaped slavery and became a leading African American spokesman and writer. He founded the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star.
led a slave revolt in Virginia
A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada.
in 1821 founded Troy Female Seminary in New York which was a model for girls' schools everywhere
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott
Organized the Seneca Falls Convention
Seneca Falls Convention
(1848) the first national women's rights convention at which the Declaration of Sentiments was written
former slave who became an abolitionist and women's rights activist
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