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lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self identity and the physical, mental, and social skills, needed for survival in society.


is the systematic study of how biology affects social behavior

self concept

is the totality of our beliefs and feelings about our self.
1. Physical self
2. Active self (good at soccer
3. Social self (I am nice to others
4. Psychological self (i believe in world peace

self identity

our perception about what kind of person we are

social constructionism

a term that is applied to theories that emphasize the socially created native of social life


we imagine how we appear to other people. We imagine how other people judge the appearance that we think we present. We develop a self concept.

role taking (mead)

the process by which a person mentally assumes the the role of an other person or group in order to understand the world from that persons or groups p.o.v

meads three stages

1. the preparatory stage (birth-3) interactions lack meaning. imitation, preparation for role-playing.
2. the play stage (3-5) Language and symbols. Role taking. dont see it as something they have to do
3.the game stage (early school years) understand their social position as well as the positions of others around them. concerned about demands/ expectations. Generalized others (refers to child's awareness )

family (agents of socialization)

most important primary sources of emotional support. personal development and placement of individuals in society

school (agents of socialization)

responsible for socialization transmission of culture, social control

peer groups (agents of socialization)

a group of people who are linked by common interests, equal social position, (usually similar age)

gender socialization

aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the native of being female or male in a specific group of a society

anticipatory socialization

process by which knowledge and skills are learned for future rolls

racial socialization

aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of ones racial or ethnic status


process of learning a new or different set of attitudes, values, and behaviors from those in ones background and previous experiences.

voluntary socialization

sometimes involves medical/phycological treatment or religious conversion

involuntary socialization

occurs against persons wishes

total institution

a place where people are isolated from the rest of society for a set period of time and come under the control of tv officials.

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