Upgrade to remove ads
CJ Theory Midterm #1
Terms in this set (56)
The two basic historical types of theory are spiritual and non-spiritual. T/F?
Currently, only non-spiritual theories are relevant. T/F?
Spiritual explanations focus on the idea that we can explain things using the natural world around us. T/F?
Trial by Ordeal was considered too lenient, so the pope condemned it in 1215.
Positive Correlation: "A car with lots of mileage is worth less" T/F?
Positive Correlation: "A person is tall, so they weigh more" T/F?
What was based in part on a religious system?
Who developed the idea of the modern penitentiary?
The Roman legal system was based exclusively on naturalism. T/F?
Naturalism indicates that:
crime can be explained through scientific facts
is associated with being the key to scientific theory
Causation is composed of what four elements?
Correlation, theoretical rationale, time sequence, and the absence of spuriousness
Prison Fellowship International, is run according to what principles?
The whole point of causal theories is to gain _ and _ over the world in which we live, so we can get what we want
power and control
"Classical" Criminology is most closely associated with:
Who argued that there was a God given "natural law" that revealed people's natural tendency to do good rather than evil ?
St. Thomas Aquinas
Who was the theorist who coined the "social contract" theory?
What two revolutions helped spread the work of Beccaria?
French and American
Who wrote the essay "On Crimes and Punishment"?
Hedonism is the idea that people will seek out pleasure and avoid pain. T/F?
The 3 branches of classical criminology include:
Deterrence, Routine Activities, and Rational Choice
What are the 3 elements of deterrence as described by Beccaria?
severity, certainty, and celerity
Who was the first person to test the deterrence hypothesis?
States with the death penalty have much lower homicide rates. T/F?
Beccaria suggested that the punishment for every crime should be severe as possible. T/F?
Research shows consistently that deterrence is effective. T/F?
Prison is the only thing that can deter crime. T/F?
Early biological theories emphasize ____ as the distinguishing mark of criminals
Who wrote the book "The Criminal Man"?
Cohen and Felson believe changes in _____ causes there to be an increase in available targets and the absence of capable guardians in the modern world.
Lombroso elaborated his theory based on what scientist's work?
Which one is an example of Lombroso's major classes?
Most modern biological theories look an only biology as the cause of crime. T/F?
Atavistic was used to describe what kind of person?
criminals who resemble biological degenerates
What are the 3 body types described by William Sheldon?
Endomorphic, Mesomorphic, and Ectomorphic
What class was found to be the most prone to crime?
Goring argued criminality was associated with ____ characteristics and that criminals should not be allowed to reproduce
Multiple studies have identified levels of three different neurotransmitters may be associated with _____ behavior
The system that controls the hormones like testosterone is called the endocrine system T/F?
Nutrition is irrelevant to the study of criminal behavior. T/F?
During the era of spiritualism, low intelligence was considered a curse of nature.
Who's research of the "Jukes" helped influence policy that lead to the Supreme Court upholding rulings on forced sterilization ?
IQ tests can trace their origins back to _____ and _____ who devised a scale to rate children who were doing poorly in Paris public schools.
Binet and Simon
Goddard argued the mental age of ________ marked the upper limit of feeblemindedness.
According to Flynn, IQ measures:
abstract problem solving ability
The "Flynn Effect" states that the average IQ has been rising for 60 years now. T/F?
This Belgian astronomer coined the term "social mechanics" to describe his analysis of social data.
Emile Durkheim was one of the most easily understood social thinkers in his time. T/F?
Anomie would be worst in times of prosperity that in times of depression. T/F?
Durkheim called the state of inadequate regulation ______
The original developer of sociology, _____ _____, developed the discipline so out of the ruins of two revolutions in an attempt to build a rational society.
A society without crime would necessarily ______
Durkheim believed that human ambition had natural limits. T/F?
Crime was going up in France when Durkheim came up with his theory of anomie. T/F?
In mechanical societies, laws were generally formed to keep people homogeneous. T/F?
The only mechanism that can limit human appetites, according to Durkheim, is ______
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Criminal Justice- Chapter 3
Criminology Exam 1
Chapter 3: Theories of Crime
CCJ27 Sociology of Crime
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Criminal Procedure Midterm Exam
Abnormal Psychology Exam 1
Juvenile Corrections Exam 1
CJ Research and Planning Final Exam Pt. 2