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31 terms

Ch 11 Adolescence Physical and Cognitive Devel

STUDY
PLAY
adolescence
the transition between childhood and adulthood that begins with puberty. Longest childhood stage. Ending is hard to define. 3 phases: early (11-12 years), middle (14-16 years), and late (16-18 years)
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder in which young people, mainly females, starve themselves because of a compulsive fear of getting fat and an extremely distorted body image (on bulletin board)
body image
conception of an attitude toward one's physical appearance
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder in which individuals, mainly females, engage in strict dieting and excessive exercise accompanied by binge eating, often followed by deliberate vomiting and purging with laxatives. (on bulletin board)
formal operational stage
Piaget's highest stage, beginning around 11 years of age, in which adolescents develop the capacity for abstract, systematic, scientific thinking
growth spurt
rapid gain in height and weight that is the first outward sign of puberty
hypothetico-deductive reasoning
a formal operational problem-solving strategy in which adolescents begin with a hypothesis, or prediction, about variables that might affect an outcome. From the hypothesis, they deduce logical, testable inferences. Then they systematically isolate an combine variables to see which of those inferences are confirmed in the real world
imaginary audience
adolescents' belief that they are the focus of everyone else's attention and concern
menarche
first menstruation
personal fable
adolescent's belief that they are special and unique. Leads them to conclude that others cannot possibly understand their thoughts and feelings and may promote a sense of invulnerability to danger
primary sexual characteristics
physical features that involve the reproductive organs (ovaries, uterus, and vagina in females; penis, scrotum, and testes in males)
propositional thought
a type of formal operational reasoning involving the ability to evaluate the logic of propositions (verbal statements) without referring to real-world circumstances
puberty
biological changes at adolescence that lead to an adult-sized body and sexual maturity
secondary sexual characteristics
physical features visible on the outside of the body that serve as signs of sexual maturity but do not involve the reproductive organs (for example, breast development in females, voice change and facial hair in boy, appearance of underarm hair and pubic hair in both sexes)
secular trend
a change from one generation to the next in an aspect of development, such as body size or pubertal timing
sex hormones
estrogens and androgens (MORE estrogens in girls, MORE androgens in boys - both sexes have each)
estrogens
more in girls - adrenal estrogens
androgens
more in boys - testoterone
sexual maturation
maturation of the reproductive organs (just because a girl is menstruating does not mean she is sexually mature - egg may not be released) & the secondary sex characteristics
sexual orientation
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex or the other sex
sexuality
context is defined by people's feelings concerning their masculine or feminine natures, their abilities to give and receive love and affection, and finally their roles in reproduction of the species
sexually transmitted diseases
diseases that are spread from one person to another during sexual contact
AIDS
a syndrome caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that renders immune cells ineffective, permitting opportunistic infections, malignancies, and neurologic diseases to develop; transmitted sexually or through contaminated blood
chlamydia
A sexually transmitted disease, the most common in developed countries, caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Often producing no symptoms, it can cause infertility, chronic pain, or a tubal pregnancy if left untreated.
cytomegalovirus
any of a group of herpes viruses that enlarge epitheltial cells and can cause birth defects; can affect humans with impaired immunological systems
human papilloma virus (genital warts)
This viral STD is one of the most common in the world; causes genital warts and some types of cervical cancer. Controversial Vaccine called Gardisil is recommended for all girls between ages of 9 and 26
gonorrhea
contagious, inflammatory sexually transmitted disease caused by a bacterial organism that affects the mucous membranes of the genitourinary system
herpes simplex I/II
either of two herpes diseases caused by a herpesvirus that infects humans and some other animals and produces small, transient blisters on the skin or mucous membranes, one type of virus (herpes simplex virus type 1, or HSV-1) usually associated with oral herpes but also causing genital herpes and the other (herpes simplex virus type 2, or HSV-2) usually causing genital herpes.
syphilis
an STD caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum that affects many body organs and parts, including the genitals, brain, skin, and nervous tissue (manifests as painless red papules on skin)
spermarche
first ejaculation of seminal fluid (usually during nighttime emission)
substance use/abuse
alcohol is the most common early drug;
abusers - more antisocial, more likely to be affected by genetic and environmental influences;
use leads to abuse