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Terms in this set (120)
The study of ecological structure and process at large spatial scales
How did Robert MacArthur describe Geographical Ecology was?
the search for patterns of plant and animal life that can be put on a map
Alexander Von Humboldt
(1807) discovered that larger areas harbor more species than smaller area
Species-Area Relationship equation
S=number of species, c=constant (y-intercept), A=area, z=constant (slope)
Influence of Isolation
For a given area, islands near New Guinea support more species than those farther away
Who wrote "The Theory of Island Biogeography"?
Robert MacArthur, E.O. Wilson
What is the Equilibrium Model of Island Biogeography?
The rates of immigration and rates of extinction of the number of species on an island
Draw the graph of the equilibrium Model of Island Biogeography.
Immigration Rates affected by?
Immigration rates affected mainly by distance to source pool
Extincition Rates affected by?
Extinction rates affected mainly by island size
Draw the graph of the equilibrium Model of Island Biogeography. (including Immigration and Extinction requirements.)
Explain the Channel Island equilibrium. (1917-1968)
As predicted by the equilibrium model of island biogeography, considerable species turnover occurred over a 51-year period
What is a species turnover?
The movement of something into, through and out of a place, the rate at which a thing is depleted and replaced
Explain the Patterns of bird colonization of Krakatau.
1883, a volcanic eruption on Krakatau wiped out all life on the island.
1908, 13 bird species colonized the island
1919-1921, 31 bird species colonized the island
1932-1934, there were still 30 bird species but 5 turnovers
Who created an experimental test of island biogeography theory?
Daniel Simberloff (and Wilson?)
List the steps in Daniel Simberloff's experiement
Fumigated 6 mangrove islands
Compaired to 2 controls (unfumigated islands)
Followed arthropods over a year
Draw the Daniel Simberloff prefaunation graph.
What can be said about the Daniel Simberloff prefaunation graph?
Number of species on near island soon equaled predefaunation level
Number of species on far island still below original number
Observed considerable species turnover
when mangrove area was reduced...
species richness declined
Draw the area reduction graph. What can be said about the Mud 1 island, Mud 2 island? (after Simberloff 1978)
Mud 1 island was reduced in size two times (~1000-550 and ~550-300), each time showed a decrease in number of species.
Mud 2 island was reduced in size 1 times (~950-~330), a single
large reduction in species was observed.
Golden lion tamarin?
Located in Bahia, Brazil, suffered habitat loss and fragmentation (1946-1988)
What is the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project, that aids in the study of framentation in tropical rainforest?
Plots of fragment size 1, 10, 100, and 1000 hectares
Experimental plots surrounded by deforested land
Control plots surrounded by intact forest
Draw the graph for mean number of species captured and the proportion extinct based on fragment size (1992-2000)
Draw the design of Core Natural Areas (Reserve size, SLOSS, Reserve proximity, Reserve connectivity, Reserve shape, Buffer zones)
What can be said about the Geographic Pattern of Mammal Diversity?
the number of species decreases as the latitude increases.
What can be said about Bird Guild Diversity
There is a higher guild diversity in tropical froest than temperate forest
Name some common patterns with decreasing latitude
Higher local diversity (alpha diversity)
Higher regional diversity (gamma diversity)
Higher species turnover (beta diversity)
Higher guild diversity
More equitable distribution of abundance among species (i.e. greater evenness)
(there are exceptions)
Name one exception to the common decreasing latitude pattern.
Global Seabird Diversity
(there are more species as you increase latitude in both directions)
Why are the tropics so diverse?
Need to distinguish between origin and maintenance
More than 25 hypotheses
Hypotheses are not mutually exclusive
Name some tropic diversity hypotheses.
time, area, favorable climate, predation (biotic), competition (biotic), and productivity
More time permits more complete colonization and evolution of new species
(in temperate zones there is little time for recolonization after glacial retreat whole tropical zone do not have to recover from glaciation )
Larger areas support greater numbers of species
(Temperate land areas are separate and small, Tropical land areas are large and adjacent)
Favorable Climate Hypothesis
Fewer species can tolerate climatically harsh conditions
(the mean average temperature drops after 25 degrees latitude on both equatoral sides)
Predation is more intense in the tropics and it prevents competitive exclusion
Tropics with more species that intensely compete
Competition narrows niche breaths and allows greater species packing along resource axes (i.e., resource partitioning)
Greater productivity in the tropics and species richness is limited by partitioning of energy among species
Loss of water from the soil both by evaporation from the soil surface and by transpiration from the leaves of the plants growing on it.
strategic decisions designed to preserve, manage, and restore earth's species and ecosystems along with their native functions, processes, and evolutionary potential
(understand the scope of biological diversity on earth, ranging from genes to species to ecosystems)
How Many Species on Earth?
1.56 million species described,Described species are only a fraction of the total
Estimated number of species ranges from 3 to > 100
(half of species described are insects (950,00), and 40% of these are beetles & 58,800 vertebrates known)
Patterns in numbers of species described vary among groups, Predicting the global number of animal species from their taxonomy,
Eucaroyote estimate number of species?
8.7 million species
Give an example taxa diversity ratio
For example, Britain has 12,000 described fungal
species, about 6X number of flowering plants. There
are 270,000 flowering plants described worldwide.
Thus, a similar 6:1 ratio worldwide would suggest > 1.5
million fungi (rather than 70,000 now known)
What is Terry Erwin's Bold Extrapolation?
What are some Problems with Estimation Techniques?
Scaling up unreliable
Lumping taxa - "cryptic" diversity
Work force variation
Key areas of the world containing great biological diversity, high levels of endemic taxa, and experiencing high rates of habitat loss
restricted to a specific geographical area
Name some facts about Hotspots
34 terrestrial and 10 marine hotspots
14 tropical forest hotspots
2.3% Land surface
50% Plant diversity
42% Land vertebrate diversity
Most with high rates of habitat loss (> 70%)
not particularly diverse but should be conserved
IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) Red List Categories
Extinct in the Wild
What is the "The Sinister Sextet" and who named it?
Extinction threats, Michael Soule
What are the extinction threats
Habitat destruction and fragmentation
Species introductions and disease
Chains of extinction
Name the four climate environments
(from hot to cold)
tropics (DEEP SOIL/Lots of vegetation)
desert (SHALLOW SOIL/little to no vegetation)
temperate (MEDIUM SOIL/lots to medium vegetation)
artic (SHALLOW SOIL/little to no vegetation)
Explain axis tilt. Degrees?
23.5 degree tilt. What causes seasons.
earth's axis remains parallel to its former position as it revolves around the sun (axis always points the same direction)
Explain Sun Angle
is the angle the beam of light makes with the earth's surface and deteminates the area illuminated and the intensity of heating.
As the angle decreases the illuminated area increases.
As the distance that the solar radiation travels across the atmosphere increases....
the chances for diffusion and reflection becoome greater. This is because the path length of a beam is longer at higher latitudes.
Where are high pressure regions, low pressure?
30 degree N and S are high pressure. between the N and S (equator) is low pressure
Name the cells in each zone.
Polar cell is in the Polar region (90-60 degrees)
Ferrell Cell is in the Temperate Region (60-30 degrees)
Hadley Cell is in the Tropics region (30-0 degrees)
There is a latitude of 2 locations one is at 0 degrees N and the other is 43 degrees N, which plate moves faster and why? Which travels further in an hour?
The location at 0 degrees moves faster because it has agreater distance to cover. The location at 0 degrees also travels further in an hour for the same reason.
What are Easterlies, Westerlies, NE trade winds and SE trade winds?
Polar Hadley cells/90-60 degrees (polar winds from high pressure areas to low pressure areas)
Anti-Trade Winds 60-30 degrees (winds blowing from high pressure areas to poles)
NE and SE (trades, blow from northeast and south east and found in the tropics)
Northern Hemisphere is clockwise
Southern Hemisphere is counter clockwise
Name the biomes and the ranges for temperature (in celcius NOT F) and percipitation (remember this is in cm NOT mm) 9
Tundra: -5 degrees c and below, 0-100cm rain
Boreal Forest: 3 to -5 degree c, 75-200cm rain
Temperate grassland/desert: 18 to -6 degree c, 0- 75cm
Woodland/Shrubland: 18 to -6 degree c ,0 to 125 cm
Temperate seasonal forest: 18-0 degrees c,50-250cm
Temperate rain forest: 18 to 3 degrees c, 175-325 cm
Subtropical Desert: 30-15 degrees C, 0-100cm
Tropcal Seasonal Forest: 29-18 degrees C, 100-300 cm
Tropical Rain forest: 26-18 degree C, 250-400+cm
Lakes vs Streams/rivers
Lotic (flowing) (main channel with fish like salmon): Photic Zone (top of water that get sunlight)
Lentic (still waters): Pelagic zone (open water)
Benthic zone (region along the bottom with shrimp sized joints/ Kelp beds)
Hyporheic zone (very bottom with bottom dwellers)
Littoral zone (Close to the shore/ Mangrove (shore) &Kelp beds (shallow water) )
Who first published the word "ecosystem"?
Sir Arthur G Tansley in 1935 ("... the whole system ... including not only the organism-complex, but also the whole complex of physical factors forming what we call the environment...)
Name the Heirarchical organization of ecology.
Bioshpere, ecosystem (energy flux and cycle of nutrient), commuinty, population, organism
Define ecosystem ecology
The study of the cycles of energy, organic matter, and nutrients through organisms and their environment as an integrated system
Name the Ecosystem Processes
evapotranspiration (blue), production (green), decomposition (brown), C storage (orange), nutrient cycle
regulated by: abiotic/biotic factors or anthropogenic
Pools vs Flux
Stock/quantity (t/ha or g/m^2) vs flow rate (input/output) (quantity/time) (t ha-1 y-1 or g m-2 s-1)
Autotroph vs Heterotroph
Self feeder (produce organic matter from CO2/primary producers) vs Feeding on others (consume the organic matter produced by other organisms/ consumers & decmposers/detritivores)
How much of the global net primary production do human activities use?
20-40% (on terrestrial ecosystems)
5 key fluxes in production
GPP (gross primary production), NPP (net primary production), NEP (net ecosystem production), R a (autotroph respiration), R h (hetertroph respiration)
these is can expressed in units of organic matter or carbon (organic matter=~50% carbon)
Total rate of CO2 fixed into carbohydrate per unit time (photosynthesis)
Net rate of organic matter fixation by autotrophs
NPP=GPP(photosynthesis) -Ra (respiration)
(total amount of organic matter available for consumption by higher trophic levels.)
Net rate of organic matter accumulation in an ecosystem
In Deep ocean, what is the GPP, Rh, and NEP?
No GPP in deep ocean, just RH, so negative NEP.
Where else is NEP negative and why?
Headwater stream due to shading (not enough sunligh to drive photosynthesis. Dead leaves (major source of organic matter) falls and microbe and animals feed on them and these animals release Rh.
involves a transfer from more productive donor system to less productive recipient system (Extension of bottom-up controls)
Name a tool for viewing belowground dynamics
minirhizotrons and soil respiration
Net Forest Production equation
NEP= GPP- R(total)
Where is Marine NPP highest
upwellings in coast zones
Ocean NPP vs Land NPP (Pg C/y)
Ocean NPP: 48.5 Pg C/y
Land NPP: 56.4 Pg C/y
(1pg= 10^15 g)
What influences the rate of NPP on land?
temperature and precipitation
What can drive variations in NPP? What is the term in nutrient supply ? Name the most often nurtrients (as well as sometimes)
variation in light, climate (temperature, moisture), consumers, and Variation in nutrient supply
What does Liebig say about plants? What is this analogy called?
A plant's growth is limited by the one essential mineral that is in the relatively shortest supply (nitogen/phosphorus/both (most common)).
Explain the phophorus fert experiment
There is the expirement lake (P+C+N)and control lake (C+N). Phosphorus is put into experiement lake and plankton increase significantly.When the fert. stopped, the plankton biomass decreases significantly.
tropic cascades and top down consumers
Draw the generalized nutrient cycle
What is weathering?
The chemical and physical breakdown of rock minerals (dominany input route for: Ca, Mg, K, P, Na)
Rate of nutrient input depends on
Composition of initial parent material (Limestone? Granite?)
Extent of past weathering (intensity, duration)
What happens to P over time? Where is there low P?
It decreases, in old, highly weathered soil
Anerobic Process (energy demanding process, symbiotic with plants) 90% of all N on earth is N2 which makes up 78% of atmosphere
What is the Haber-Bosch Process?
Industrial N Fixation
Created by Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch
Used for fertilizer production (and bombs)
(consumes 3-5% of worlds natural gas supply)
Name some Atmospheric Deposition in N fixation
Wet: Rain dissolved HNO3-cloud/fog
Dry: Gases NH3-dust/particles
(Dominant input route for N, S)
(Dust inputs of Ca, P, Fe can be significant in some ecosystems)
How much has N deposition increased since preindustrial conditions? Human Activites?
increased 5 to 50-fold
Doubled the natural rate of "fixed" N production
Most annual plant demand for nutrients is supplied by
The break down of dead organic matter (detritus)
(Nutrients are recycled as the organic matter is decomposed.
Releases CO2 and inorganic nutrients (such as N, P, Ca, K, etc).
Involves physical, chemical, and biological processes.)
What are the components of decompostition?
Litter ( leaves,stems, roots, dead animals)
Fragmentation (litter is broken down in smaller fragments by small animals)
Mineralization (enzymes released from bacteria and fungi convert the small frangments of organic matter into inorganic nutrients)
What is K in the graph
k (litter breakdown rate) is the slope of the plot of loge of % leaf mass remaining vs time
Litter (plant) is composed of, in order from easiest to hardest to decompose?
Sugar & Starch
Fats & Waxes
Phenolics (tannins, lignin(decreases decomp rates)
What controls the activity of decomposers?
Soils Microbial resp is highest in 30 degree C with 50% water content
Facts about the Flannelmouth Characin Prochilodontidae: Prochilodus
Migrates from floodplain to Andean piedmont streams during dry season
• Large interannual fluctuations in migration magnitude
• Detritivore: feeds on organic-rich sediments
• Major component of subsistence and commercial fisheries throughout tropical South America
IT'S BODY SIZE HAS DECREASED FROM 1980-2005
Explain the split stream expirement
treament caused NH3 sink
Name a part of the catchment boundray (intrasystem cycling)
Storage in organic matter
Which has a lower nirate concentration in stream water? Clear cut basin or Control Basin
Clear cut has a nitrate concentration which is 40 folds higer
Plant biomass...while the export of nutrients in the expiremental basin
increases with sucession...declined to levels similar to the control basin
Name the cycles involved in the global carbon cycle
Fast, biological, more intensive process (organic:animals/detritus) (inorganic: atmosphere/soil/water)
Slow, geological, less intensive process (organic: peat/coal) (inorganic: limstone/minerals)
Draw the Global Carbon Cycle
Anthropogenic fluxes in orange
Who Invented the keeling curve and what is it?
Charles David Keeling
It is an instrument currently used to measure atmospheric co2
(b4 this scientist though that the ocean absorbed all the co2)
The net accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere is?Net accumulation of CO2 release from fossil fuel combustion and deforestation?
~4.1 Pg C/yr
~9 Pg C/yr
How does Deforestation results in CO2 flux to the atmosphere?
tree biomass is burned or decomposes, and soil
organic carbon is respired
Where is CO2 emission higher?
What is C sink?
Net accumulation of carbon within
a defined ecosystem over a
particular time interval
Ocean's role in C sink?
Oceans have been taking up ~ 2 Pg C per year
C transferred to deeper waters via:
1) sinking detritus
2) downwelling of polar ocean currents
What 3 gases had the largest increase in the 19th century?
CO2 (carbon dioxide), N2O (nitrious oxcide), CH4 (methane)
New England areas with lower emission and higher emission both result in
- Little habitat for spruce-fir
- Maple habitat shrinks
How much has NPP Changed from 1982-1999?
Global NPP increased 6% over entire period
What does further warming depend on?
biosphere feedbacks and our emissions choices
What is happening to current plant species richness in the Alps?
They is presently increased species richness in elevated areas than historically before
What is agronomic? Adaptions?
promoting soil management and crop production
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