Political Participation Unit 5
Terms in this set (67)
the right to vote
The belief that one's political participation makes a difference.
African American men won the right to vote
Direct election of senators
granted women the right to vote
Prohibits poll tax in federal elections
lowered the voting age to 18
Voting based on what is perceived to be in the citizen's individual interest
voting for a candidate because you like his or her past actions in office
voting based on the imagined future performance of a candidate
process in which voters select candidates by their party affiliation
the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election
allowed people to vote if their father or grandfather had voted before Reconstruction
a requirement that citizens show that they can read before registering to vote
A requirement that citizens pay a tax in order to register to vote
the practice of keeping blacks from voting in the southern states' primaries through arbitrary use of registration requirements and intimidation
Voter registration laws
a system adopted by the states that requires voters to register well in advanced of Election Day. A few states permit Election Day registration.
An election in which voters select members of Congress but not the president
Elections held in years when the president is on the ballot.
A state-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a proposed constitutional amendment.
procedure whereby voters can remove an elected official from office
A procedure by which voters can propose a law or a constitutional amendment.
A voting district
groups that help elect people and shape policies
Institutions that connect citizens to government. mass media, interest groups, and political parties and elections
the citizens eligible to vote
efforts by organizations to facilitate or encourage voting
early attempts to raise money, line up campaign consultants, generate media attention, and get commitments for support even before candidates announce they are running
States that are not clearly pro-Republican or pro-Democrat and therefore are of vital interest to presidential candidates, as they can determine election outcomes
Candidate or party with the most votes cast in an election, not necessarily more than half.
more than half
where parties stand on the issues
The boost that candidates may get in an election because of the popularity of candidates above them on the ballot, especially the president.
elections that disrupt party coalitions and create new ones in a party realignment
A shift of voting patterns to form new coaltions of party support
a general decline in party identification and loyalty in the electorate
someone who represents a political party that is neither Democrat nor Republican
a candidate who is not associated with any political party
Proportional voting system
A system in which each party receives a percentage of seats in a representation assembly that is roughly comparable to its percentage of the popular vote.
An electoral district from which one person is chosen by the voters for each elected office. This type of electoral system typically leads to legislatures dominated by two political parties.
Winner-take-all voting system
any voting procedure in which the candidate with the most votes gets all of the seats or delegates at stake
Free rider problem
The problem faced by unions and other groups when people do not join because they can benefit from the group's activities without officially joining. The bigger the group, the more serious the problem.
Groups that have a narrow interest, tend to dislike compromise, and often draw membership from people new to politics.
attempting to influence policy makers
Amicus curiae briefs
Legal briefs submitted by a "friend of the court" for the purpose of raising additional points of view and presenting information not contained in the briefs of the formal parties. These briefs attempt to influence a court's decision.
the electoral edge afforded to those already in office
primary elections in which eligible voters do not need to be registered party members
primary elections in which only registered party members may vote
meetings where political parties chose their candidates
meetings of party delegates called to nominate candidates for office and establish party agendas
Money raised in unlimited amounts by political parties for party-building purposes. Now largely illegal except for limited contributions to state or local parties for voter registration and get-out-the-vote efforts.
Political contributions given to a party, candidate, or interest group that are limited in amount and fully disclosed.
spending by groups that do not disclose their donors
ads that focus on issues and do not explicitly encourage citizens to vote for a certain candidate
Spending by political action committees, corporations, or labor unions that is done to help a party or candidate but is done independently of them.
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission
corporations have 1st amendment right to support political candidates
a type of independent political action committee which may raise unlimited sums of money from corporations, unions, and individuals but is not permitted to contribute to or coordinate directly with parties or candidates.
Independent groups that seek to influence the political process but are not subject to contribution restrictions because they do not directly advocate the election of a particular candidate.
Nonprofit group that is permitted to lobby and campaign;
the claim that the media is more interested in covering a campaign like a horserace focusing more on who is ahead rather than in-depth coverage of issues.
The media can influence what subjects become national political issues
The role played by the national media in investigating politicians and exposing scandals.
The role the press plays by keeping track of and helping make political reputations
a brief, memorable comment that can easily be fit into news broadcasts