184 terms

NATS 1675 midterm

organized sequence of changes in cells, organs, gene expression, growth and assembly of cells
human being
development from conception until death, living organism, member of particular species, organism interested in its own fate
Characteristics of Life Forms
Organized, Acquire materials and energy, are homeostatic, respond to stimuli, reproduce and grow, have and evolutionary history
Atoms form molecules, molecules form cells, cells form tissues, organs become organ systems, organ systems become organisms, organisms from one species become populations, interacting populations form community, communities interact with the environment to create an ecosystem, biosphere is all ecosystems
A group of similar cells that perform the same function.
smallest unit of life
Groups of tissues that work together to perform a specific function or related functions
organ system
group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
group of organs
A group of organisms that belong to the same species and live in the same area
All the different populations that live together in an area
A community of organisms and their abiotic environment
all of the ecosystems
Acquiring Energy
Photosynthesis, digestion, energy and materials transported to correct locations (circulatory system transport across cell membranes), materials and energy are needed for reassembly of molecular building blocks for biological macromolecules in cells, metabolism - chemical reaction within cells
self-regulating, (body temp)
Respond to stimuli
detects conditions in environment, responds, avoidance, movement towards better conditions, feeding, reproduction
reproduce and grow
Passing on genetics, fertilization and development of the fetus, birth, puberty, adulthood, aging
evolutionary history
common ancestor
unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus, bacteria, archaea
organism whose cells contain a nucleus, animals, fungi, plants, protists
what scientific method aims for, based on a method of gathering and putting information together, arrive at conclusions free from bias, often involves debate
Analytical Techniques
objective conclusions, testing hypothesis, observations over time, peer review
Scientific Method
Make observations(descriptive), devise hypotheses based on observations (empirical), test hypotheses through experiment (
control group
the group that does not receive the experimental treatment.
test group
exposed to the experimental variable
unicellular organism
An organism made up of one cell.
Multicellular organisms
Organism made up of many cells
cell specialization
separate roles for each type of cell in multicellular organisms
cell differentiation
the process by which a cell becomes specialized for a specific structure or function.
4 major types of tissues
epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
connective tissue
A body tissue that provides support for the body and connects all of its parts
muscular tissue
moves the body and its parts
3 types of muscle tissue
skeletal (voluntary), cardiac, smooth (organ - involuntary)
nervous tissue
receives stimuli and conducts nerve impulses
send signals, nervous tissue
glial cells
support neurons (nervous tissue)
epithelial tissue
covers body surfaces and lines body cavities, protection, secretion, absorption
Connective tissues in body
adipose, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, blood, lymph
epithelial tissues in body
epidermis, linings of respiratory, reproductive, and digestive tracts, lining of kidney tubules and blood vessels, glands and ducts
actin and myosin
Proteins responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscles
striated skeletal cells
light and dark bands due to actin and myosin placement in the cell
skeletal fibers
long cylindrical cells; responsible for voluntary movement found on skeleton, contracts fast
smooth muscle
involuntary muscle found in internal organs, spindle shaped, irregular pattern, contracts slow, no striations
cardiac muscle
Involuntary muscle tissue found only in the heart, striated, cells shorter than skeletal, intercalated discs
body cavities
spaces within the body that contain and protect internal organs
cranial cavity
thoracic cavity
Contains the heart, lungs, esophagus, and trachea
vertebral cavity
spinal cord
abdominal cavity
stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, kidneys, small and large intestines, pancreas
pelvic cavity
reproductive organs, bladder, rectum
a muscle that separates the chest from the abdominal cavity
dorsal cavity
cranial and vertebral
ventral cavity
thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic cavity
body membranes
line cavities and the internal spaces of organs and tubes, organs can move and expand without influencing other organs, organs are protected from friction, organs are supported, plurae, pericardium, thoracic, abdominal, pelvic, pertoneum
body membrane, line thoracic cavity and cover lungs
body membrane, pericardial sac and covering of heart
membrane that lines the abdominal cavity
4 kinds of membranes
meninges, serous, synovial, mucus
connective tissue in dorsal cavity, protects brain and spinal cord
cover and support organs, line the body cavities that do not open to the outside (ventral and dorsal), secrete a lubricating fluid, pleurae and pericardium
loose connective tissue, line the capsule of joints, secrete synovial fluid
line cavities that end outside the body (digestive, respiratory, urinary, reproductive), epithelial tissue on fibrous connective tissue, epithelial tissue secretes mucus
Organ systems of the body
Integumentary (skin), Cardiovascular (heart), Lymphatic and Immune (lymphatic vessels, nodes, spleen), Digestive, Respiratory, Urinary (kidney, bladder), Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Endocrine (testes, ovaries, adrenal glands, pancreas, thymus, thyroid, pineal gland, pituitary gland), Reproductive (testes, penis, ovaries, uterus, vagina)
Transport systems
cardiovascular (spread nutrients, waste, provides temperature, pH, and fluid homeostasis), lymph (absorbs fat)
Maintenance systems
digestive (ingests, digests, processes, absorbs, eliminates waste, fluid homeostasis), respiratory (exchange gasses, pH), urinary (excretes metabolic wastes, pH and fluid homeostasis)
Control Systems
nervous (process and receive sensory input, motor output, coordinates organ systems) endocrine (hormones, coordinates organ systems, regulates metabolism and stress responses, fluid and pH homeostasis)
integumentary system
skin and accessory organs, protects body, temperature homeostasis, vitamin D, sensory input
motor system
skeletal (provides supports and protection, movement, stores minerals, makes blood), muscular (movement, heat) nervous (sensory input, motor output, coordinates organ systems)
Reproduction system
reproductive tubes, testes
human reproductive system
produce and nurture gametes, produce sex hormones, masculine and feminine, menstrual, pregnancy
Gametes N and 2n
N = haploid (half, 23 chromosomes, one sperm or egg)
2N = diploid (46 chromosomes)
duplication division, each cell has 46 chromosomes after division, growth and repair
only occurs in gonads (ovaries or testes), makes sperm or eggs, reduction to haploid number of chromosomes, begins with duplication of each chromatic, two divisions: meiosis 1 homologous pair line up to form tetrads and exchange genetic material then separate, Meiosis 2: separation of chromatids
male reproductive system
produces and delivers sperm
produce sperm and testosterone
ducts where sperm mature and some sperm are stored
vas deferens
conduct and store sperm
seminal vesicles
adds nutrients and fluid to semen
prostate gland
contributes fluid to semen
conducts sperm
bulbourethral glands
contribute mucus-containing fluid to semen
organ of copulation
occurs in seminiferous tubules of the testes, spermatogonium, primary spermatocyte, secondary spermatocyte, spermatids, Sertoli cells, interstitial cells
seminiferous tubules
formation of sperm, spermatogenesis takes place on Sertoli cells in the epithelial tissue begging at puberty, outermost tissue is smooth muscle, total length of seminiferous tubules from both testes is two football fields
spermatogonium (2N)
divides to produce on primary spermatocyte (2N)
Leydig cells (interstitial cells)
produce testosterone, between lumen
primary spermocyte (2n)
goes through meiosis 1 to become a secondary spermatocyte (N)
secondary spermatocyte (N)
goes through meiosis 2 to produce spermatids
develop into immature sperm which are released into the lumen of the seminiferous tubule
Sertoli cells
support spermatogenesis and nourish sperm
interstitial cells
produce androgens (testosterone)
male accessory glands
seminal vesicles, prostate, bulbourethral glands
pH 7.5, mixture of secretions from seminal vesicle, prostate and bulbourethral glands, fructose is an energy source for sperm, prostaglandins aid in passage of sperm through female reproductive tract causing uterus to contracts and thin mucus
glans penis
erectile tissue
through the shaft
erection and ejaculation
1.Nitric oxide is produced from autonomic
nerves (not conscious) during sexual arousal.
2. Nitric oxide in blood results in cGMP (cyclic
guanosine monophosophate) production in
the cells of the wall of the arteries in the
3. cGMP causes relaxation of the smooth
muscle of the arterial walls, increasing the
amount of blood in the penis
4. Increased blood flow fills the spongey tissue of
the corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum
(erectile tissue), causing the dorsal vein and
smaller veins to be compressed. Blood is
prevented from returning to the heart through
the veins.
5. Sphincter closes urethra
6. Semen enters urethra from vas deferens
7. Muscular contractions from bulbospongeosis
and pubococcygeal (PC) muscles expel seminal
fluid in urethra
negative feedback
a stimulus initiates reactions that decrease the stimulus, the primary homeostatic mechanism in the body, a sensor detect the increase in stimulus (ex blood sugar) and conveys a message to a control centre (ex pancreas) which acts to bring down the stimulus to normal conditions
positive feedback
a stimulus initiates reactions that increase the stimulus (ex childbirth, pressure from fetus head on the cervix sends signal to expand)
hormonal regulation
• Hypothalamus secretes GnRH (gonadotropin releasing
• GnRH stimulates anterior pituitary
• Anterior pituitary release FSH (follicle stimulating
hormone) and LH (lutenizing hormone)
• FSH stimulates sperm production, and acts on Sertoli
cells, which produce inhibin
• LH stimulates production of testosterone from the
interstitial cells
• Testosterone and inhibin levels exert negative
feedback on the hypothalamus
• site of ovarian cycle that produces the ova, or
egg cells
• produces sex hormones estrogen and
uterine tubes
Also called Fallopian tubes or oviducts
• Leads to uterus from ovaries
• Fimbriae sweep over the ovaries
• Lined with cilia
• Site of fertilization (usually)
• Muscular organ
• Above and over the bladder
• Its cervix enters the vagina
• Site of implantation of zygote, embryo
development, and growth of fetus
• Lined by the endometrium -
- Basal and functional layer
- Functional layer goes through the uterine cycle
contains opening to uterus
• Intercourse, birth and exit of menstrual fluid
• Mucosal lining
• Acidic environment prevents overgrowth of
- Recall that sperm cells prefer a basic environment
pH 7.5
uterine cycle
• ~ 28 day cycle
• Endometrium of the uterus is prepared for
• If there is no pregnancy, the endometrium is
• Endometrial development responds to female
sex hormone levels
• Estrogen
- Produced by the ovarian follicle in response to FSH
- Thickening of the endometrium (Proliferative
• Progesterone
- Produced by the corpus luteum in response to LH
- Further thickening of the endometrium
- Uterine glands mature and secrete mucus
(secretory phase)
Day 1-5 of uterine cycle
Low level of estrogen and progesterone causing the endometrium to disintegrate and menstruation occurs.
Day 6-13 of uterine cycle
Proliferative phase. Increase in estrogen causing the endometrium to thicken.
Day 14 of uterine cycle
ovulation, Ovum is released from ovary and collected by fimbrae
of uterine tube
Day 15-28 of uterine cycle
Secretory phase.
- Progesterone secreted by corpus luteum
- develops uterine lining and causes it to release secretions
• Oogonia (2N) are formed during fetal development
• Some oogonia degenerate, others go through
oogenesis (15th week‐7th month of gestation) to
produce primary oocytes
primary oocyte
have entered meiosis 1 but are arrested there in folicles
- Cells and fluid that surround the oocyte
- Keep it nourished
- Release estrogen and progesterone
- Become a "corpus luteum" after the oocyte leaves the ovary
• Maturation occurs during the ovarian cycle
• Progression from primary follicle, to
secondary follicle, to vesicular (Graafian)
follicle to ovulation (release of oocyte)
secondary oocyte and polar body
N, created from meiosis 1 of primary oocyte
fertilized secondary oocyte
undergoes meiosis 2
unfertilized oocyte
ovarian cycle
~ 28 day cycle
• The egg cell (ovum, or oocyte) and uterus are prepared
for pregnancy
• If there is no pregnancy, the uterine wall is shed and
the released egg dies after 6‐24 hours
follicular phase of ovarian cycle
- maturation of follicle, and release of the oocyte from the
follicle at about Day 14
luteal phase of ovarian cycle
- follicle becomes a "corpus luteum", which continues to
secrete hormones)
Primary follicle
epithelial cells surrounding a primary oocyte
Secondary follicle
secondary oocyte surrounded by cells and fluid
vesicular follicle
secondary oocyte; follicle fluid content increases, and follicle wall balloons out of ovary
mature egg cell is released, and picked up by the frimbriae of the uterine tube
corpus luteum
follicle after ovulation
Hormonal regulation of Ovarian Cycle - follicular phase
Hypothalamus secretes GnRH (gonadotropin‐
releasing hormone
• GnRH stimulates the anterior pituitary
• Anterior pituitary produces gonadotropic
- follicle‐stimulating hormone (FSH)
- luteinizing hormone (LH)
• FSH promotes development of follicles during
the follicular phase
• Follicles primarily secrete estrogen
• Estrogen has a negative feedback effect on the
anterior pituitary FSH production, which ends
the follicular phase
• Estrogen levels at the end of the follicular
phase cause GnRH from the hypothalamus to
• The increased GnRH from the hypothalamus
causes the anterior pituitary to release LH
• LH surge triggers ovulation
• Luteal phase begins
Hormonal Regulation of the Ovarian Cycle - luteal phase
LH causes the follicle to develop into a corpus
• Corpus luteum secretes mainly progesterone,
and some estrogen
• The corpus luteum degenerates if pregnancy
does not occur, and progesterone levels
therefore drop.
Ovulation Phases
Menstrual, Follicular/Pre-Ovulatory, Ovulatory, Luteal
follicular (preovulatory) phase
This phase accounts for the first half of the menstrual cycle; beginning on the first day of your period and continues for 10 to 17 days. At birth, your ovaries contain all the immature eggs you will use during your entire lifespan. Under the control of various hormones following puberty, your brain will send a hormonal signal to the Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) to your ovaries to recruit several follicles to mature each month
Ovulatory Phase
High levels of progesterone and LH causes synths of prostaglandins and proteolytic enzymes which break down the follicular wall and lead to the explosion of the ovum; the ovum is then drawn up by the ciliated fimbriae of the fallopian tube to initiate its migration through the oviduct
luteal phase
period of corpus luteum activity (days 14-28)
Dimensions of Human Sexuality
Biological, Psychological, Social
William Masters and Virginia Johnson
-Masters a physician, Johnson a psychologist hired
as his assistant initially - became close
• Research conducted from 1957 - 1990s
• Followed on the pioneering work of Alfred Kinsey
(1948, 1953) on sexual behaviour in humans
(personal accounts)
• Aimed to show that human sexuality can be
healthy and lead to intimacy - changing social
-Categorizing human sexual response based on
physical/biological information
• Measured changes in blood flow and muscle
• Developed novel instrumentation
• Saw sexual response as a four‐stage "cycle"
Masters and Johnson's sexual response cycle
excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
Excitement Phase
-Initiated by physical and psychological stimuli
• Blood flow routed to pelvic area
• Erection of penis/clitoris, vaginal lubrication
• Body reactions build to a particular level
Female Excitement Phase
• Increased blood flow to the pelvis
- Darkening of vaginal walls
- Seeping of fluid from underlying vaginal tissues (blood
plasma, functions as a lubricant, alkaline which is
favourable to sperm)
- Erection of clitoris
- Labia enlarge
• Distension of upper third of vagina
• Uterus begins to pull up
-• Increase in muscle tension throughout the
• Increase in heart rate and blood pressure
• "sex flush" may occur - darkening of skin in
upper abdomen, breasts, neck
• Hardening of nipples may occur
Male Excitement Phase
-• Blood to pelvic area
- Erection of penis
- Thickening of scrotal tissue
• Testes/scrotum elevated towards body
• May have some secretion from bulbourethral
-May have erection of nipples
• May have "sex flush"
• Muscle tension increases throughout
• Increase in blood pressure, heart rate
Plateau Phase
• A higher, more stable level of arousal that is
maintained for a period of time
• May ebb and flow
• Build up of tension in the body
Female Plateau Phase
• Upper two‐thirds of vagina expands,
• "orgasmic platform"
- Swelling of lower third of vagina
- Labia minora thicken due to blood engorgement
• Clitoral glans retracts under foreskin
-• Breast engorgement
• Sex flush may spread
• Muscle tension increases
• Increase in heart rate (100‐175 bpm),
respiration, blood pressure
Male Plateau Phase
-Glans of penis darkens, swells
• Testes increase in size
• Testes elevate towards body
• Bulbourethral gland secretions appear and
increase through this period
• Muscle tension increases
• Involuntary movements occur
• Heart rate increases (100‐175 bpm), respiratory
rate increases
• If sex flush is present, may spread
• Pleasurable release of built‐up tension
• Lasts a few seconds to just under a minute
• Thought is suspended for a moment
• Physical sensations
Female Orgasm
• Release of tension
• Sensation of suspension
• Pulse rate at maximum
• Feeling of warmth spreading from pelvis
throughout body
• Muscular contractions in lower vagina and anal
• Wave‐like contraction of uterus from top to cervix
• Some involuntary muscle movements
Male Orgasm
Ejaculatory inevitability - sense that ejaculation of
semen will happen soon and cannot be stopped
• Rhythmic contraction of vas deferens, seminal vesicle,
prostate, ejaculatory muscles, and anus
• Testes at maximum elevation
• Involuntary muscle contractions, including pelvic
• Peak heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate
• Ejaculation does not always accompany orgasm (2 sets
of nerves)
Resolution Phase
-Immediately following orgasm
• Body relaxes
• Returns to state prior to excitement
Female Resolution Phase
• Blood leaves pelvis
• Vagina and labia return to usual size and colour
• Glans of clitoris emerges, organ returns to
original size in 15‐30 min
• Uterus lowers
• Breasts decrease in size
• Sex flush disappears
• Pulse, blood pressure back to normal
• Body may perspire
• Feeling of relaxation and/or sleepiness
Male Resolution Phase
• Blood flow to pelvic area returns to normal
• Erection is lost - 50% immediately after orgasm
• Scrotum relaxes, testes return to original position
• Muscle tension, heart and respiration rate return
to normal
• May perspire
• May feel sleepy
• Refractory period follows during which
restimulation cannot occur - increases with age
2 Problems with 4 phase model
• Excitement and plateau phases not clearly
distinct in males
• Some researchers prefer model of slow build
up of tension in both males and females
Kaplan's Three-Stage Model
3 Phases - Desire, Vasocongestive, Orgasmic‐
• Desire phase includes psychological
component (subjective and emotional
• Desire is an addition to Masters and Johnson
Dimensions of Sexual Arousal
• Internal factors (central arousal system)
- fantasy or memory
- Emotion/pleasure centres of brain
• External factors (peripheral arousal system)
- direct touching, seeing, etc.
- Stem of spinal cord and nervous control
• "Sexual arousability" refers to sensitivity of
both systems
• Physical measures (ex. Blood flow) may not
correspond to perceived arousal - may
respond to other factors
• Stimuli must be transformed in cognition
• Sexual dysfunction can result when emotions
and cognitive interpretations disrupt physical
Drugs and the Politics of Sexual Desire and
• ED = "erectile dysfunction" (formerly impotence)
• Aging men may begin to produce less of a
chemical needed to relax smooth muscle cells in
the arterial walls of the penis
• Relaxation of arterial walls causes dilation of the
arteries, and erection
• Aging versus dysfunction?
• Viagra (Sildenafil), introduced by Pfizer in 1998
• Side effects may include headaches, interference
with nitroglycerin medication, changes in colour
vision, heart attacks (dilation of arteries)
The "Blue Pill" ‐ Viagra
• Viagra prevents one
enzyme from breaking
down cGMP
• Originally used to treat
• Found to affect blood
flow to the penis
"Female Viagra?" Flibanserin
-Approved by Food and
Drug Administration
August 18 2015 to treat
"Hypoactive Sexual Desire
Disorder" in
premenopausal women
• August 20, Valeant
Pharmaceuticals acquires
Sprout Pharmaceuticals
for $1billion
• Does not act like Viagra
-• Alters neurotransmitters in
the brain (it is a "failed
• Studies show an increase in
satisfying sexual encounters
from 2‐3 per month
• Must be taken daily (unlike
• Side effects can be dizziness,
sleepiness, fatigue and
Methods of Contraception
• Reducing chance of pregnancy from intercourse
• aka "family planning", "birth control"
• "Natural" methods based on determining
• Barrier methods
• Spermicide
• IUDs
• Hormonal methods
• Combinations of the above
Hormonal Contraceptives
-98% effective
• "birth control pills"
• Combination of estrogen and
• 21 pills contain hormones, followed
by 7 inactive pills
• Anterior pituitary does not produce
FSH and LH
• No ovulation
• A contraceptive patch or vaginal
ring or injections may also be used
for hormonal delivery
Birth Control Pill
-prevents ovulation
• Synthetic estrogen and progesterone
• FSH and LH suppressed
• Ovulation will not occur.
• Progesterone
• creates a cervical mucus ‐ difficult for sperm to
reach the uterus
• prevents an egg from attaching itself to the
uterine lining (endometrium) because of changes
in the cellular structure
Oral Contraception and Fertility
• Does not protect against STDs
• Hormonal control
• Currently used with control of ovulation,
fertilization and implantation in the female
Pregnancy Risk and Oral Contraceptives
• Failure to take pills each day at a regular time
• Intestinal malabsorption due to illness
• Compromised liver function
• Drug interactions - ex. some seizure medications,
antifungals, antibiotics and St. John's Wort
Emergency Contraception Pills
• The "Morning After Pill"
• Used in cases of unprotected intercourse, or
failure of another method to avoid unwanted
• Disrupts ovulation and fertilization
• A progestin called levonorgestre
Progesterone Antagonist - RU 486, or
Mifepristone, the "Abortion Pill"
• Binds to progesterone
• Prevents the implantation
of fertilized egg in the
uterine wall
• Used in first 49 days of
• Approved by Health
Canada for distribution
starting January 2016
Oral Contraception for Men
• Still in development
• Challenges for hormonal methods to stop
sperm production
- Sperm production takes 90 days
- Testosterone can't be taken orally
- progestin and testosterone have side effects (ex.
mood changes)
New Developments in
Contraception for Men
• Preventing sperm from swimming
- Drugs interfering with Eppin, a sperm surface
• Reversible blocking sperm in the vas deferens
- Vasagel injection (dissolved with a second
• Gendarussa
- Herbal remedy that may alter the sperm's ability
to fertilize the egg by affecting enzymes
Natural Methods
-75% effective
-Withdrawal (of penis from vagina
prior to ejaculation)
- Fertility Awareness, "Rhythm
Method" (abstinence during
• Difficult to predict ovulation
• This method is better for determining
fertility when pregnancy is desired
• Basal body temperature rises due to
progesterone increase after ovulation
Surgical Methods
- Tubal ligation (severing of uterine tubes)
- Vasectomy (severing of vas deferentia)
• Permanent method - successful reversal results in 50%
fertility reduction
• Since some sperm remain in the vas deferens for 1 to 2
months another method needs to be used after surgery
for this period
Spermicidal Methods
Spermicidal Methods (combined with barrier
- Commonly nonoxynol‐9
- Destroys the acrosome of sperm cells
• Nonoxynol‐9
• Active ingredient in spermicidal
creams, gels, foams, suppositories
• Inserted vaginally
• Ingredient in condom lubricant
• Breaks down the acrosome of sperm
• Acrosome contains digestive
enzymes that break down the
membrane of the ovum during
• Usually used with a barrier method
(50‐80% effective without barrier)
Barrier Methods
- Prevent sex cells from contact
- Condoms (male and female)
- Diaphragm
- Cervical cap
- Contraceptive sponge
intrauterine device (IUD)
• Changes the uterine lining and local environment
• Impacts fertilization
• Some contain progesterone, leading to thickening of cervical mucus
Some causes of Infertility in Men
• Low sperm count
- Endocrine disruptors from pesticides and
herbicides, PCBs, oral contraceptives in sewage,
- Higher temperatures of testes
- Smoking, alcohol, drug abuse
- Steroid use
Some Causes of Infertility in Women
• Being overweight
- GnRH and FSH are impacted by higher leptin levels
• Blocked uterine tubes
- Pelvic inflammatory disease
- Endometriosis in the uterine tubes
Some Treatments for Infertility
Tracking ovulation (body temperature)
• Fertility drugs
- Gonadotropins for women
- May cause multiple ovulations
• Corrective surgery for endometriosis
• Artificial Insemination
• In Vitro Fertilization
• Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection
• Surrogate mothers
Artificial Insemination
• Sperm are placed in the vagina by a doctor
• Sperm cells can be concentrated if male
partner has low sperm count
• Donor sperm can be used
• Sex selection and sperm
- Takes advantage of the higher amount of DNA in
the X chromosome
- Uses "flow cytometry" to increase the
concentration of cells that are X or Y
Fertility Drugs
Have been used in IVF treatment
• Lupron - a GnRH "agonist" (imitates GnRH), to
stimulate FSH and LH release
• Follistim - FSH product
• Human chorionic gonadotropin - used as LH, to
trigger ovulation
in vitro fertilization (IVF)
Sperm and egg incubated outside the body
• Early embryo is injected into the uterus after
2‐4 days
• Immature eggs can be harvested and matured
in the lab
• Fertility drugs may be used to stimulate
• Permits "preimplantation genetic diagnosis"
-birth control pill can relieve some conditions
• Endometrial tissue appears outside the uterus, usually
in the pelvis
• Endometrial tissue responds to hormone levels -
development, and breaking down according to cycle
• Can cause pain and discomfort
- During menstruation
- During sexual activity
- Chronic pelvic pain
• Can be implicated in fertility issues
- Possible obstructions in uterine tube
- May compromise sperm or egg in some way
- Can become more significant through time
Endometriosis - Possible Causes
Some genetic inheritance
• Tissue developed in embryo
• Endometrial cells have left the uterus through the
uterine tubes, and entered the pelvic cavity
• Endometrial cells have attached to scars during
• Blood or lymph may have transported some cells
• Immune system disorder may prevent
destruction of misplaced endometrial tissue
Endometriosis - Possible Treatments
Symptoms end with pregnancy, and menopause
• Hormonal contraceptives can sometimes reduce
- Endometrial lining is thinner
- Menstruation is shorter and lighter
• Other possible interventions
- Hormonal control of GnRH
- Surgery to remove impeding tissue
- Pain medication
Three domains of life
bacteria, archaea, eukarya (protists, fungi, plants, animals)
standard error
probable error of average
Layers of skin
epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous
Langerhans cells
part of the immune system, white blood cells
endocrine vs exocrine glands
Endocrine glands release chemical substances directly into the bloodstream or tissues of the body. Exocrine glands release chemical substances through ducts to outside the body
Gonadtropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
tells gonads to release gonadtropins
The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and leutenizing hormone (LH)
stimulates milk production
A hormone released by the posterior pituitary that stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk ejection during breastfeeding.
made in anterior pituitary gland, hormone that stimulates the gonads, LH and FSH