Philosophy Final Exam
Terms in this set (53)
Ship of Theseus
If you slowly replaced the parts, would it be the same ship?
Prince and the Pauper
having all and only the same features.
being the same thing, the very same one.
same body view
x is the same person as y just in case x has the same body as y
psychological continuity view
x is the same person as y just in case x and y's psychologies are connected in the appropriate way
same soul view
x is the same person as y just in case x is the same soul as y
principle of the transitivity of identity
if A = B, and B = C, then A = C
some actions are right and some are wrong
no action is ever truly described as morally right or wrong
an action's status as right or wrong does not depend on whether people think it is right or wrong
moral judgments are true to/for individuals (subjects) and are made true by those individuals' acceptance
moral judgments are true to/for particular cultures and are made true for those cultures by their acceptance
actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, and wrong as they tend to produce unhappiness.
happiness (according to utilitarianism)
Pleasure and the absence of pain
unhappiness (according to utilitarianism)
Pain, and the privation of pleasure
the morality of an action is wholly determined by its (perceived) consequences
one unit of pleasure
an act is morally right if and only if that act maximizes (or can be expected to maximize) utility.
An act is morally right if and only if it is an instance of a kind of act that tends to maximize utility.
x is morally impermissible
morality forbids doing x
x is morally permissible
morality does not forbid doing x
x is morally obligatory
morality requires doing x and forbids not doing x
x is morally right
ambiguous between "x is morally permissible" and "x is morally obligatory"
x is supererogatory
doing x is going above and beyond what morality requires
deontological ethical theory
an ethical theory according to which an action's moral status is not fully determined by its consequences
a duty you have which is dependent on your desires, aims, interests, citizenship, etc.
a duty you have regardless of your desires, aims, interests, citizenship, etc.
a rule for action
an exceptionless obligation
an obligation to do something sometimes but not always
branch of ethics that tries to answer questions about the presuppositions that are a part of moral discourse
branch of ethics that gives a theory of what makes good actions/character good and bad actions/character bad
branch of ethics that applies moral judgements to scenarios
a person who has, and exercises, certain character traits—namely, the virtues
a character state involving decision/choice that meets a Golden Mean, as measured against the practically wise person, and which avoids the harmful excess and deficiency of the vices
feeling and acting on a passion at the right time, about the right objects, toward the right people, for the right end, and in the right way
a benefit one has that others lack
privileges everyone should have
benefits which should be available to anyone
privileges no one should have
benefits that are fundamentally competitive and unjust
brain splitting/ fission
if both halves of a brain can exists seperately
boy/ soldier/ veteran
challenge to psychological continuity view
Problem for moral subjectivism
no possible laws for governing
problems for moral relativism
-no straightforward way to distinguish cultures
-who sets the moral standard?
-morals at the basic level may be more similar than they seem.
problems for moral subjectivism
- moral disagreement is impossible- so is moral argument
- moral error is impossible
- moral progress is impossible
- conflict cannor be settles by ethics, but is based on rhetoric or force
-can't judge anyone's choice of life
John Stewart Mill
Different qualities of pleasure (better a dissatisfied human than a satisfied pig.)
should you pull the lever to save the 5 people instead of the 1?
fat man variant
should you push the fat man off the bridge and sacrifice
organ donor case
should you kill the healthy man to save the sick ones
5 categorical imperative
if torturing puppies is wrong, so is factory farming
invisible knapsack article on white privilege
nazi at the door case, people should not be lied to because they can make their own decisions