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Politics of the United States
Chapter 5 Early Republic
Terms in this set (95)
The idea that governments should be based on the consent of the people
Articles of confederation
A document, adopted by the second continental congress in 1777 and finally approved by the states in 1781 that outlined the form of government of the new united states
An alliance permitting states or nations to act together open matters of mutual concern
Land ordinance of 1785
A law that established a plan for surveying and selling the federally owned lands west of the appalachian mountains
Northwest ordinance of 1787
A law that established a procedure for the admission of new states to the union
A government in which citizens rule through their elected representatives
An uprising of debt-ridden Massachusetts farmers protesting increased state taxes in 1787
A leader from Virginia who called a meeting along with Hamilton of state delegates to discuss issues of interstate trade
A political leader from Connecticut
The constitutional conventions agreements to establish a tow-house national legislature with all states having equal representation in one house and each state having representation based on its population in the other house
The Constitutional Convention agreement to count three-fifths of a state's slave as population for purposes of representation and taxation
A political system in which a national government and constituent units such as state governments share power
The branch of government that makes laws
The branch of government that administers and enforces the laws
The branch of government that interprets the laws ad the constitution
Checks and balances
The provisions in the us constitution that prevent any branch of the us government from dominating the other two branches
Made the New Jersey Plan which proposed a single-based congress in which each state had an equal vote favored the small states
A group selected by the states to elect the president and the vice-president, in which each state's number of electors is equal to the number of its senators nd representatives in Congress
The official approval of the Consitution or of an amendment by the states
Supporters of the constitution and of a strong national government
An opponent of a strong central government (they wanted a strong state government)
A series of essays defending and explains the Constitution written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay
Bill of Rights
The first 10 amendments to the US constitution added in 1791 and consisting of a formal list of citizen's rights and freedoms
a tax on the production, sale, or consumption of goods produced within a country
The system maintains the separation of powers among the branches of the federal government is called?
Checks and balances
The Great Compromise was an agreement about:
Fair representation to both large and small states; Madison's Virginia Plan vs. Paterson's New Jersey Plan; Compromise= a two-house congress to satisfy both small and big states roger Sherman g
What group supported the idea of adding a Bill of Rights to the Constitution?
How many states were needed to ratify the Constitution?
At least nine states (two thirds)
What were the accomplishments of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787?
- congress provided a procedure for dividing the land into territories
- set requirements for the admission of new states
- the laws of the northwest ordinance established a blueprint for future growth of the nation
(The Confederation's greatest achievement)
New states would come from the northwest for example: ohio, indiana
Shays rebellion was a protest by farmers who faced what problems?
Massachusetts Farmers who were debt-ridden and protested increased state taxes; owed large debts to creditors
Under the Articles Confederations, each state's power in Congress, was based on?
Each state only had one vote in Congress, so not based on population
From the time of the Declaration of Independence until the ratification of the Constitution, the United States functioned without a?
President (the executive branch) : National court system to interpret the meaning of the laws, federal court system, strong central government =ability to tax
Under the Articles Confederations, one of the few powers government held was?
Declare war, make peace and sign treaties
- could borrow money, set standards for coins and for weights and measures, establish a postal service and deal with Native American peoples
What proposal called for a two house legislature, with one house having equal representation for each state and the other having representation based on population?
The Great Compromise
The process for admitting new states to the Union were set down in what document?
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787
The office of president of the United States was first established in what document?
Shays rebellion contributed to the belief among many political leaders that what was needed?
A stronger national government because taxes were increased in Massachusetts which made him rebel so needed something bigger than just state government
The system of checks and balances is designed to prevent what happening?
One branch from dominating the others
The Anti-Federalist, in general, strongly supported what idea?
A strong state government, they were against the constitution and but once they agreed w it they insisted on a bill of rights
Why was the Bill of Rights added to the Constitution?
Bc the anitfederlists believed the constitution weakened the states the people needed a national bill of rights to guarantee personal freedom of speech, press and religion trial by jury and right to bear arms
List problems under the Articles Confederations.
- congress could not enact and collect taxes
- congress could not regulate interstate or foreign trade
- regardless of population, each state had only one vote in Congress
-two-thirds majority 9 out of 13 states needed to agree to pass any law
- articles could be amended only if all states approved
- there was no executive branch to enforce the laws of Congress
- there was no national court system to settle legal disputes
- there were 13 separate states that lacked national unity
Economic issues, Weak central government, no executive branch, no federal court system
New states may be admitted to the United States only if they are approved by?
What are the three main branches of government?
Judicial, executive, legislative
What is" the supreme law of the land"?
Can a president be elected if they received less votes than an opponent?
Yes; electoral college
The commander-in-chief of the Army and Navy is who?
What decides the number of representatives a state holds in the House?
How long is a president's term of office?
The states were reluctant to do what
Unite under a strong central government
A new government of republicanism was influenced by. Adam Smith and those believed that this government would
Allow independent citizens to pursue their own economic and political interests and the whole nation would benefit
Similarities states shared in their constitutions were
- limite the powers of government leaders
-guaranteed specific rights for citizens including freedom of speech religion and the press
- emphasizing liberty rather than equality
-feared centralized authority
State constitutions differed widely in the
Granting the right to vote
Although states were equal in political entities they were unequal in
Size, wealth, and population
Continental congress saw themselves as representing what? And what happened as a result of this
- they gave each state one vote regardless of population
Two levels of government shared fundamental powers is
Articles of confederation
Articles of confederation lacked the
Executive department to carry out and enforce acts of congress
- had no national court system to interpret the meaning of laws
12 states agreed to accept new government but conflict over western lands delayed the final approval of this state and what did this state fear
-feared that states with land claims would expand and overpower smaller states
- refused to approve articles until all states turned over their western lands to the US
Basic stages for becoming a state
1. Congress would appoint a territorial governor and judges.
2. When a territory had 5,000 voting residents, the settlers could write a temporary constitution and elect their own government.
3. When the total population of a territory reached 60,000 free inhabitants, the settlers could write a state constitution, which had to be approved by Congress before it granted statehood.
Most serious problem under confederation
Lack of national unity
Problem between creditors vs. debtors
- debtors wanted to increase supply of money to lessen its value and enable them to pay off their debt
- creditors wanted to keep supply of money low so that it would keep its full value
Lenders of money, the bank loans money
Borrower of money
Shays rebellion was a protest by farmers who faced problems from
Debt they owed to creditors
Who is the father of the constitution
House of reps, james Madison
Senate (vote) 2 per state, william Paterson
Every law must pass both
One big problem between the states was
Trade which led to fights over the taxes that states imposed on one another's goods and disagreement over navigation rights
Madisons Virginia plan
Proposed a bicameral or two house legislature with membership based on each states population voters elected members of the lower house who then elect the members of the upper house
Favored large states
New Jersey Plan
Paterson proposed a single house congress in which each state had an equal vote (favored small states)
Strong central government wanted
- authority derives from people
- central is stronger than states
Strong states wanted
- authority derives from states
- states remain stronger than central government
Larger states wanted
- congress composed of two houses
-delegates should be assigned according to population
Small states wanted
- congress of one house should be preserved
- each state should have one vote
Shays rebellion convinced 12 states to
Send delegates to the Philadelphia convention
- slaves should not be counted when deciding the number of delegates
- slaves should be counted when levying taxes
- slaves should be counted when determining congressional representation
- slaves should not be counted when levying taxes
To resolve conflict of slavery,
Convention gave power to regulate trade but prevented it from interfering with the slave trade or at least 20 years
Powers for national government are known as this? And include what?
- delighted powers
- control of foreign affairs, providing national defense, regulating trade between states and coining money
Powers kept by states are what? And include what?
- reserved powers
- providing and supervising education, establishing marriage laws, and regulating trade within a state
Both levels of government have power to
Tax, borrow money, and pay debts, establish courts
Instead of voters, state chooses a number of what
Electors equal to the number of senators and representatives that state had in congress
Antifederalists feared what?
- gov't would server interest of privileged minority over the rights of the majority
- doubted that single gov't could manage the affairs of a large country
- lack of protection for individual rights
Well known federalists
George Washington, james Madison, alexander hamilton, john Adams
First 8 amendments do what
Spell out persona liberties the sates had requested
1st amendment is
Right to freedom of religion, speech, press, and political activity
The protection of rights and freedoms did not
Apply to all Americans
Not africans or women or native
Well known antifederalists
Patrcik Henry, Samuel Adams and Richard Henry lee, thomas Jefferson
What is a tariff
Tax on imported goods
Why were the federalists written
To encourage ratification of the constitution
The federalists papers were written for the
Public the people = publius
Most serious economic problems in the articles of confederation
- congress amassed Huge debt from revolutionary war
-congress had borrow money from foreign countries
- continental currency became worthless
What led to all foreign relations problem with a congress
Lack of supports from states for national concerns
Since the United States couldn't repay its debt to British merchants and would not compensate loyalist property losses what did Britain do
Britain refuse to evacuate its military force from the Great Lakes
Who closed the Mississippi River to American Navigation
Recommended textbook explanations
Magruder's American Government
William A. McClenaghan
United States Government: Principles in Practice
Luis Ricardo Fraga
United States Government: Democracy In Action
Richard C. Remy
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