PSYCHOLOGY(David G. Myers 12th edition): Chapter 4 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (45)
the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
interplay of nature (hereditary) vs. nurture (environment)
the genetic transfer of characteristics from parents to offspring
every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us
a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes
identical (monozygotic) twins
develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms
fraternal (dizygotic) twins
develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than ordinary brothers and sisters, but they share a prenatal environment
time before separation doesn't affect their differences
a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity, doesn't change much after birth
The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.
Increases as difference in environment decreases
the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity)
heredity deals the cards, environment plays the hand
the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes
how the environment influences gene expression that occur without a DNA change
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
a random error in gene replication that leads to a change
culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
Who affects the accents/habits/likes of a child more: parents or peers?
an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior, prescribe "proper" behavior
the disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and don't know the norms
giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications
giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly
the biologically influenced characteristics by which people define males and females
the socially influenced characteristics by which people define men and women, 45/46 chromosomes are unisex...
any physical or verbal behavior intended to harm someone physically or emotionally
an act of aggression (physical or verbal) intended to harm a person's relationship or social standing
What is the one way men/women's brains are different?
The sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two X chromosomes; males have one. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child.
the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty
the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
primary sex characteristics
the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible
secondary sex characteristics
nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair
first ejaculation in boys, landmark of male puberty
the first menstrual period in girls, many abuses can make it start early
a condition present at birth due to unusual combinations of male and female chromosomes, hormones, and anatomy; possessing biological sexual characteristics of both sexes
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
a set of expected behaviors, attitudes, and traits for males or for females
our sense of being male, female, or a combination of the two
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
displaying both traditional masculine and feminine psychological characteristics
an umbrella term describing people whose gender identity or expression differs from that associated with their birth sex
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