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Sociology Chapter 9 Quiz
Terms in this set (45)
Social Stratification, a system in which society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy, is _______________.
supported by widely held values and beliefes about what is fair
what type of stratification system is typically found in agrarian societies?
a caste system
what share of all wealth is owned by the richest 20 percent of all U.S. families?
Amanda teacher high school chemistry and earns about $60,000 a year. She is building up a retirement account and is paying off a mortgage on her home. Into which category of the U.S. class system would Amanda most likely fall?
average middle class
A system of social inequality by which people are ranked entirely according to their personal abilities and performance would be a(n) _______________.
Research suggest that social mobility is relatively greater for people born at what levels of the class system?
generally, in the middle levels
what key argument did Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore present to support their claim that social inequality has beneficial consequences for the operation of society?
some form of social stratification has been found in every known society
according to Karl Marx, the defining trait of the bourgeoisie is __________.
ownership of productive property
which of the following statements challenges Karl Marx's claims that workers will inevitably overthrow a capitalist economic system?
no advanced capitalist society has ever experienced a class revolution by the workers
according to Max Weber's analysis of social stratification, the single most important dimensions of social inequality in industrial societies is _______ inequality.
class or economic
which of the following statement most accurately reflects the symbolic-interaction approach social stratification?
social position is a matter of meanings, which in our society largely reflect the quantity and quality of products that we consume
In the United States, more than half of all young people between the ages of eighteen and twenty-four are _________.
living at home with their parents
single parent families that are poor are ________ to be headed by a woman than a man.
about five times as likely
in which type of social stratification is social standing based on both birth and individual achievement?
Marcine is highly educated, holds an important job, makes a lot of money, and enjoys the respect of almost everyone who knows her. Sociologists would describe her social position as _____________.
having high status consistency
social stratification based on personal merit
a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy
the degree of uniformity in a person's social standing across various dimensions of social inequality
cultural beliefs that justify particular social arguments, including patterns of inequality
social stratification based on ascription or birth
social stratification based on both birth and individual achievement
a change in position within the social hierarchy
structural social mobility
a shift in the social position of large numbers of people due more to changes in society itself than to individual efforts
Structural Funtional theory
society acts as an organism-everyone works together to support the whole
-Davis Moore thesis is mentioned
-In caste systems, people are rewarded for performing the duties of their position at birth.
-In class systems, unequal rewards attract the ablest people to the most important jobs and encourage effort.
stratification divides societies in classes, benefiting some categories of people at the expense of others and causing social conflict
explains that we size people up by looking for clues to their social standing
refers to buying and displaying products that make a "statement" about social class
the functional analysis claiming that social stratification has beneficial consequences for the operation of society
white collar occupations
higher-prestige jobs that involve mostly mental activity
lower-prestige jobs that involve mostly manual labor
people who own and operate factories and other businesses in pursuit of profits
people who sell their labor for wages
socioeconomic status (SES)
a composite ranking based on various dimensions of social inequality
the experience of isolation and misery resulting from powerlessness
Buying and using products because of the "statement" they make about social position
list the five types of societies Gehard Lenski identifies
hunting and gathering, horticultural and pastoral, agrarian, industrial, and postindustrial societies
what are the dimensions of social stratification?
income, wealth, power, occupational prestige, schooling, family ancestry, race and ethnicity, and gender
what social classes are in the United States?
upper class, middle class, working class, and lower class
the total value of money and other assets, minus outstanding debts
earning from work or investments
inter-generational social mobility
upward or downward social mobility of children in relation to their parents
intragenerational social mobility
a change in social position occurring during a person's lifetime
a lack of resources that is life-threatening
feminization of poverty
the trend of women making up an increasing proportion of the poor
the lack of resources of some people in relation to those who have more
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