Biopsychology - Brain and Behavior

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Terms in this set (...)

thyroid gland
produces hormones that regulate metabolism, body heat, and bone growth
Thalamus
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
temporal lobe
A region of the cerebral cortex responsible for hearing and language.
Synapse
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
sympathetic nervous system
fight or flight
right hemisphere of brain
controls left side of the body and contains creativity and the arts
left hemisphere of brain
controls right side of the body and is logical, contains mathamatics, lauguage, & speech
pituitary gland
master gland
PET scan
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
MRI scan
uses radio waves and a very strong magnetic field to produce images of the soft tissue
parietal lobe
receives sensory input for touch and body position
parasympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
occipital lobe
A region of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information
Neurons
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
Nerves
Bundles of neuron fibers (axons) that are routed together in the peripheral nervous system.
Soma
cell body
Myelin
A layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next.
motor cortex
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
Medulla
an extension of the spinal cord into the skull that coordinates heart rate, circulation, and respiration
limbic system
neural system (including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus) located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives.
Ions in Neurons
electrical impulses that nerve cells communicate
Hypothalamus
brain region controlling the pituitary gland
hormone
Chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another
Hippocampus
A neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage.
endocrine system
the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
EEG
An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
Dendrites
a neuron's bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
Corticalization
wrinkling of the cortex
allows a much larger area of cortical cells to exist in the small space inside the skull
corpus callosum
a broad band of nerve fibers joining the two hemispheres of the brain.
Cerebrum
largest part of the brain
cerebral cortex
The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center.
Cerebellum
the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance
Central Nervous System (CNS)
consists of the brain and spinal cord, which are enclosed and protected by the cranium and vertebral column
Biopsychology
The specialty in psychology that studies the interaction of biology, behavior, and mental processes.
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.