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Terms in this set (214)
the smallest unit of life that can reproduce on its own
required for glucose metabolism
released as a byproduct of glucose metabolism
this system requires powerful muscles that force oxygen rich air into the lungs and carbon dioxide rich air out of the body
gas exchange takes place here
thick membrane that surrounds the lungs
Which lung has 3 lobes?
why does the left lung only have two lobes?
due to the heart's placement
branches of the bronchi
sac like structures that the bronchi terminate in. gas exchange between the air and the capillaries occur here
The movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
covers the alveoli which lubricates the sacs and prevents the lungs from collapsing
the heart pumps deoxygenated blood into the lungs via this artery
once blood is oxygenated in the alveoli, it is delivered back to the heart by which veins? and then gets distributed to the rest of the body
the process of inhalation and exhalation. involves the diaphragm
this process of the diaphragm creates a vacuum and forces air into the lungs
this process of the diaphragm compresses the lungs, forcing carbon dioxide enriched gas out in exhalation
Amount of air that moves in and out of the lungs during a normal breath
the amount of air left in the lungs after exhalation
A group of lung diseases that block airflow and make it difficult to breathe.
COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
this infection affects the air inputs in the nose and throat
upper respiratory infection
this infection affects the lungs and their immediate pulmonary inputs
lower respiratory tract infection
what kind of infections are influenza, the common cold?
viral infections of the pulmonary system
what kind of infections are tuberculosis and pertussis
bacterial infections of the pulmonary system
this is a bacterial or viral infection of the pulmonary system that affects alveoli and often seen in people whose respiratory system has been weakened by other conditions
which artery of the pulmonary system contains deoxygenated blood?
this condition of the respiratory system is due to an immune response
this part of the blood is a fluid that contains red and white blood cells
muscular organ that circulates blood
in this loop of the cardiovascular system, deoxygenated blood leaves the heart and travels to the lungs. here it loses carbon dioxide and becomes rich in oxygen
this loop of the cardiovascular system, delivers oxygen to the rest of the body and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart
this valve separated the right atrium and the right ventricle
this valve separates the left atrium and the left ventricle
deoxygenated blood from the body enters the heart via which atrium?
this atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs
The large arterial trunk that carries blood from the heart to be distributed by branch arteries through the body.
the contraction of the heart during its blood flow
Relaxation of the heart
the smallest vessels. the exchange of molecules between blood and cells takes place here
Blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart
this system is Composed of a network of vessels, ducts, nodes, and organs. Provides defense against infection. it functions alongside the cardiovascular system. & facilitates movements of substances between cells & the blood by removing interstitial fluids. This system plays an important role in circulating WBC's
heart attack (myocardial infarction)
This cardiovascular pathology occurs when blood flow to part of the heart is stopped
the fluid between cells
a clear fluid containing lymphocytes and waste products.
collections of tissue rich in wbc's
an irregular heart beat. this heart condition is caused by the disruptions with the electrical signals in the heart. can be treated with a pace maker, or do not cause any symptoms at all.
a problem with blood vessels. when white blood vessels and plaque build up in the arteries
high blood pressure
pacemaker of the heart. electrically signals the heart to pump
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands. sends information over a distance
Branchlike parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information from neighboring cells
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons
The endpoint of a neuron where neurotransmitters are stored
The supporting cells of the central nervous system that provide support, protection, and nutrients
Supporting cells of the peripheral nervous system responsible for the formation of myelin, which wraps around the neuron and allows for faster transmission of electrical signal
The release of neurotransmitters is triggered by this, which lowers the electric potential
gaps in the myelin sheath
Nodes of Ranvier
A region of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information
A region of the cerebral cortex responsible for hearing and language.
Region of the brain that is myelinated
Region of the brain that is unmeyelinated
outer region of the cerebrum, containing sheets of nerve cells; gray matter of the brain
ridges of the brain
valleys of the brain
The brain and spinal cord are part of this nervous system
central nervous system
This nervous system includes all the nerve cells outside the brain and spinal cord. It's main function is to communicate between the CNS and the rest of the body
peripheral nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.
Controls involuntarily bodily functions, such as digestion, respiration, and heart rate
Automatic Nervous System (ANS)
Digestion, respiration, & heart rate are all aspects of the ANS, controlled by which part of the brain
This gland part of ANS, controls the "fight or flight" bodily response
controls sensory information and motor control
somatic nervous system
nerve cells that relay messages to the CNS
afferent (sensory) cells
nerve cells that carry messages to the muscles
efferent (motor) cells
Signals from brain that travel down the spinal cord before exiting & communicating w/ motor nerve cells synapse on these muscle fibers
a signal sent from the PNS to the spinal cord, which then sends a signal directly to a motor cell, causing movement
this acid aids the breakdown of food into absorbable components in the stomach
rhythmic contractions that move partially digested food towards the stomach
the human body derives fuel primarily from these 3 sources
proteins, sugars, fats (lipids)
this enzyme in saliva helps to breakdown food once it is put into the mouth
this burning sensation occurs when gastric acid from the stomach travels up the esophagus, often as a result of the relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter
Chewed up food after saliva begins to break it down is called a?
Where is bile stored?
Where are bile acids produced?
digestion of fat requires these acids produced by the liver
The human body derived fuel primarily from 3 sources:
Proteins, Sugars, fats (lipids)
a semifluid mass of partially digested food
this part of the intestine is where nutrients are absorbed into the blood stream
these cells in the lining of the intestine aids in the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine
what are the 3 major segments of the small intestine?
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
this segment of the small intestine combines digestive substances from the the liver and pancreas
this segment of the small intestine is the primary site of nutrient absorption
this segment of the small intestine absorbs remaining nutrients and moves the remaining matter into the large intestine
this intestine absorbs water from the waste, which then passes into the rectum and out of the body through the anus
large intestine (also called the colon)
this chronic gastrointestinal disorder is an inflammatory bowel disorder with an immune related etiology
this body system helps with movement, provides support for organs, and synthesizes blood cells
the skeletal system
the functional units of bone
layers of compact bone in osteons
lamellae surround this bone cavity, which houses the bone's blood supply
the bones outermost membrane
the blood cells within osteons that are mononuclear cells that produce bone tissue
mature bone cells
osteocytes occupy this space within the bone tissue
lacunae are connected by a series of channels called
this bone cell is responsible for breaking down bone tissue. they are located on the surface of bones and help balance the body's calcium levels by degrading bone to release stored calcium
these bone cells are flatted osteoblasts that protect the bone and also help balance calcium levels
the spongy layer within the hard outer layer of bone is called? bone marrow is within this layer which houses cells that produce RBC's
the process of producing red blood cells
the four main categories of bones
long, short, flat, irregular
bones that are longer than they are wide would fall into which category of bone?
ex) femur and humerus
bones that are wider than they are long would fall into which bone category?
ex) clavicle and carpals
bones that are wide an flat and usually provide protection fall into which bone category?
ex) skull, pelvis, rib cage
bones that have an irregular shape and don't fit into the other bone categories are
ex) vertebrae and jaw bones
this connects bone to bone. the connective tissue that articulates bones at joints
this connects bone to muscle
these types of joints are connected by dense, collagen-rich fibers
these types of joints are joined by special tissue called hyaline cartilage
these types of joints are joined by synovial fluid, which lubricates the joint and allows for movement
this skeletal system pathology occurs when minerals are leached from the bone making bones more likely to break
this skeletal system pathology results from a genetic defect that affects collagen production and can also lead to broken bones
brittle bone disease
this skeletal system pathology is the breakdown of cartilage in joints and can lead to joint pain
this skeletal system pathology is an autoimmune disease that affects synovial membranes
this system of the body is composed of muscles that move the body, support bodily functions, and circulate blood
the muscular system
the human body contains 3 types of muscles
skeletal, smooth, cardiac
these types of muscles are voluntarily controlled and attach to the skeleton to allow movement in the body
these types of muscles are involuntary, found in many organs and structures, including the esophagus, stomach, intestines, blood vessels, bladder, and bronchi
these types of muscles are found only in the heart, are involuntary muscles that contract the heart in order to pump blood through the body
muscle is composed of these 2 proteins
actin and myosin
the process of muscle contraction requires the energy molecule?
which are the thin filaments of muscle protein
which are the thick filaments of muscle protein?
actin and myosin are bundles into?
the building blocks of myofibrils
the overstretching of muscle fibers causes a?
This muscular disease is genetically inherited that weaken muscle fibers & results in progressive muscle wasting, which limits movement & can cause respiratory & cardiovascular difficulties
this system of the body protects the body against bacteria and viruses that cause disease. it has 2 parts; the innate and the adaptive
the immune system
the most common type of leukocyte found at sites of inflammation, which engulf and destroy invaders
an innate response that destroys bacteria by interfering with the functions of their membranes or DNA
This occurs when a cell completely surrounds a particle to form an enclosed vesicles. The particle can be broken down for nutrients or to neutralize a threat
Cells in the immune system that use phagocytosis are called
an innate response which responds to virus infected cells and can recognize damaged cells with the presence of antibodies. they are important in early defense against bacterial infection
natural killer lymphocytes
Infected cells release this which causes nearby cells to increase their defenses
cytokines activate these cells, which destroy any cell that displays the antigen
these cells are created during infection, and "remember" the antigen that their parent cell responded to, allowing them to respond more quickly if the infection appears again
memory B cells
together t-cells and b-cells are known as?
particular antigens are recognized by these cells & they produce a signal (cytokines)
this line of defense in the immune system includes skin, enzymes, mucus, earwax, native bacteria
this line of defense of the immune system includes inflammation, eukocytes (WBC's), antimicrobial peptides, nk lymphocytes, interferon
the innate response
this line of defense of the immune system includes helper t-cells, cytotoxic t-cells, b-cells, memory b-cells
the adaptive response
Antigens are displayed on the surface of cells by this complex, which can display either "self" proteins from their own cells or proteins from pathogens
Major Histocompatibility Complex
T cells are produced in the
B cells mature in
Sperm is produced in the __________.
testes are housed externally in sac-like structures called the
the scrotum contracts and relaxes to move the testes closer or father from the body to keep the testes at the appropriate temperature for?
Mature sperm are stored in the
during sex, sperm travel from the epididymis through a long, thin tube called
seminal vesicles, prostate, and cowpers gland are the three glands that produce fluid to make up
The bulk of this fluid is composed of various proteins, sugars, & enzymes
This part of the male reproductive system contributes an alkaline fluid that counteracts the acidity of the vaginal tract
This male reproductive gland secretes a protein rich fluid that acts as a lubricant
Semen travels through this part of the male reproductive system & exits the body through the penis
the main hormone associated with the male reproductive system that is released by the testes
This gland also releases testosterone, but in much smaller amounts
female eggs are produced in the
Female eggs travel through these tubes to the uterus
this lining of the uterus is shed monthly if no pregnancy occurs
This muscular organ houses the fetus during pregnancy
This occurs when the female egg absorbs the sperm, usually takes place in the fallopian tube
When the fetus is mature, powerful muscle contractions occur in this uterine muscular layer
The fetus gets pushed through this opening
This hormone is produced by the female ovaries
These female follicles contain immature egg cells & are stimulated by estrogen
This gland in the brain releases luteinizing hormone, which causes the female egg to be released into the Fallopian tubes during ovulation
Which two hormones are released in high levels to help w/ fetal growth during pregnancy
Estrogen & progesterone
Air enters the body through the mouth or nasal cavity & passes through this part of the respiratory system
Oxygenated blood leaves the heart through these large vessels
Deoxygenated blood returns to the heart through these vessels
A system of organs called glands that produce hormones make up this system
Most of the endocrine system runs through this part of the brain
Pineal, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus & arenal glands are all glands from which body system?
This endocrine gland regulates circadian rhythms & produces the hormone melatonin
This endocrine gland regulates growth, blood pressure, re absorption idea h2o by kidneys, temp., pain relief, & some reproductive functions related to pregnancy & child birth. Releases human growth hormone, TSH, prolactin, LH, FSH, oxytocin, ADH
This endocrine gland regulates pituitary function & metabolic processes including body temp, hunger, thirst, & circadian rhythms. Produces hormones thyrotropin releasing hormone, dopamine, growth hormone releasing hormone, gonadotropin releasing hormone, oxytocin, vasopressin
This endocrine gland regulates energy use & protein synthesis. Produces hormones T4, T3, calcitonin
This endocrine gland regulates calcium & phosphate levels. Produces hormones PTH, & calcitonin
This endocrine gland regulates "fight or flight" response, regulation of salt & blood volume. Produces hormones epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, androgens
This endocrine gland regulates blood sugar levels & metabolism. Produces hormones insulin, glucagon, somatostatin
This endocrine gland, also reproductive, regulates maturation of sex organs, secondary sex characteristics. Produces hormone androgens (testosterone)
This endocrine gland, also reproductive, regulates maturation of sex organs, secondary sex characteristics, pregnancy, childbirth, & lactation. Produces hormones progesterone & estrogen
This endocrine gland regulates gestation & childbirth. Produces hormones progesterone, estrogen, HCG, human placental lactogen
The outermost layer of the skin. Contains no blood vessels.
Layer of skin under the epidermis. Consists of dense connective tissue that allows skin to stretch & flex. Has blood vessels, glands, hair follicles
The layer of fat below the dermis that stores energy & acts as a cushion for the body. Sometimes called the subcutaneous layer
These Glands located primarily in the palms of the hands & soles of feet release NaCl mixture (sweat). Help body maintain appropriate salt/h2o balance
These glands located primarily in the armpit & groin release an oily substance that contain pheromones. They are sensitive to adrenaline & are responsible for sweat due to stress, fear, anxiety, pain. Largely inactive until puberty
Organs that function as part of the reproductive & urinate system belong to this body system
This organ filters waste from blood, maintains electrolyte balance in blood, regulates blood volume, pressure & pH. Release hormones renin, calciferol
This kidney hormone regulates blood pressure
This kidney hormone is the active form of vitamin D
What are the two regions of the kidney?
Renal Cortex & Renal Medulla
What is the functional unit of the kidney?
A series of looping tubes that filter electrolytes, metabolic waste, & other water soluble waste molecules from the blood is the
A nitrogenous byproduct of protein catabolism is
A byproduct of nucleic acid metabolism is
Urea & uric acid are waste products excreted from the body through?
A network of capillaries located in the renal Cortex of each kidney where filtration begins
Waste is funneled through these ducts in renal medulla of kidney
After Urine leaves collecting ducts, it passes through which part of the kidney?
After urine leaves renal pelvis, it passes through these two long tubes called?
The bladder can hold up to how many ml of liquid?
This sphincter is made up of smooth involuntary muscles
This sphincter can be voluntarily controlled
Urine exits the bladder through the?
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