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Chapter 11 AP BIO
Terms in this set (20)
Signal Transduction Pathway
A series of steps linking a mechanical or chemical stimulus to a specific cellular response.
A secreted molecule that influences cells near where it is secreted.
In multicellular organisms, one of many types of secreted chemicals taht are formed in specialized cells, travel in body fluids, and act on specific target cells in other parts of the body to change their functioning.
Reception is the target cell's detection of a signaling molecule coming from outside the cell. A chemical signal is "detected" when the signaling molecule binds to a receptor protein located at the cell's surface or inside of the cell.
The binding of the signaling molecule changes the receptor protein in some way, initiating the process of transduction. The transduction stage converts the signal to form that can bring about a specific cellular response. Transduction sometimes occurs in a single step but more often requires a sequence of changes in a series of different molecules--a signal transduction pathway. The molecules in the pathway are often called relay molecules.
The transduced signal finally triggers a specific cellular response. THe response may be almost any imaginable cellular activity--such as catalysis by an enzyme (for example, glycogen phosphorylase), rearrangement of the cytoskeleton, or activation of specific genes in the nucleus. The cell signaling process helps ensure that crucual activities like these occur in the right cells at the right time, in proper coordination with other cells of the organism.
A molecule that binds specifically to another molecule
G-protein coupled receptor
A signal receptor protein in the plasma membrane that respnds to the binding of a signaling molecule by activating a G protein. Also called a G protein-linked receptor.
A GTP-binding protein that relays signals from a plasma membrane signal receptor, known as a G protein-coupled receptor, to other signal transduction proteins inside the cell.
Receptor Tyrosine kinases
A receptor protein in the plasma membrane, the cytoplasmic part of which can catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to a tyrosine on another protein, Receptor tyrosine kinases often respond to the binding of a signaling molecule by dimerizing and then phosphorylating a tyrosine on the cytoplasmic portion of the other receptor in the dimer. The phosphorylated tyrosines on the receptors then activate other signal transduction proteins within the cell.
Ligand gated ion channel
A protein pore in cellular membranes that opens or closes in response to a signaling chemical allowing or blocking the flow of specific ions.
An enzyme that transfers phosphates groups from ATP to a protein, thus phosphorylating the protein.
An enzyme that removes phosphate groups from proteins, often functioning to reverse the effect of a protein kinase.
A small, nonprotein, water-soluble molecule or ion, such as a calcium ion or cyclic AMP, that relats a signal to a cell's interior in response to a signaling molecule bound by a signal receptor protein.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, a ring shaped molecule made from ATP that is a common intracellular signaling molecule (second messenger) in eukaryotic cells. It is also a regulator of some bacterial operations.
An enzyme that converts ATP to cyclic AMP in response to a signal
A second messenger that functions as an intermediate between certain nonsteroid hormones and a third messanger, a rise in cytoplasmic Ca^2+ concentration
A second messenger produced by (Dr. Hyatt's) cleavage of a certain kind of phospholipid in the plasma membrane.
A type of large relay protein to which several other relay proteins are simultaneously attached, increasing the efficiency of signal transduction.
A program of controlled cell suicide, which is brought about by signals that trigger the activation of a cascade of suicide proteins in the cell destined to die.
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