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Gov Ch. 1 test
Terms in this set (89)
How many payments are made to individuals by the federal government every month?
Eighty Million Payments
True or false? Eightly percent of money that goes into american wallets comes from government payments like jobless benefits, food stamps, and social security payments
What did Tima Magazine label 2008 as the year of?
Year of the Youth Vote
What famous American once said that there has never been a people who are politically ingnorant and free
What three things does having political knowledge do?
1. Fosters civic virtues, such as political tolerance
2. Helps citizens to identify what policies would benefit them and incorporate into how they vote
3. Promotes active reform
What is the name for the institutions that make public policy decisions for a society
About how many elected officials are in the U.S.
True or false?
The government currently spends $60B a year on national defense in order to cope with the threat of terrorism on U.S. soil
What are the goods and services provided to all americans and what is an example
Collective goods (clean air or clean water)
In 2015, the National Guard was called in to preserve order in Baltimore following the death of a young black man. Who was this person killed while in police custody?
True or False?
Approximately 2 out of every 3 dollars earned by american citizens goes to national, state, and local taxes to pay for collective goods
According to political scientist Harold Lasswell, politics is defined as:
"Who gets what, when, and how"
What are the activities that citizens get involved in to influence leaders and policies?
Contacting public officials, protest, and civil disobedience
What is the most common means of activities that citizens get involved in to influence leaders and policies?
Groups that have a narrow interest on which their members tend to take an uncompromising stance?
What is the processs by which policy comes into being and evolves as government responds to the priorities of its people?
What are the political channels through which peoples concerns are transmitted to government policymakers
What are the issues that attract serious attention of public officials and other people involved in politics
What are the 4 most important examples of linkage instituitions
1. political parties
3. interest groups
What arises when people disagree about a problem and how to fix it?
What is the course of action that government takes in regards to a problem
Example of a Congressional Statute
The Affordable Care Act
Example of a Presidential action
American jets bomb ISIS targets in Syria
Example of a Court decision
same sex couples have a constitutional right to marry
Example of government regulation
the environmental protection agency issues emmision control guidelines for automobiles
What are the effects a policy has on people and problems that are then analyzed to see how well a policy has met its goal and how much it has cost?
What system of government selects policymakers and organizes government, so that policy reflects citizens preferences?
True or false?
The framers of the constitution doubted the ability of ordinary americans to make informed decisions
What delegate to the constitutional convention said people should have as little to do with government as possible because they lacked information and were constantly misled?
How did Abraham Lincoln define democracy?
government of the people, by the people, and for the people
In what famous speech did abraham lincoln define democracy
What principle does "equality in voting is critical for an ideal democratic process" follow
"one person, one vote"
What two concepts ensure that ideas are shared
Free press and free speech
What democratic process guarentees rights to those not in the majority rule
what democratic principle means that the desires of the people should be replicated in government through the choices of elected officials
What theory of American democracy holds that the policymaking process is open to the participation of all groups with shared interests, so that no one single group can dominate the process
interest group that reflects pluralism
The National Organization for Women
What French diplomat and political scientist called the U.S. a "nation of joiners," which he cited as one of the crucial reasons for the success of american democracy
Alexis de Toqueville
what theory of american democracy contends that an upper class holds the power and makes policy, reguardless of the formal government organization
What fraction of the nations wealth is currently help by just 1 percent of the population
over a third
2010 supreme court case ruling that opened loopholes in the campain finance system so that the wealthy are now contributing a larger percentage of funding than ever, since campains were first regulated in the early 1970s
Citizens United v. FEC
What theory of American democracy contends that competing groups are so strong that government is weakened and unable to act when it tries to give in to the many different groups
Where do groups that lose policymaking battles in Congress take their cases?
What have congressional candidates become increasingly dependent on to fund their campains
Political Action Committees
What is the condition that occurs when interests conflict and no coalition is strong enough to form a majority and establish policy, so nothing gets done?
What has caused policy gridlock to happen?
rising distrust that Democrats and Republicans express for each other
Overall set of values widely shared within a society
What did G.K. Chesterton write that America was founded upon
What element is reflected in Patrick Henrys immortal words
What element of the creed is the belief that people can and should get ahead on their own
What element of the creed is reflected in the American Belief in free markets and limited government
political philosophy supporting the rights of average citizens in their struggle against previleged elites
what elemetn is reflected in "we hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal"
The total value of all goods and services that a country produces is its
Gross Domestic Product
How much does the national government spend annually
about $3.8 trillion
How many civilians does the National Government employ
about 2.7 millions civilians and 1.4 million in the military
Who pushed for a holy war in 1998 and was the face of the terrorist organization that planned 9/11
Osama bin Laden
Terrorist organization Osama bin Laden was the face of
How many aircrafts were hijacked in 9/11
How many hijackers were there on 9/11
What flight never made it to its intended target on 9/11
What agreement in 1916 between England, France and Russia resulted in a great deal of Arab resentment towards the west
How are a state and government different?
1. A state is a body of people who live in a defined territory under a
2. Government is an institution through which society makes and
enforces public policy
authority → people have complete power in their territory and do not answer to any higher authority
BUT, do not confuse the states in the US with international states.
US states are subordinate to the Constitution.
power to rule → consists of
the machinery and personnel by which a
state is ruled
one strong person or group of persons take control of an area of land and force the inhabitants to submit to their rule
state grew naturally from early families
that grew larger into clans and eventually tribes
Divine Right Theory
God created the state and gave kings and
queens the right to rule. No one could question the will of God, so people had to obey or else be accused of treason and sin.
Social Contract Theory
People agreed to make states to
improve their lives
said that people's lives were "brutish, nasty and short." People used force to get what they wanted and their was no authority to protect one from another. So, to improve this condition, they agreed to voluntarily give up their individual rights to promote the security and welfare of all...the commonwealth.
He said it was okay for people to overthrow a government that was not doing its job
What document was inspired by John Lockes writing
Declaration of Independence which justified our
revolution on the basis that the King of England had violated our social contract.
Purpose of Government
1. to form a more perfect union → means to create a strong union to keep the states working together B/C the Articles of Confederation had not done a good job of that.
2. to establish justice → means to treat people fairly. Justice should strive to be reasonable, fair and impartial. Have we always met these standards?
3. to insure domestic tranquility → means to maintain order
James Madison - Fed 51 → "if men were angels, then no government would be necessary"
4.To provide for the common defense
5. To promote the general welfare
6. To secure the blessings of liberty
All power held in one central group← parliament ....EX = Great
Power shared between a central and
local governments ... EX = USA
Loosely connected group of independent states
share power with central government. The member states decide what specific powers the central government can have.
EX = The Commonwealth of Independent States,
the legislative and executive branches are independent of each other and have separate, but equal powers. The people elect the President.
the chief executive is a member of the legislature. The legislature chooses the prime minister (the leader of the majority party)
The fate of American democracy depends upon the people's acceptance of certain basic concepts:
1. Fundamental Worth of the Individual
2. Equality of All Persons
3.Majority Rule and Minority Rights
4.Necessity for Compromise
a. Economic Theory and Political philosophy based on a free market
and free enterprise system
b. Private Ownership of Productive Property (PP)
Four Factors of Production
land, labor, capital, entrepreneurship
1. Private ownership of PP
2. Property rights are guaranteed by 5th
and 14th Amendments - can't take away without due process of law
3. Decentralized decision making =
private owners make ALL decisions on what &
how to produce...gov't does not get
involved on what is being made
4. Competition - keeps prices down and quality
a. Supply and demand (S & D) determines
b. Prevents monopolies ← Sherman Anti-
Trust Act, 1890
5. Freedom of choice - free market
Wealth of Nations
Adam Smith = Father of Capitalism
3 Types of Business Organizations
sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation
1. Calls for wealth to be distributed equally
2. Based on cooperation and social responsibility
3. Rejects private ownership, individualism and
4. Who owns PP? Gov't controls for benefit of
5. Process of evolution is peaceful → equitable
distribution of wealth...no more have-nots
Characteristics of Socialist Economies
1. Nationalization = Gov't takes over most
important private industries
2. Public Services → the welfare state - Gov't
provides necessities and services, like food,
housing, medical care at little or no cost to users
3. Taxation → high to pay for services -
50-60%...90% for rich
4. Command Economy = centralized bureaus
make all decisions
Major criticisms of Socialism
1. Too many layers of bureaucracy - complicates decision making and kills individual incentive
2. Difficult for central planners to predict events
to manage economy
3. People aren't free to make decisions for
themselves. Since most $ goes to taxes, worker
incentive to work harder to make more $ decreases
a. Economic theory and political philosophy calling for collective ownership of all land and PP
1. Everyone entitled to a full and equal share
2. Revolutionary or violent process
b. Karl Marx → "Father"
The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx
1. Chief critic of Capitalism → Das Kapital→wealth inequality
2. Human history = class struggle - proletariat (poor workers) will revolt and eliminate the bourgeoisie (rich owners)
3. Labor Theory of Value = worker gives item value, not market
4. Nature of the State - Gov't is tool of dominant class
5. Dictatorship of the Proletariat = authoritarian rule
for short period of time to establish communism,
then State and Gov't is eliminated
6. Creates world of NO gov't, NO social classes, NO
war b/c bonds of labor overshadow national
identities, NO unemployment, AND collective
ownership of all PP
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