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35 terms

Manee Biology Chap. 8

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Apoptosis
Programmed cell death
Genome
The complete genetic material contained in an individual. In Eukaryotes; divided into chromosomes
Chromatin
The DNA and protein that make up a chromosome
Nucleosomes
The chromatin is arranged into these in eukaryotic cells. Enable cell to pack a lot of DNA into small space
Centromere
Two identical chromatids (=a chromosome) are connected by this piece of DNA
Diploid cell
Contains two full sets of chromosomes, one from each parent
Haploid
Cell that contain only one set of chromosomes
Germ cells
Sperm and egg cells which produce haploid gametes by meiosis
Somatic cells
Most cells in the body. These divide by mitosis
Cell cycle
Sequence of events in which a cell prepares to divide (interphase), divides genetic material (mitosis), or divides its cytoplasm (cytokinesis)
G 1 Phase
During Interphase of mitosis, this is the primary growth stage. The cell grows, carries out basic functions, and produces molecules needed to build new organelles and other things it will need if it divides
G 0 Phase
During Interphase of mitosis, a cell here continues to function, but does not replicate DNA or divide. Most cells in body are in this stage. Brain cells permanently are (=no reproducing brain cells)
S Phase
During Interphase of mitosis, the cell here replicates its genetic material. At the end, each chromosome consists of two attached sister chromatids
G 2 Phase
During Interphase of mitosis, the cell here prepares to divide, producing the proteins that will coordinate the movements of the chromosomes during mitosis. DNA winds up tightly and condensation begins
Mitotic Spindle
A portion of the cytoskeleton that pulls apart the chromosomes in anaphase
Centrosomes
There are two of these structures and they organize the protein subunits of the mitotic spindle
Kinetochores
In Mitosis, these attatch the chromosomes to the mitotic spindle
Prophase
In this stage of Mitosis, chromosomes condense, the nucleus disassembles, and the mitotic spindle forms.
Prometaphase
In this stage of Mitosis, the nuclear envelope breaks up and moves out of the way and spindle fibers attatch to kinetochores
Metaphase
In this stage of Mitosis, spindle fibers align replicated chromosomes down the cell's equator
Anaphase
In this stage of Mitosis, the chromatids of each replicated chromosome separate, sending a complete set of genetic instructions to each end of the cell
Telophase
In this stage of Mitosis, finally, the spindle breaks down and nuclear envelopes form
Cytokinesis
The physical separation of the two daughter cells, usually beginning in anaphase or telophase.
Cleavage Furrow
This indention around the equator of the cell forms during cytokinesis of an animal cell, indicating the coming separation
Cell Plate
This separation between the daughter cells of a plant marks where a new cell wall will form
Growth Factors
External molecular signals that stimulate cell division
Checkpoints
These occur during the cell cycle and allow the cell to ensure that each stage of the cell cycle is complete before the next begins. Either the cycle moves one, repairs are made, or apoptosis is induced
Telomeres
DNA sequences at the ends of chromosomes that track the number of divisions a cell has undergone. When these become very short, division ceases. Failure to shorten and divide can lead to cancer
Telomerase
An enzyme that adds DNA to telomers in some cells.
Tumor
This structure results from excess cell division or deficient apoptosis.
Malignant Tumor
This kind of tumor infiltrates nearby tissues and metastasizes if it reaches the bloodstream
Cancer Cell
This harmful cell as an altered surface, lost specialization, no contact inhibition, and divides uncontrollably
Oncogene/ Tumor suppressor Gene
Too many__/not enough___ genes can result in cancer
Cancer Treatments
Radiation, chemotherapy, and surgery
Caspases
These enzymes destroy an apoptotic cell