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pg. 317-333

social development

the ways in which individual's social interactions and expectations change across the life span

psychosocial stage

(erik erikson) one of the successive developmental stage focused on an individual's orientation toward the self and others;incorporates both the sexual and social aspects of a person's developmental and the social conflicts that arise from the interaction between the individual and the social environment


lifelong process whereby an individual's behavioral patterns, values, standards, skills, attitudes, and motives are shaped to conform to those regarded as desirable in a particular society


a child's biologically based level of emotional and behavioral response to environmental events


emotional relationship between a child and the regular caregiver


a primitive form of learning in which some infant animals physically follow and form an attachment to the first moving object they see/ hear

securely attached

children show distress when the parent leaves the rm; seeks proximity, comfort, and contact upon reunion; and then gradually return to play

insecurely attached-avoidant

children seem aloof and may actively avoid and ignore the parent upon her return

insecurely attached-ambivalent/resistant

children become quite upset and anxious when the parent leaves; at reunion they cannot be comforted, and they show anger and resistance to the parent but, at the same time, express a desire for contact

parenting style

manner in which parents rear their children; an authoritative parenting style, which balances demandingness and responsiveness, is seen as the most effective

contact comfort

comfort derived from an infant's physical contact with the mother or caregiver


the capacity to make a full commitment-- sexual, emotional, and moral--to another person


a commitment beyond one's partner to family, work, society, and future generations; typically, a crucial state in development in one's 30s and 40s


a psychological phenomenon that refers to learned sex-related behaviors and attitudes of males and females

gender identity

one's senses of maleness or femaleness; usually included awareness and acceptance of one's biological sex

gender stereotype

belief about attributes and behaviors regarded as appropriate for males and females in a particular culture


system of beliefs and values that ensures that individuals will keep their obligations to others in society and will behave in ways that do not interfere with the rights and interests of others

selective optimization with compensation

a strategy for successful aging in which one makes the most gains while minimizing the impact of losses that accompany normal aging

internal working model

a memory structure that gathers together a child' history of interactions with his or her caretakers, the interactions that yielded a particular pattern of attachment


Describe the monkey experiment

moral reasoning

the judgments people make about hat courses if action are correct or incorrect in particular situations

Kholberg's stage model: four principles

(1) an individual can be at only one stage at a given time; (2) everyone goes through the stages in a fixed order; (3) each stage is more comprehensive and complex than the preceding; (4) the same stages in every culture

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