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22 terms

Social Development

pg. 317-333
STUDY
PLAY
social development
the ways in which individual's social interactions and expectations change across the life span
psychosocial stage
(erik erikson) one of the successive developmental stage focused on an individual's orientation toward the self and others;incorporates both the sexual and social aspects of a person's developmental and the social conflicts that arise from the interaction between the individual and the social environment
socialization
lifelong process whereby an individual's behavioral patterns, values, standards, skills, attitudes, and motives are shaped to conform to those regarded as desirable in a particular society
temperament
a child's biologically based level of emotional and behavioral response to environmental events
attachment
emotional relationship between a child and the regular caregiver
imprinting
a primitive form of learning in which some infant animals physically follow and form an attachment to the first moving object they see/ hear
securely attached
children show distress when the parent leaves the rm; seeks proximity, comfort, and contact upon reunion; and then gradually return to play
insecurely attached-avoidant
children seem aloof and may actively avoid and ignore the parent upon her return
insecurely attached-ambivalent/resistant
children become quite upset and anxious when the parent leaves; at reunion they cannot be comforted, and they show anger and resistance to the parent but, at the same time, express a desire for contact
parenting style
manner in which parents rear their children; an authoritative parenting style, which balances demandingness and responsiveness, is seen as the most effective
contact comfort
comfort derived from an infant's physical contact with the mother or caregiver
intimacy
the capacity to make a full commitment-- sexual, emotional, and moral--to another person
generativity
a commitment beyond one's partner to family, work, society, and future generations; typically, a crucial state in development in one's 30s and 40s
gender
a psychological phenomenon that refers to learned sex-related behaviors and attitudes of males and females
gender identity
one's senses of maleness or femaleness; usually included awareness and acceptance of one's biological sex
gender stereotype
belief about attributes and behaviors regarded as appropriate for males and females in a particular culture
morality
system of beliefs and values that ensures that individuals will keep their obligations to others in society and will behave in ways that do not interfere with the rights and interests of others
selective optimization with compensation
a strategy for successful aging in which one makes the most gains while minimizing the impact of losses that accompany normal aging
internal working model
a memory structure that gathers together a child' history of interactions with his or her caretakers, the interactions that yielded a particular pattern of attachment
Harlow
Describe the monkey experiment
moral reasoning
the judgments people make about hat courses if action are correct or incorrect in particular situations
Kholberg's stage model: four principles
(1) an individual can be at only one stage at a given time; (2) everyone goes through the stages in a fixed order; (3) each stage is more comprehensive and complex than the preceding; (4) the same stages in every culture